Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Function: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the ILERVAS Project.
Plain language summary
The Mediterranean diet is characterised by an abundant consumption of extra-virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes, a moderate consumption of fish and seafood, poultry, fermented dairy products, and red wine with meals, and low intakes of sweetened beverages, red meat and ready meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and physical activity on pulmonary function in a large middle-aged population at low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk. The study is an ongoing study that between 2015 and 2017 enrolled a total of 3020 subjects – women aged between 50 to 70 years and men aged between 45 to 65 years – with the presence of at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Results indicate that a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked with impaired breathing patterns and higher prevalence of abnormal lung function when compared to participants with a higher adherence to this dietary pattern. Additionally, vigorous physical activity was accompanied by better results in lung function than that observed in inactive subjects. The study provides initial clinical evidence about the independent and deleterious effect of both low adherence to the Mediterranean diet and low physical activity practice on lung function in participants without known pulmonary disease.
undefined: A few studies showed that both adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity practice have a positive impact on pulmonary function in subjects with lung disease. These associations are not well studied in subjects free from lung disease. In a cross-sectional study conducted in 3020 middle-aged subjects free of lung disease, adherence to the MedDiet using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, and physical activity practice using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form were recorded. Respiratory function was assessed using forced spirometry and the results were evaluated according to the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between adherence to the MedDiet and physical activity practice with the presence of ventilatory defects. Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet, in comparison to those with low adherence, had both higher forced vital capacity (FVC; 100 (87⁻109) vs. 94 (82⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.003) and forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1; 100 (89⁻112) vs. 93 (80⁻107) % of predicted, < 0.001). According to their degree of physical activity, those subjects with a high adherence also had both higher FVC (100 (88⁻107) vs. 94 (83⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.027) and FEV1 (100 (89⁻110) vs. 95 (84⁻108) % of predicted, = 0.047) in comparison with those with low adherence. The multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between both low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice, and the presence of altered pulmonary patterns, with differences between men and women. However, no joint effect between adherence to MedDiet and physical activity practice on respiratory function values was observed. Low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice were independently associated with pulmonary impairment. Therefore, the lung mechanics seem to benefit from heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors.
Outcomes of Bariatric Surgery in Patients with Cirrhosis.
Obesity surgery. 2019;(2):585-592
CONTEXT Information concerning the risk-benefit profile of bariatric surgery in subjects with liver cirrhosis is scarce. Our aim was to describe the long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery in a cohort of patients with liver cirrhosis submitted to bariatric surgery. METHODS This was a multicenter, retrospective observational study performed by the Obesity Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GOSEEN), with a review of patients with cirrhosis who had undergone bariatric surgery during the period from April 2004 to March 2017 in ten public reference hospitals in Spain. RESULTS Data on 41 patients with cirrhosis submitted to obesity surgery were collected (mean age 53.8 ± 7.9 years, 46.3% women, presurgical BMI 45 ± 8.3 kg/m2). All but one patient belonged to Child-Pugh class A, and sleeve gastrectomy was conducted in 68.3% of cases. Percentage of total weight loss (%TWL) was 26.33 ± 8.3% and 21.16 ± 15.32% at 1 and 5 years after surgery, respectively. This was accompanied by a significant reduction of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia and by an improvement of liver enzymes over time. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) index increased from 7.2 ± 1.9 to 9.8 ± 4.6 after 5 years. Seven patients (17%) developed early postsurgical complications. No postsurgical mortality was observed. During follow-up, only five patients developed liver decompensation. CONCLUSIONS Bariatric surgery in selected patients with liver cirrhosis has metabolic benefits that could have a positive impact on liver prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION Controlledtrials.com Identifier: 10.1186/ISRCTN15009106.
Preoperative Circulating Succinate Levels as a Biomarker for Diabetes Remission After Bariatric Surgery.
Diabetes care. 2019;(10):1956-1965
OBJECTIVE To determine the potential use of baseline circulating succinate to predict type 2 diabetes remission after bariatric surgery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty-five obese patients with diabetes were randomly assigned to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or laparoscopic greater curvature plication. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated, and a complete biochemical analysis including circulating serum succinate concentrations was performed at baseline and 1 year after surgery. The results were externally validated in a second cohort including 88 obese patients with diabetes assigned to RYGB or SG based on clinical criteria. RESULTS Succinate baseline concentrations were an independent predictor of diabetes remission after bariatric surgery. Patients achieving remission after 1 year had lower levels of baseline succinate (47.8 [37.6-64.6] µmol/L vs. 64.1 [52.5-82.9] µmol/L; P = 0.018). Moreover, succinate concentrations were significantly decreased 1 year after surgery (58.9 [46.4-82.4] µmol/L vs. 46.0 [35.8-65.3] µmol/L, P = 0.005). In multivariate analysis, the best logistic regression model showed that baseline succinate (odds ratio [OR] 11.3, P = 0.031) and the type of surgery (OR 26.4, P = 0.010) were independently associated with remission. The C-statistic for this model was 0.899 (95% CI 0.809-0.989) in the derivation cohort, which significantly improved the prediction of remission compared with current available scores, and 0.729 (95% CI 0.612-0.846) in the validation cohort. Interestingly, patients had a different response to the type of surgery according to baseline succinate, with significant differences in remission rates. CONCLUSIONS Circulating succinate is reduced after bariatric surgery. Baseline succinate levels have predictive value for diabetes remission independently of previously described presurgical factors and improve upon the current available scores to predict remission.
Advanced glycation end-products in morbid obesity and after bariatric surgery: When glycemic memory starts to fail.
Endocrinologia, diabetes y nutricion. 2017;(1):4-10
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a marker of metabolic memory. Their levels increases when oxidative stress, inflammation, or chronic hyperglycemia exists. The role of morbid obesity in AGE levels, and the impact of bariatric surgery on them are unknown. PATIENTS AND METHOD An observational study with three sex- and age-matched cohorts: 52 patients with obesity, 46 patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the last 5 years, and 46 control subjects. AGE were measured using skin autofluorescence (SAF) in the forearm with an AGE Reader™ (DiagnOptics Technologies, Groningen, The Netherlands). Presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed. RESULTS Patients with morbid obesity had higher SAF levels (2.14±0.65AU) than non-obese subjects (1.81±0.22AU; P<.001), which was mainly attributed to obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (2.44±0.67 vs. 1.86±0.51AU; P<.001). After bariatric surgery, SAF continued to be high (2.18±0.40AU), and greater as compared to the non-obese population (P<.001). A multivariate analysis showed that age and presence of metabolic syndrome (but not sex or body mass index) were independently associated to SAF (R2=0.320). CONCLUSION SAF is increased in patients with morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome, mainly because of the existence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the first 5 years following bariatric surgery, weight loss and metabolic improvement are not associated with a parallel decrease in subcutaneous AGE levels.
Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Morbid Obesity and Type 1 Diabetes Undergoing Bariatric Surgery.
Obesity surgery. 2017;(4):856-863
BACKGROUND This study aims to describe the long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). METHODS Thirty-two patients with T1DM and initial BMI of 41.3 ± 4.8 kg/m2 were studied, 18.7 % undergoing duodenal switch (DS), 34.4 % gastric bypass, and 46.9 % sleeve gastrectomy and followed-up after surgery for 4.6 ± 2.6 years. Changes in BMI, HbA1c, insulin requirements, evolution of comorbidities, and microvascular complications were registered annually after surgery. RESULTS Percentage of total weight loss (%TWL) 12 months after surgery was 30.4 ± 9.2 % and at 5 years, it decreased to 28.1 ± 11.5 % (p = 0.02). HbA1c was reduced during the first year from 8.5 ± 1.3 to 7.9 ± 1.4 %, p = 0.016. In the long-term, HbA1c returned to baseline values. There was a sustained reduction of 51 % in total daily insulin dose, and the decrease in the number of patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea was 42.8, 25, and 66 %, respectively. Retinopathy remained mainly unaffected, and 25 % of patients with microalbuminuria regressed to normoalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS Bariatric surgery in patients with T1DM mainly provides benefits of weight reduction, on insulin requirements, obesity comorbidities, and some benefits in diabetes complications, but might have only minimal effect on the glycemic control in the long term. This trial was registered at www.controlledtrials.com as ISRCTN49980913.
Internet of things and bariatric surgery follow-up: Comparative study of standard and IoT follow-up.
Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy. 2013;(5):304-11
INTRODUCTION Follow-up of obese patient is difficult. There is no literature related to patient follow-up that incorporates the concept of Internet of Things (IoT), use of WiFi, Internet, or portable devices for this purpose. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective observational study commenced in June 2011. Patients were prospectively offered to participate in the IoT study group, in which they received a WiFi scale (Withing®, Paris) that provides instant WiFi data to the patient and surgeon. Other patients were admitted to the standard follow-up group at the outpatient clinic. A total of 33 patients were included in our study (ten in the IoT group). RESULTS Twelve patients did not have WiFi at home, ten lacked of computer knowledge, and seven preferred standard for follow-up. All patients underwent different surgical procedures. There were no complications. Excess weight loss (EWL) was similar in both groups. More than 90% of patients were satisfied. In the IoT group, patients considered it valuable in saving time, and considered seeing their evolution graphics extremely motivating. CONCLUSION IoT technology can monitor medical parameters remotely and collect data. A WiFi scale can facilitate preoperative and follow-up. Standard follow-up in a classical outpatient clinic setting with the surgeon was preferred globally.