Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Function: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the ILERVAS Project.
Plain language summary
The Mediterranean diet is characterised by an abundant consumption of extra-virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes, a moderate consumption of fish and seafood, poultry, fermented dairy products, and red wine with meals, and low intakes of sweetened beverages, red meat and ready meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and physical activity on pulmonary function in a large middle-aged population at low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk. The study is an ongoing study that between 2015 and 2017 enrolled a total of 3020 subjects – women aged between 50 to 70 years and men aged between 45 to 65 years – with the presence of at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Results indicate that a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked with impaired breathing patterns and higher prevalence of abnormal lung function when compared to participants with a higher adherence to this dietary pattern. Additionally, vigorous physical activity was accompanied by better results in lung function than that observed in inactive subjects. The study provides initial clinical evidence about the independent and deleterious effect of both low adherence to the Mediterranean diet and low physical activity practice on lung function in participants without known pulmonary disease.
undefined: A few studies showed that both adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity practice have a positive impact on pulmonary function in subjects with lung disease. These associations are not well studied in subjects free from lung disease. In a cross-sectional study conducted in 3020 middle-aged subjects free of lung disease, adherence to the MedDiet using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, and physical activity practice using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form were recorded. Respiratory function was assessed using forced spirometry and the results were evaluated according to the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between adherence to the MedDiet and physical activity practice with the presence of ventilatory defects. Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet, in comparison to those with low adherence, had both higher forced vital capacity (FVC; 100 (87⁻109) vs. 94 (82⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.003) and forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1; 100 (89⁻112) vs. 93 (80⁻107) % of predicted, < 0.001). According to their degree of physical activity, those subjects with a high adherence also had both higher FVC (100 (88⁻107) vs. 94 (83⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.027) and FEV1 (100 (89⁻110) vs. 95 (84⁻108) % of predicted, = 0.047) in comparison with those with low adherence. The multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between both low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice, and the presence of altered pulmonary patterns, with differences between men and women. However, no joint effect between adherence to MedDiet and physical activity practice on respiratory function values was observed. Low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice were independently associated with pulmonary impairment. Therefore, the lung mechanics seem to benefit from heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors.
Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight people.
Nutricion hospitalaria. 2013;(6):2090-8
INTRODUCTION Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) have shown beneficial effects in weight control therapy however this relation is not clear. OBJETIVE The aim of the study was to examine the effects and safety of 3g of a 1:1 mix of c9-t11 and t10-c12 on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight individuals. METHODS A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind, parallel clinical trial lasting 24 weeks was carried out in 38 volunteers (29w, 9m) aged 30-55 years and BMI ≥27-<30 kg/m2 who consumed 200 ml/day of skimmed milk with 3g of CLAs or 3g olive oil (placebo). Anthropometric, biochemical and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) tests were measured. Diet and physical activity were assessed. RESULTS Subjects maintained their habitual dietary and exercise patterns over the study. Only CLA group showed a significant decrease in weight (74.43 ± 10.45 vs 73.54 ± 11.66 kg, p = 0.029) and waist circumference (91.45 ± 10.33 vs 90.65 ± 9.84 cm, p = 0.012) between baseline and end of the study. BMI and waist height ratio decreased (28.44 ± 1.08 vs 27.81 ± 1.43 kg/m2, p = 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.04 p = 0.013 respectively) in CLA group at the end. CLA group experienced a reduction in total fat mass after 24 weeks (38.62 ± 5.02 vs 36.65 ± 5.64%, p = 0.035). No decrease was observed in Control group. HOMA index had no changes. CONCLUSIONS The consumption of skimmed milk enriched with 3g of a 1:1 mixture of c9-t11 and t10-c12 for 24 weeks led to a decrease in body weight and total fat mass in healthy, overweight subjects who maintained habitual diets and exercise patterns. No adverse effects were observed. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier No. NCT01503047.
Selection of the optimal stress test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.
Heart (British Cardiac Society). 1998;(4):370-6
OBJECTIVE To compare the value and limitations of exercise testing, dipyridamole echocardiography, dobutamine-atropine echocardiography, and MIBI-SPECT (technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl nitrile single photon emission computed tomography) during dobutamine infusion in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. DESIGN The performance of these four tests was assessed in random order on a consecutive cohort of patients. The presence or absence of coronary artery disease was confirmed by coronary angiography. SETTING Two tertiary care and university centres. PATIENTS 102 consecutive patients with chest pain and no previous history of coronary artery disease. Ten patients with left bundle branch block were excluded for further analysis of exercise testing and scintigraphy results. RESULTS MIBI-SPECT was the most sensitive (87%) but the least specific test (70%). Exercise stress testing had a sensitivity of 66%, which increased to 80% when patients with inconclusive results were excluded. Dipyridamole and dobutamine echocardiography had similar sensitivity (81%, 78%) and specificity (94%, 88%). All four tests had similar accuracy and positive and negative predictive values. Agreement between the echocardiographic techniques was excellent (detection of coronary artery disease 87%, kappa = 0.72; regional analysis 93%, kappa = 0.72; diagnosis of the "culprit" vessel 95%, kappa = 0.92), and it was good between echocardiographic techniques and MIBI-SPECT (diagnosis of the culprit vessel 90%, kappa = 0.84 with dobutamine and 92%, kappa = 0.85 with dipyridamole). CONCLUSIONS Exercise stress testing has a sensitivity comparable to other tests in patients capable of exercising and with no basal electrical abnormalities. The greatest sensitivity is offered by MIBI-SPECT and the greatest specificity is obtained with stress echocardiography. Redundant information is obtained with dipyridamole echocardiography, dobutamine echocardiography, and MIBI-SPECT.
[A non-invasive test choice for the diagnosis of coronary disease in women].
Revista espanola de cardiologia. 1997;(6):421-7
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Regarding coronary heart disease, women have often been excluded from clinical trials. Current practical recommendations are thus based on studies in men. To identify the non invasive technique of choice in detecting coronary artery disease in women, a study with different diagnostic tests has been undertaken. METHODS Exercise stress test, dipyridamole echocardiography (0.84 mg/kg), dobutamine echocardiography (up to a total dose of 40 micrograms/kg per minute and atropine if necessary), MIBI-SPECT during dobutamine infusion and coronary angiography, were performed in 40 consecutive women with chest pain and no previous history of coronary artery disease. RESULTS The four tests had similar sensitivity: exercise stress test (80%; CI 95%, 52-94), dipyridamole echocardiography (80%; CI 95%, 56-93), dobutamine echocardiography (80%; CI 95%, 56-93) and scintigraphy MIBI-SPECT (85%; CI 95%, 61-95). The specificity of dipyridamole echocardiography (100%; CI 95%, 83-100) and dobutamine echocardiography (90%; CI 95%, 67-98) was higher than that of exercise stress test (50%; CI 95%, 22-78) and MIBI-SPECT (65%; CI 95%, 41-84). The positive predictive values of dipyridamole and dobutamine echocardiography were 100% and 88% respectively. CONCLUSIONS The feasibility of exercise stress test in women is inferior to that of the other techniques. The sensitivity of the four tests to diagnose coronary artery disease is similar. The specificity of dipyridamole echocardiography and dobutamine echocardiography is higher than that of exercise stress test and MIBI-SPECT. Stress echocardiography can be considered the non invasive technique of choice for diagnosing coronary artery disease in women.