Inflammatory Molecules Associated with Ultraviolet Radiation-Mediated Skin Aging.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2021;(8)
Skin is the largest and most complex organ in the human body comprised of multiple layers with different types of cells. Different kinds of environmental stressors, for example, ultraviolet radiation (UVR), temperature, air pollutants, smoking, and diet, accelerate skin aging by stimulating inflammatory molecules. Skin aging caused by UVR is characterized by loss of elasticity, fine lines, wrinkles, reduced epidermal and dermal components, increased epidermal permeability, delayed wound healing, and approximately 90% of skin aging. These external factors can cause aging through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inflammation, as well as aged skin is a source of circulatory inflammatory molecules which accelerate skin aging and cause aging-related diseases. This review article focuses on the inflammatory pathways associated with UVR-mediated skin aging.
Recent Advances in Psoriasis Research; the Clue to Mysterious Relation to Gut Microbiome.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2020;21(7)
Plain language summary
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease where the skin forms bumpy red patches covered with white scales. There is no cure, but medications have focused on supressing the immune response. There is a link between the gut microbiome and psoriasis but it is poorly understood. This review includes the current understanding of how psoriasis develops and discusses the recent findings to support further research in this area. The composition of the gut microbiome affects inflammation in the whole body. This inflammation is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and other inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have linked cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome to an imbalance in the gut microbiome. Psoriasis is often found alongside these conditions with similar abnormalities in gut bacteria. An imbalance in gut microbiome could cause certain people to develop psoriasis. The role of the gut microbiome needs to be further clarified but mounting evidence for this gut/skin link means that other therapeutic options may be available for treatment in the future.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease, characterized by activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells, myeloid dendritic cells, Th17 cells, and hyperproliferating keratinocytes. Recent studies revealed skin-resident cells have pivotal roles in developing psoriatic skin lesions. The balance in effector T cells and regulatory T cells is disturbed, leading Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells to produce proinflammatory IL-17. Not only acquired but also innate immunity is important in psoriasis pathogenesis, especially in triggering the disease. Group 3 innate lymphoid cell are considered one of IL-17-producing cells in psoriasis. Short chain fatty acids produced by gut microbiota stabilize expression of Foxp3 in regulatory T cells, thereby stabilizing their function. The composition of gut microbiota influences the systemic inflammatory status, and associations been shown with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, psychomotor diseases, and other systemic inflammatory disorders. Psoriasis has been shown to frequently comorbid with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, psychomotor disease and obesity, and recent report suggested the similar abnormality in gut microbiota as the above comorbid diseases. However, the precise mechanism and relation between psoriasis pathogenesis and gut microbiota needs further investigation. This review introduces the recent advances in psoriasis research and tries to provide clues to solve the mysterious relation of psoriasis and gut microbiota.
Effects of maxacalcitol ointment on skin lesions in patients with psoriasis receiving treatment with adalimumab.
The Journal of dermatology. 2016;(11):1354-1357
Adalimumab is a biologic that is very effective for treatment of psoriasis. However, recalcitrant or recurrent lesions sometimes occur during treatment. Maxacalcitol is an active vitamin D3 ointment that is effective in treatment of psoriasis. Topical therapy may be beneficial in treatment of recalcitrant or recurrent lesions during treatment with systemic therapy, but there is little evidence on this topic. We investigated the effect of maxacalcitol on skin lesions during treatment with adalimumab in patients with psoriasis. Twelve patients with psoriasis were randomly assigned to two groups after informed consent - treatment with adalimumab only (n = 6), and treatment with adalimumab and maxacalcitol (n = 6) - and they were evaluated every 4 weeks for 44 weeks. Exacerbation was defined as an increase of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. The interval between adalimumab treatments was elongated to 3-4 weeks from 2 weeks according to the individual patient's condition. The PASI score was evaluated every 4 weeks, and the frequency of exacerbations was counted. The overall improvement in PASI score was not statistically different between the two groups, but the frequency of exacerbations was significantly less in the maxacalcitol combination group compared with the adalimumab monotherapy group (Mann-Whitney U-test, P < 0.05). The better control of skin lesions in patients who elongated the interval of adalimumab administration was achieved in the maxacalcitol combination group compared with the adalimumab monotherapy group. Topical maxacalcitol treatment is effective and useful in controlling skin lesions in patients with psoriasis when used in combination with adalimumab.