A cross-sectional study: Associations between sarcopenia and clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome and it impairs physical function. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at a higher risk of sarcopenia. The purpose of this study is to explore characteristics of general information and metabolic factors of sarcopenia in patients with T2DM in the northeast of China, and provide information for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia in clinical practice.Patients with T2DM aged ≥65 were recruited in Changchun from March 2017 to February 2018. Questionnaires of general information, physical examination, laboratory and imaging examination were conducted. The patients were assigned into sarcopenia group and non-sarcopenia group according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by Asian working group for sarcopenia (AWGS), and the differences between 2 groups were analyzed.A total of 132 participants were included in this study, of which, 38 (28.8%) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. 94 (71.2%) were with no sarcopenia. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR: 1.182, 95%CI: 1.038-1.346), trunk fat mass (TFM) (OR: 1.499, 95%CI: 1.146-1.960) and free thyroxine (FT4) (OR: 1.342, 95%CI: 1.102-1.635) were independent risk factors for sarcopenia. BMI (body mass index) (OR: 0.365, 95%CI: 0.236-0.661), exercise (OR: 0.016, 95%CI: 0.001-0.169), female (OR: 0.000, 95%CI: 0.00-0.012), metformin (OR: 0.159, 95%CI: 0.026-0.967) and TSM (trunk skeletal muscle mass) (OR: 0.395, 95%CI: 0.236-0.661) were protective factors for sarcopenia.Sarcopenia in patients with T2DM is associated with increased age, increased TFM and increased FT4 level. Regular exercise, female, metformin administrations, high BMI and increased TSM are associated with lower risk of sarcopenia.
Effectiveness of motivational interviewing on improving Care for Patients with type 2 diabetes in China: A randomized controlled trial.
BMC health services research. 2020;(1):57
BACKGROUND To assess the effects of a motivational interviewing (MI)-based patient empowerment program (PEP) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patient self-management compared to traditional diabetes health education. METHODS Two hundred and twenty-five patients, recruited from community health centers (CHCs) and the family medicine clinic in the University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital in Shenzhen, were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups. Patients in the intervention group (n = 117) received a four-session PEP in small groups over 1 month by trained nurses and doctors. The control group (n = 108) received the traditional lecture-style health education on DM. All the patients were followed up for 3 months. Outcomes included problem areas in diabetes (PAID) that measures diabetes-related emotional distress, patient enablement index (PEI), mental health, patient satisfaction respectively as well as lifestyle behaviors were assessed at baseline, post-activity and 3 months. RESULTS At post-intervention and the 3-month follow-up, the PAID score improved significantly in the intervention group (12.7 ± 13.6, 5.8 ± 7.6) compared to the control group (22.7 ± 22.8, 11.7 ± 14.6). No difference was found between groups for changes to exercise, diet, and medication adherence. The PEI score improved significantly at the 3-month follow-up in the MI group (7.27 ± 2.45 vs 5.81 ± 2.97). CONCLUSION The PEP has a significant effect on improving diabetes-related distress, but MI was not significantly different from the traditional health education programs when it comes to the readiness to change. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT04120844, ClinicalTrials.Gov. Date of registration: October 9th 2019 (Retrospectively registered).
The Degree of Aminoacidemia after Dairy Protein Ingestion Does Not Modulate the Postexercise Anabolic Response in Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
The Journal of nutrition. 2019;(9):1511-1522
BACKGROUND Resistance exercise and dietary protein stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS). The rate at which proteins are digested and absorbed into circulation alters peak plasma amino acid concentrations and may modulate postexercise MPS. A novel mineral modified milk protein concentrate (mMPC), with identical amino acid composition to standard milk protein concentrate (MPC), was formulated to induce rapid aminoacidemia. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine whether rapid aminoacidemia and greater peak essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations induced by mMPC would stimulate greater postresistance exercise MPS, anabolic signaling, and ribosome biogenesis compared to standard dairy proteins, which induce a small but sustained plasma essential aminoacidemia. METHODS Thirty healthy young men (22.5 ± 3.0 y; BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2) received primed constant infusions of l-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine and completed 3 sets of leg presses and leg extensions at 80% of 1 repetition. Afterwards, participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume 25 g mMPC, MPC, or calcium caseinate (CAS). Vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at rest, and 2 and 4 h post exercise. RESULTS Plasma EAA concentrations, including leucine, were 19.2-26.6% greater in the mMPC group 45-90 min post ingestion than in MPC and CAS groups (P < 0.001). Myofibrillar fractional synthetic rate from baseline to 4 h was increased by 82.6 ± 64.8%, 137.8 ± 72.1%, and 140.6 ± 52.4% in the MPC, mMPC, and CAS groups, respectively, with no difference between groups (P = 0.548). Phosphorylation of anabolic signaling targets (P70S6KThr389, P70S6KThr421/Ser424, RPS6Ser235/236, RPS6Ser240/244, P90RSKSer380, 4EBP1) were elevated by <3-fold at both 2 and 4 h post exercise in all groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The amplitude of plasma leucine and EAA concentrations does not modulate the anabolic response to resistance exercise after ingestion of 25 g dairy protein in young men. This trial was registered at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ as ACTRN12617000393358.
Mixed Spices at Culinary Doses Have Prebiotic Effects in Healthy Adults: A Pilot Study.
Plain language summary
An increasing body of evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a profound impact on human health. While the microbiome of a healthy individual is relatively stable, gut microbial dynamics can be influenced by host lifestyle and dietary choices. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed spices (cinnamon, oregano, ginger, black pepper, and cayenne pepper) at culinary doses consumed over 2 weeks in a standardized 5g capsule on the production of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids The study is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study carried out with a total of 31 healthy women and men aged between 18 and 65. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of the two intervention groups. Results indicate that daily intake of 5g of mixed spices for 2 weeks in healthy subjects resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes (bacteria), and a trend of increasing in phylum Bacteroidetes (bacteria) as compared with a matched control group. Authors conclude that a mixture of spices at culinary doses affects the composition of gut microbiota.
undefined: Spices were used as food preservatives prior to the advent of refrigeration, suggesting the possibility of effects on microbiota. Previous studies have shown prebiotic activities in animals and in vitro, but there has not been a demonstration of prebiotic or postbiotic effects at culinary doses in humans. In this randomized placebo-controlled study, we determined in twenty-nine healthy adults the effects on the gut microbiota of the consumption daily of capsules containing 5 g of mixed spices at culinary doses by comparison to a matched control group consuming a maltodextrin placebo capsule. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing data were used for microbial characterization. Spice consumption resulted in a significant reduction in Firmicutes abundance ( < 0.033) and a trend of enrichment in Bacteroidetes ( < 0.097) compared to placebo group. Twenty-six operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were different between the spice and placebo groups after intervention. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between fecal short-chain fatty acid propionate concentration and Firmicutes abundance in spice intervention group ( < 0.04). The production of individual fecal short-chain fatty acid was not significantly changed by spice consumption in this study. Mixed spices consumption significantly modified gut microbiota, suggesting a prebiotic effect of spice consumption at culinary doses.
Reproducibility in the cardiometabolic responses to high-intensity interval exercise in adults with type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2019;:137-143
AIMS: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) often report a rise in their blood glucose level following brief intense exercise. We sought to determine the reproducibility of the cardiometabolic responses to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). METHODS Sixteen adults with T1D, using an optimized multiple daily injection with basal insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300), performed four fasted HIIT sessions over a 4-6-week period. Exercise consisted of high-intensity interval cycling and multimodal training over 25 min. RESULTS Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion rose similarly in all sessions, as did lactate, catecholamine and growth hormone levels. Plasma glucose increased in response to HIIT in 62 of 64 visits (97%), with an overall increase of 3.7 ± 1.6 mmol/L (Mean ± SD) (P < 0.001). In within-patient comparisons, the change in plasma glucose among the four HIIT sessions was significantly correlated with a composite correlation of 0.58 ([r2 = 0.34]; 95% CI 0.35-0.80; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Intersession observations of four separate HIIT sessions showed high intrasubject reproducibility in the cardiometabolic responses to exercise, including the rise in plasma glucose, when adults with T1D perform the activity in a fasted state.
Changes in IGFBP-2 levels following a one-year lifestyle modification program are independently related to improvements in plasma apo B and LDL apo B levels.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Recent transversal studies have associated insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 levels with glucose tolerance and parameters of the lipoprotein-lipid profile. Here, we aimed at determining the longitudinal effects of a one-year lifestyle modification program on IGFBP-2 levels and to identify specific metabolic improvements impacted by the changes in IGFBP-2. METHODS 99 middle-aged Caucasian men were involved in a lifestyle modification program consisting in personalized healthy eating and physical activity counseling, combined to elicit a daily 500 kcal deficit. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters as well as circulating IGFBP-2 levels were measured before and after one year of the lifestyle modification program. RESULTS The intervention triggered positive changes in many metabolic parameters and a 43% (p < 0.0001) increase of IGFBP-2 levels. Subjects with the most substantial increases in IGFBP-2 also experienced the most important metabolic improvements. Changes in IGFBP-2 levels (both absolute and relative) were correlated with markers of body fat distribution and lipoprotein-lipid profile, and independently associated with changes in LDL apolipoprotein (apo) B but not VLDL apo B concentrations. Further analyses showed that for similar changes in BMI, waist circumference and visceral adipose tissue volume, large changes in IGFBP-2 levels were required to observe improvements in LDL apo B levels. CONCLUSIONS The 1-year lifestyle modification program was associated with increased IGFBP-2 concentrations. Increases in IGFBP-2 levels were closely associated with reduced LDL apo B concentrations and independently of the modifications in fat mass and insulin sensitivity. Further mechanistic studies are required to assess the effects of IGFBP-2 levels on LDL metabolism.
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome coexists with Nutcracker syndrome in a female: a case report.
BMC gastroenterology. 2019;(1):15
BACKGROUND Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome or Benign duodenal stasis, is a rare benign disease. It could threaten the life if the manifestation is severe and the treatment is inappropriate. In the patients with SMA syndrome, the third portion (transverse part) of the duodenum is compressed externally between the SMA and abdominal aorta (AA) leading to duodenal stasis and gastrointestinal obstruction. SMA syndrome may rarely combine with Nutcracker syndrome when left renal vein (LRV) was compressed between SMA and AA. CASE PRESENTATION A 32-year-old female patient presented with complaints of gradually severe bloating, epigastric pain, left flank ache, nausea and occasional vomiting of 1 month's duration. The epigastric and left flank ache was aggravated when the patient was supine and relieved in a prone or left lateral decubitus. The abdominal bloating was associated with early satiety. The vomiting always started 40 min after meal. The patient gave a history of urine stone with drotaverine hydrochloride tablets treatment for two weeks before the gastrointestinal symptoms arising. The patient had no significant surgical history, but had a rapid weight loss of approximately 10 kg with a body mass index (BMI) from 21 kg/m2 to less than 18 kg/m2 over the last two months. An abdominal examination revealed upper abdominal tenderness and distention. The urine routine examination showed no significant abnormality. The findings of initial blood tests and other laboratory investigations were unremarkable. CONCLUSIONS This case reports a female patient with SMA syndrome with Nutcracker syndrome predisposed by Antispasmodics. We highlight the importance of the combination therapy of long-term nutritional supporting and prokinetic agents. Rehabilitating practice after discharge is beneficial to reduce recurrence.
System-integrated technology-enabled model of care to improve the health of stroke patients in rural China: protocol for SINEMA-a cluster-randomized controlled trial.
American heart journal. 2019;:27-39
BACKGROUND Despite the significant burden of stroke in rural China, secondary prevention of stroke is suboptimal. This study aims to develop a SINEMA for the secondary prevention of stroke in rural China and to evaluate the effectiveness of the model compared with usual care. METHODS The SINEMA model is being implemented and evaluated through a 1-year cluster-randomized controlled trial in Nanhe County, Hebei Province in China. Fifty villages from 5 townships are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the intervention or the control arm (usual care) with a target to enroll 25 stroke survivors per village. Village doctors in the intervention arm (1) receive systematic cascade training by stroke specialists on clinical guidelines, essential medicines and behavior change; (2) conduct monthly follow-up visits with the support of a mobile phone application designed for this study; (3) participate in virtual group activities with other village doctors; 4) receive performance feedback and payment. Stroke survivors participate in a health education and project briefing session, receive monthly follow-up visits by village doctors and receive a voice message call daily as reminders for medication use and physical activities. Baseline and 1-year follow-up survey will be conducted in all villages by trained staff who are blinded of the randomized allocation of villages. The primary outcome will be systolic blood pressure and the secondary outcomes will include diastolic blood pressure, medication adherence, mobility, physical activity level and quality of life. Process and economic evaluation will also be conducted. DISCUSSION This study is one of very few that aim to promote secondary prevention of stroke in resource-constrained settings and the first to incorporate mobile technologies for both healthcare providers and patients in China. The SINEMA model is innovative as it builds the capacity of primary healthcare workers in the rural area, uses mobile health technologies at the point of care, and addresses critical health needs for a vulnerable community-dwelling patient group. The findings of the study will provide translational evidence for other resource-constrained settings in developing strategies for the secondary prevention of stroke.
Comparison of the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy and intensive conventional therapy with a botulinum-a toxin injection on upper limb motor function recovery in patients with stroke.
The Libyan journal of medicine. 2019;(1):1609304
Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide and one of the main causes of adult disability. Many studies have suggested that combination therapies provide better outcomes in patients with stroke than monotherapies. The combination of botulinum-A toxin (BTX) injection with rehabilitation methods, such as modified constraint-induced movement therapy (BTX-mCIMT), has emerged as a highly promising intervention for promoting motor recovery after stroke. Thus, the present study compared the effectiveness of the combination of BTX with high-dose conventional therapy (BTX-ICT) and BTX-mCIMT for improving motor recovery and reducing spasticity of the upper limb in patients with stroke. This study recruited 64 patients with stroke. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups, namely, BTX-ICT and BTX-mCIMT. Modified Ashworth scale (MAS), Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), and Barthel index (BI) assessment scores were determined for the patients in both the groups before and at 4 weeks after the BTX injection. After four weeks of treatment, the MAS, FMA, and BI assessment scores of the patients in both groups were significantly higher than the scores before the treatments (P < 0.05). At the end of 4 weeks, the patients in the BTX-mCIMT group showed significantly higher mean FMA and BI assessment scores than the patients in the BTX-ICT group (P < 0.05). However, no significant statistical difference was observed in the MAS score of the patients in the two groups (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that while both BTX-mCIMT and BTX-ICT promoted motor function recovery in patients with stroke, BTX-mCIMT exerted higher therapeutic effects than BTX-ICT on motor function recovery and in the activities of daily living of patients with stroke.
Disseminated cryptococcosis with multiple and mediastinal lymph node enlargement and lung involvement in an immunocompetent child.
International journal of physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. 2019;(6):293-296
BACKGROUND Disseminated cryptococcosis is less common in individuals with normal immune function. Most cases occur in HIV-infected people. Usually it affects the lungs, followed by the central nervous system (CNS), skin and bone marrow, but rarely to the lymph nodes and chest wall. CASE PRESENTATION This article reports a case of cryptococcal infection diagnosed as "lymphoma?" in a local hospital. It was characterized by chronic fever, weight loss, neck, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes enlargement, mediastinal and parabronchial lymphadenopathy, multiple nodular high-density images of both lungs, multi-serosal effusion, liver enlargement and other presentations. CONCLUSIONS Disseminated cryptococcosis can occur in immunocompromised children without HIV infection. This case of multiple and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, easily misdiagnosed as "lymphoma", requires high clinical suspicion and early initiation of treatment to effectively identify and treat patients.