Case report and systematic review suggest that children may experience similar long-term effects to adults after clinical COVID-19.
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2021;110(3):914-921
Plain language summary
The long-term effects of COVID-19 is becoming increasingly documented in adults. Symptoms such as fatigue, headache and depression have all been reported, however data on the possible long-term effects of COVID-19 in children is scarce. The aim of this systematic review and case report was to describe the long-term effects of COVID-19 in five children and support this with other reports in the literature. The results showed that of the five case reports of long COVID, four were girls aged 9-15 years. All subjects reported symptoms lasting between 6-8 months. Most common symptoms were fatigue, difficulty breathing and heart issues. The systematic literature review did not find any publications which documented long COVID in children. It was concluded that children may experience long COVID symptoms and girls may be more susceptible. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand that children may also be affected by long COVID and that patients should be monitored for symptoms for at least 6-8 months.
AIM: Persistent symptoms in adults after COVID-19 are emerging and the term long COVID is increasingly appearing in the literature. However, paediatric data are scarce. METHODS This paper contains a case report of five Swedish children and the long-term symptoms reported by their parents. It also includes a systematic literature review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases and the medRxiv/bioRxiv pre-print servers up to 2 November 2020. RESULTS The five children with potential long COVID had a median age of 12 years (range 9-15) and four were girls. They had symptoms for 6-8 months after their clinical diagnoses of COVID-19. None were hospitalised at diagnosis, but one was later admitted for peri-myocarditis. All five children had fatigue, dyspnoea, heart palpitations or chest pain, and four had headaches, difficulties concentrating, muscle weakness, dizziness and sore throats. Some had improved after 6-8 months, but they all suffered from fatigue and none had fully returned to school. The systematic review identified 179 publications and 19 of these were deemed relevant and read in detail. None contained any information on long COVID in children. CONCLUSION Children may experience similar long COVID symptoms to adults and females may be more affected.
Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults.
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2020;109(6):1088-1095
Plain language summary
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was also previously known as 2019-nCoV. This study is a systematic literature review which summarises the findings on the current knowledge of COVID-19 in children. The review includes 45 scientific papers and letters. Results showed that children have so far accounted for 1%-5% of diagnosed cases. Children often are asymptomatic, have milder disease than adults, and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent. Authors conclude that the disease course in paediatric COVID-19 was milder than in adults, children had a better prognosis and deaths were extremely rare.
AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of thousands of people. Data on symptoms and prognosis in children are rare. METHODS A systematic literature review was carried out to identify papers on COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using the MEDLINE and Embase databases between January 1 and March 18, 2020. RESULTS The search identified 45 relevant scientific papers and letters. The review showed that children have so far accounted for 1%-5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases, they often have milder disease than adults and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent, but fewer children seem to have developed severe pneumonia. Elevated inflammatory markers were less common in children, and lymphocytopenia seemed rare. Newborn infants have developed symptomatic COVID-19, but evidence of vertical intrauterine transmission was scarce. Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances. CONCLUSIONS The coronavirus disease 2019 has occurred in children, but they seemed to have a milder disease course and better prognosis than adults. Deaths were extremely rare.
Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients With Iron Deficiency Anemia-A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Anemia is common in patients with celiac disease (CD) and a frequent mode of presentation. Guidelines recommend screening patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) for CD. However, the reported prevalence of CD in patients with IDA varies. We performed a systematic review to determine the prevalence of biopsy-verified CD in patients with IDA. METHODS We performed a systematic review of articles published in PubMed Medline or EMBASE through July 2017 for the term "celiac disease" combined with "anemia" or "iron deficiency." We used fixed-effects inverse variance-weighted models to measure the pooled prevalence of CD. Meta-regression was used to assess subgroup heterogeneity. RESULTS We identified 18 studies composed of 2998 patients with IDA for inclusion in our analysis. Studies originated from the United Kingdom, United States, Italy, Turkey, Iran, and Israel. The crude unweighted prevalence of CD was 4.8% (n = 143). Using a weighted pooled analysis, we found a prevalence of biopsy-confirmed CD of 3.2% (95% confidence interval = 2.6-3.9) in patients with IDA. However, heterogeneity was high (I2 = 67.7%). The prevalence of CD was not significantly higher in studies with a mean participant age older or younger than 18 years or in studies with a mixed-sex vs female-predominant (≥60%) population. On meta-regression, year of publication, female proportion, age at CD testing, and prevalence in the general population were not associated with the prevalence of CD in patients with IDA. In the 8 studies fulfilling all our quality criteria, the pooled prevalence of CD was 5.5% (95% confidence interval = 4.1-6.9). CONCLUSIONS In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found that approximately 1 in 31 patients with IDA have histologic evidence of CD. This prevalence value justifies the practice of testing patients with IDA for CD.
Coeliac disease: review of diagnosis and management.
The Medical journal of Australia. 2017;(4):173-178
Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disease triggered by exposure to gluten, and manifested by small intestinal enteropathy and gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Recent guidelines recommend a concerted use of clear definitions of the disease. In Australia, the most recent estimated prevalence is 1.2% in adult men (1:86) and 1.9% in adult women (1:52). Active case finding is appropriate to diagnose coeliac disease in high risk groups. Diagnosis of coeliac disease is important to prevent nutritional deficiency and long term risk of gastrointestinal malignancy. The diagnosis of coeliac disease depends on clinico-pathological correlation: history, presence of antitransglutaminase antibodies, and characteristic histological features on duodenal biopsy (when the patient is on a gluten-containing diet). Human leucocyte antigen class II haplotypes DQ2 or DQ8 are found in nearly all patients with coeliac disease, but are highly prevalent in the general population at large (56% in Australia) and testing can only exclude coeliac disease for individuals with non-permissive haplotypes. Adhering to a gluten free diet allows duodenal mucosal healing and alleviates symptoms. Patients should be followed up with a yearly review of dietary adherence and a health check. Non-coeliac gluten or wheat protein sensitivity is a syndrome characterised by both gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten and possibly other wheat proteins in people who do not have coeliac disease or wheat allergy recognised by diagnostic tests.
Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2015;:h4347
Celiac disease is a multisystem immune based disorder that is triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The prevalence of celiac disease has risen in recent decades and is currently about 1% in most Western populations. The reason for this rise is unknown, although environmental factors related to the hygiene hypothesis are suspected. The pathophysiology of celiac disease involves both the innate and adaptive immune response to dietary gluten. Clinical features are diverse and include gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic bone disease, infertility, and many other manifestations. Although a gluten-free diet is effective in most patients, this diet can be burdensome and can limit quality of life; consequently, non-dietary therapies are at various stages of development. This review also covers non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The pathophysiology of this clinical phenotype is poorly understood, but it is a cause of increasing interest in gluten-free diets in the general population.
The gluten-free diet and its current application in coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.
United European gastroenterology journal. 2015;(2):121-35
BACKGROUND A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available therapy for coeliac disease (CD). OBJECTIVES We aim to review the literature on the GFD, the gluten content in naturally gluten-free (GF) and commercially available GF food, standards and legislation concerning the gluten content of foods, and the vitamins and mineral content of a GFD. METHODS We carried out a PubMed search for the following terms: Gluten, GFD and food, education, vitamins, minerals, calcium, Codex wheat starch and oats. Relevant papers were reviewed and for each topic a consensus among the authors was obtained. CONCLUSION Patients with CD should avoid gluten and maintain a balanced diet to ensure an adequate intake of nutrients, vitamins, fibre and calcium. A GFD improves symptoms in most patients with CD. The practicalities of this however, are difficult, as (i) many processed foods are contaminated with gluten, (ii) staple GF foods are not widely available, and (iii) the GF substitutes are often expensive. Furthermore, (iv) the restrictions of the diet may adversely affect social interactions and quality of life. The inclusion of oats and wheat starch in the diet remains controversial.
Support for patients with celiac disease: A literature review.
United European gastroenterology journal. 2015;(2):146-59
BACKGROUND Celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong disorder. Patients are at increased risk of complications and comorbidity. OBJECTIVES We conducted a review of the literature on patient support and information in CD and aim to issue recommendations about patient information with regards to CD. METHODS DATA SOURCE We searched PubMed for English-language articles published between 1900 and June 2014, containing terms related to costs, economics of CD, or education and CD. STUDY SELECTION Papers deemed relevant by any of the participating authors were included in the study. DATA SYNTHESIS No quantitative synthesis of data was performed. Instead we formulated a consensus view of the information that should be offered to all patients with CD. RESULTS There are few randomized clinical trials examining the effect of patient support in CD. Patients and their families receive information from many sources. It is important that health care personnel guide the patient through the plethora of facts and comments on the Internet. An understanding of CD is likely to improve dietary adherence. Patients should be educated about current knowledge about risk factors for CD, as well as the increased risk of complications. Patients should also be advised to avoid other health hazards, such as smoking. Many patients are eager to learn about future non-dietary treatments of CD. This review also comments on novel therapies but it is important to stress that no such treatment is available at present. CONCLUSION Based on mostly observational data, we suggest that patient support and information should be an integral part of the management of CD, and is likely to affect the outcome of CD.
Serological assessment for celiac disease in IgA deficient adults.
PloS one. 2014;(4):e93180
PURPOSE Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency disorder that is strongly overrepresented among patients with celiac disease (CD). IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and deamidated gliadin peptides (DGP) serve as serological markers for CD in IgA deficient individuals, although the diagnostic value remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of these markers in a large cohort of IgA deficient adults with confirmed or suspected CD and relate the findings to gluten free diet. METHODS Sera from 488,156 individuals were screened for CD in seven Swedish clinical immunology laboratories between 1998 and 2012. In total, 356 out of 1,414 identified IgA deficient adults agreed to participate in this study and were resampled. Forty-seven IgA deficient blood donors served as controls. Analyses of IgG antibodies against tTG and DGP as well as HLA typing were performed and a questionnaire was used to investigate adherence to gluten free diet. Available biopsy results were collected. RESULTS Out of the 356 IgA deficient resampled adults, 67 (18.8%) were positive for IgG anti-tTG and 79 (22.2%) for IgG anti-DGP, 54 had biopsy confirmed CD. Among the 47 IgA deficient blood donors, 4 (9%) were positive for IgG anti-tTG and 8 (17%) for anti-DGP. Four were diagnosed with biopsy verified CD, however, 2 of the patients were negative for all markers. Sixty-eight of 69 individuals with positive IgG anti-tTG were HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive whereas 7 (18.9%) of the 37 individuals positive for IgG anti-DGP alone were not. CONCLUSIONS IgG anti-tTG seems to be a more reliable marker for CD in IgA deficient adults whereas the diagnostic specificity of anti-DGP appears to be lower. High levels of IgG antibodies against tTG and DGP were frequently found in IgA deficient adults despite adhering to gluten free diet.
The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms.
OBJECTIVE The literature suggests a lack of consensus on the use of terms related to coeliac disease (CD) and gluten. DESIGN A multidisciplinary task force of 16 physicians from seven countries used the electronic database PubMed to review the literature for CD-related terms up to January 2011. Teams of physicians then suggested a definition for each term, followed by feedback of these definitions through a web survey on definitions, discussions during a meeting in Oslo and phone conferences. In addition to 'CD', the following descriptors of CD were evaluated (in alphabetical order): asymptomatic, atypical, classical, latent, non-classical, overt, paediatric classical, potential, refractory, silent, subclinical, symptomatic, typical, CD serology, CD autoimmunity, genetically at risk of CD, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten, gluten ataxia, gluten intolerance, gluten sensitivity and gliadin-specific antibodies. RESULTS CD was defined as 'a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals'. Classical CD was defined as 'CD presenting with signs and symptoms of malabsorption. Diarrhoea, steatorrhoea, weight loss or growth failure is required.' 'Gluten-related disorders' is the suggested umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten and the term gluten intolerance should not to be used. Other definitions are presented in the paper. CONCLUSION This paper presents the Oslo definitions for CD-related terms.
Timing of introduction of gluten and celiac disease risk.
Annals of nutrition & metabolism. 2012;:22-9
Breast milk is the natural nutrition for infants, but in the second half of the first year of life, complementary feeding is needed. Many complementary foods contain gluten, but gluten exposure is associated with the risk of developing celiac disease (CD). CD is a disease with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although CD is associated with certain genetic features, carrying the human leukocyte antigen haplotypes DQ2 or DQ8 (a prerequisite for CD development) cannot fully explain who will or who will not develop CD. Potential risk factors for CD include perinatal events and infant feeding practice. With the exception that children who are breastfed at and beyond gluten introduction into the diet probably may be at a lower risk of developing CD, and that heavy gluten load early in life may increase the risk of future CD, data on the impact of infant feeding are inconsistent.