Effect of integrating a video intervention on parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy regarding health behaviours within the Feel4Diabetes-study in Belgian primary schoolchildren from vulnerable families: A cluster randomized trial.
PloS one. 2019;(12):e0226131
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effect of integrating a video intervention "Movie Models" within the Feel4Diabetes-study on specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy regarding children's physical activity, screen-time and eating behaviour in vulnerable families (i.e. families living in low socioeconomic municipalities and at risk for developing type 2 diabetes). Additionally, there was examination of how the intervention was perceived by the parents. METHODS Within randomly selected low socioeconomic municipalities in Belgium, families were recruited through primary schools. Families at risk for developing type 2 diabetes were identified using the FINDRISC questionnaire (n = 457). Afterwards, the municipalities were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. At risk families assigned to the intervention group were invited to participate in six Feel4Diabetes counselling sessions in which families were encouraged to adopt a healthier lifestyle. The "Movie Models" videos were integrated within two sessions by using a face-to-face group discussion approach. Parenting-related factors were assessed before and after the integration of the videos, using a questionnaire. After integrating the videos, some extra evaluation questions were assessed. In total, 126 families were included in a per protocol evaluation and Repeated Measures ANOVAs were conducted to evaluate the potential intervention effects. RESULTS Some favourable intervention effects were found on parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy regarding children's eating behaviours, however almost no effects were found on parenting-related factors regarding children's physical activity and screen-time. In total, 60.0% of the participants indicated that they applied tips regarding parenting practices and 52.0% indicated that discussions with other participants regarding the videos were useful for them. CONCLUSION The integration of "Movie Models" within the Feel4Diabetes-study was effective in improving some parenting-related factors regarding children's health behaviours, however most parenting-related factors could not be improved. The implementation of "Movie Models" as a face-to-face group discussion approach was relatively well received and may be a promising way to improve parenting-related factors in vulnerable families. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02278809.
Higher vegetable protein consumption, assessed by an isoenergetic macronutrient exchange model, is associated with a lower presence of overweight and obesity in the web-based Food4me European study.
International journal of food sciences and nutrition. 2019;(2):240-253
The objective was to evaluate differences in macronutrient intake and to investigate the possible association between consumption of vegetable protein and the risk of overweight/obesity, within the Food4Me randomised, online intervention. Differences in macronutrient consumption among the participating countries grouped by EU Regions (Western Europe, British Isles, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe) were assessed. Relation of protein intake, within isoenergetic exchange patterns, from vegetable or animal sources with risk of overweight/obesity was assessed through the multivariate nutrient density model and a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. A total of 2413 subjects who completed the Food4Me screening were included, with self-reported data on age, weight, height, physical activity and dietary intake. As success rates on reducing overweight/obesity are very low, form a public health perspective, the elaboration of policies for increasing intakes of vegetable protein and reducing animal protein and sugars, may be a method of combating overweight/obesity at a population level.
Assessment of the Effectiveness of a Computerised Decision-Support Tool for Health Professionals for the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity. Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial.
Plain language summary
Obesity is related to the increased risk for chronic diseases and to nutrient insufficiencies, a paradox that has been characterised as the “double burden of malnutrition”. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a computerised decision-support tool as a means of childhood obesity management. The effectiveness of the decision-support tool was assessed through a pilot randomised controlled intervention trial. The study recruited a total sample of 80 children (obese or overweight) with an age range between 6 and 12 years. The participants were allocated to two study groups – intervention group and control group. Results indicate that a computerised decision-support tool, designed to assist paediatric healthcare professionals in providing personalised nutrition and lifestyle optimisation recommendations to overweight or obese children and their parents, can result in favourable changes to certain dietary intake and anthropometric indices in the children that received the intervention. Authors conclude that the computerised decision-support tool resulted in improvement of the children’s dietary intake and body mass index. Hence, the tool can support clinicians to improve the effectiveness of care.
We examined the effectiveness of a computerised decision-support tool (DST), designed for paediatric healthcare professionals, as a means to tackle childhood obesity. A randomised controlled trial was conducted with 65 families of 6⁻12-year old overweight or obese children. Paediatricians, paediatric endocrinologists and a dietitian in two children's hospitals implemented the intervention. The intervention group (IG) received personalised meal plans and lifestyle optimisation recommendations via the DST, while families in the control group (CG) received general recommendations. After three months of intervention, the IG had a significant change in dietary fibre and sucrose intake by 4.1 and -4.6 g/day, respectively. In addition, the IG significantly reduced consumption of sweets (i.e., chocolates and cakes) and salty snacks (i.e., potato chips) by -0.1 and -0.3 portions/day, respectively. Furthermore, the CG had a significant increase of body weight and waist circumference by 1.4 kg and 2.1 cm, respectively, while Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased only in the IG by -0.4 kg/m². However, the aforementioned findings did not differ significantly between study groups. In conclusion, these findings indicate the dynamics of the DST in supporting paediatric healthcare professionals to improve the effectiveness of care in modifying obesity-related behaviours. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.
Mediators of the effectiveness of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on pre-schoolers' snacking behaviour: the ToyBox-study.
Public health nutrition. 2019;(1):157-163
OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to explore the mediating role of family-related determinants on the effects of the ToyBox-intervention on pre-school children's consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks. DESIGN The ToyBox-intervention was a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a cluster-randomized design, aiming to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours to prevent obesity at pre-school age. SETTING Kindergartens (n 309) in six European countries. SUBJECTS A total of 6290 pre-schoolers and their families participated in the ToyBox-intervention in 2012-2013 and data from 5212 pre-schoolers/families were included in the current analyses. RESULTS Even though the total effect of the ToyBox-intervention on healthy and unhealthy snacking was not significant, the ToyBox-intervention significantly improved parental rule setting on children's unhealthy snack consumption (i.e. restriction of snacking while watching television and permission only at certain occasions) and parental consumption of unhealthy snacks, while it increased parental knowledge on snacking recommendations. Regarding healthy snacking, the ToyBox-intervention improved children's attitude towards fruit and vegetables (F&V). All previously mentioned family-related determinants mediated the intervention effects on pre-schoolers' consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks. Almost all family-related determinants examined in the study were independently associated with pre-schoolers' consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks. CONCLUSIONS The intervention was effective in improving relevant family-related determinants. Interventions aiming to promote F&V consumption and limit the consumption of unhealthy snacks in pre-schoolers should target on these mediators, but also identify new family-, school- or peer-related determinants, to enhance their effectiveness.
Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study.
Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.
A school- and community-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyle and prevent type 2 diabetes in vulnerable families across Europe: design and implementation of the Feel4Diabetes-study.
Public health nutrition. 2018;(17):3281-3290
OBJECTIVE To describe the design of the Feel4Diabetes-intervention and the baseline characteristics of the study sample. DESIGN School- and community-based intervention with cluster-randomized design, aiming to promote healthy lifestyle and tackle obesity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors for the prevention of type 2 diabetes among families from vulnerable population groups. The intervention was implemented in 2016-2018 and included: (i) the 'all-families' component, provided to all children and their families via a school- and community-based intervention; and (ii) an additional component, the 'high-risk families' component, provided to high-risk families for diabetes as identified with a discrete manner by the FINDRISC questionnaire, which comprised seven counselling sessions (2016-2017) and a text-messaging intervention (2017-2018) delivered by trained health professionals in out-of-school settings. Although the intervention was adjusted to local needs and contextual circumstances, standardized protocols and procedures were used across all countries for the process, impact, outcome and cost-effectiveness evaluation of the intervention. SETTING Primary schools and municipalities in six European countries. SUBJECTS Families (primary-school children, their parents and grandparents) were recruited from the overall population in low/middle-income countries (Bulgaria, Hungary), from low socio-economic areas in high-income countries (Belgium, Finland) and from countries under austerity measures (Greece, Spain). RESULTS The Feel4Diabetes-intervention reached 30 309 families from 236 primary schools. In total, 20 442 families were screened and 12 193 'all families' and 2230 'high-risk families' were measured at baseline. CONCLUSIONS The Feel4Diabetes-intervention is expected to provide evidence-based results and key learnings that could guide the design and scaling-up of affordable and potentially cost-effective population-based interventions for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Adapting the ToyBox obesity prevention intervention for use in Scottish preschools: protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial.
BMJ open. 2018;(10):e023707
INTRODUCTION There is an increasing need for the adoption of effective preschool obesity prevention interventions to combat the high levels of early-childhood obesity in the UK. This study will examine the feasibility and acceptability of the adapted version of the ToyBox intervention-a preschool obesity prevention programme-for use in Scotland (ToyBox-Scotland). This will inform the design of a full-scale cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS AND ANALYSIS The ToyBox-Scotland intervention will be evaluated using a feasibility cluster RCT, which involves children aged 3-5 years at six preschools in Glasgow, three randomly assigned to the intervention group and three to the usual-care control group. The original ToyBox intervention was adapted for the Scottish context using a coproduction approach. Within the 18-week intervention, physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be targeted in the preschool through environmental changes to the classroom, physical activity sessions and movement breaks. Parents will receive home activity packs every 3 weeks containing sticker incentives and interactive parent-child games that target sedentary behaviour, physical activity, eating/snacking and water consumption. As this is a feasibility study, parameters such as recruitment rates, attrition rates and SDs of outcome measures will be obtained which will inform a power calculation for a future RCT. Additional variables to be assessed include accelerometer-measured physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep, body mass index, home screen time, eating/snacking and water consumption. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and 14-17 weeks later. Intervention fidelity will be assessed using questionnaires and interviews with parents and practitioners, observation and session delivery records. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION This study was granted ethical approval by the University of Strathclyde's School of Psychological Sciences and Health Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals, presentation at conferences and in lay summaries provided to participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ISRCTN12831555.
Effect and process evaluation of a kindergarten-based, family-involved cluster randomised controlled trial in six European countries on four- to six-year-old children's steps per day: the ToyBox-study.
The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. 2017;(1):116
BACKGROUND The ToyBox-intervention is a theory- and evidence-based intervention delivered in kindergartens to improve four- to six-year-old children's energy balance-related behaviours and prevent obesity. The current study aimed to (1) examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing European four- to six-year-old children' steps per day, and (2) examine if a higher process evaluation score from teachers and parents was related to a more favourable effect on steps per day. METHODS A sample of 2438 four- to six-year-old children (51.9% boys, mean age 4.75 ± 0.43 years) from 6 European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain) wore a motion sensor (pedometer or accelerometer) for a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day both at baseline and follow-up to objectively measure their steps per day. Kindergarten teachers implemented the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention for 6 weeks in total, with a focus on (1) environmental changes in the classroom, (2) the child performing the actual behaviour and (3) classroom activities. Children's parents received newsletters, tip cards and posters. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample and the six intervention countries separately. In addition, process evaluation questionnaires were used to calculate a total process evaluation score (with implementation and satisfaction as a part of the overall score) for teachers and parents which was then linked with the physical activity outcomes. RESULTS No significant intervention effects on four- to six-year-old children' steps per weekday, steps per weekend day and steps per average day were found, both in the total sample and in the country-specific samples (all p > 0.05). In general, the intervention effects on steps per day were least favourable in four- to six-year-old children with a low teachers process evaluation score and most favourable in four- to six-year-old children with a high teachers process evaluation score. No differences in intervention effects were found for a low, medium or high parents' process evaluation score. CONCLUSION The physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention had no overall effect on four- to six-year-old children' steps per day. However, the process evaluation scores showed that kindergarten teachers that implemented the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention as planned and were satisfied with the physical activity component led to favourable effects on children's steps per day. Strategies to motivate, actively involve and engage the kindergarten teachers and parents/caregivers are needed to induce larger effects.
Effect of personalized nutrition on health-related behaviour change: evidence from the Food4Me European randomized controlled trial.
International journal of epidemiology. 2017;(2):578-588
Background: Optimal nutritional choices are linked with better health, but many current interventions to improve diet have limited effect. We tested the hypothesis that providing personalized nutrition (PN) advice based on information on individual diet and lifestyle, phenotype and/or genotype would promote larger, more appropriate, and sustained changes in dietary behaviour. Methods: : Adults from seven European countries were recruited to an internet-delivered intervention (Food4Me) and randomized to: (i) conventional dietary advice (control) or to PN advice based on: (ii) individual baseline diet; (iii) individual baseline diet plus phenotype (anthropometry and blood biomarkers); or (iv) individual baseline diet plus phenotype plus genotype (five diet-responsive genetic variants). Outcomes were dietary intake, anthropometry and blood biomarkers measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months' intervention. Results: At baseline, mean age of participants was 39.8 years (range 18-79), 59% of participants were female and mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.5 kg/m 2 . From the enrolled participants, 1269 completed the study. Following a 6-month intervention, participants randomized to PN consumed less red meat [-5.48 g, (95% confidence interval:-10.8,-0.09), P = 0.046], salt [-0.65 g, (-1.1,-0.25), P = 0.002] and saturated fat [-1.14 % of energy, (-1.6,-0.67), P < 0.0001], increased folate [29.6 µg, (0.21,59.0), P = 0.048] intake and had higher Healthy Eating Index scores [1.27, (0.30, 2.25), P = 0.010) than those randomized to the control arm. There was no evidence that including phenotypic and phenotypic plus genotypic information enhanced the effectiveness of the PN advice. Conclusions: Among European adults, PN advice via internet-delivered intervention produced larger and more appropriate changes in dietary behaviour than a conventional approach.
Characteristics of European adults who dropped out from the Food4Me Internet-based personalised nutrition intervention.
Public health nutrition. 2017;(1):53-63
OBJECTIVE To characterise participants who dropped out of the Food4Me Proof-of-Principle study. DESIGN The Food4Me study was an Internet-based, 6-month, four-arm, randomised controlled trial. The control group received generalised dietary and lifestyle recommendations, whereas participants randomised to three different levels of personalised nutrition (PN) received advice based on dietary, phenotypic and/or genotypic data, respectively (with either more or less frequent feedback). SETTING Seven recruitment sites: UK, Ireland, The Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Poland and Greece. SUBJECTS Adults aged 18-79 years (n 1607). RESULTS A total of 337 (21 %) participants dropped out during the intervention. At baseline, dropouts had higher BMI (0·5 kg/m2; P<0·001). Attrition did not differ significantly between individuals receiving generalised dietary guidelines (Control) and those randomised to PN. Participants were more likely to drop out (OR; 95 % CI) if they received more frequent feedback (1·81; 1·36, 2·41; P<0·001), were female (1·38; 1·06, 1·78; P=0·015), less than 45 years old (2·57; 1·95, 3·39; P<0·001) and obese (2·25; 1·47, 3·43; P<0·001). Attrition was more likely in participants who reported an interest in losing weight (1·53; 1·19, 1·97; P<0·001) or skipping meals (1·75; 1·16, 2·65; P=0·008), and less likely if participants claimed to eat healthily frequently (0·62; 0·45, 0·86; P=0·003). CONCLUSIONS Attrition did not differ between participants receiving generalised or PN advice but more frequent feedback was related to attrition for those randomised to PN interventions. Better strategies are required to minimise dropouts among younger and obese individuals participating in PN interventions and more frequent feedback may be an unnecessary burden.