Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: a systematic review.
BMJ open sport & exercise medicine. 2021;7(1):e000960
Plain language summary
COVID-19 has led several countries to enforce social distancing in order to reduce the rate of transmission, commonly called ‘lockdown’. These lockdowns have impacted people’s work, education, travel and recreation, and subsequent levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SB). The aim of this study was to review and compare the changes in all reported PA and SB behaviours during versus before the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, stratifying between adults and children, and special populations. This study is a systemic review of 66 studies which yielded a total of 86981 participants with an age range between 13 and 86 years. Results demonstrated that the majority of studies found that PA declined and SB increased during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, regardless of the subpopulation. In healthy adults and children, PA during lockdown decreased compared with pre-lockdown, despite various government organisations and health or exercise practitioners providing guidance on how to stay active during the pandemic and in self-quarantine. Authors conclude that the public health officials should promote ways of increasing PA and reducing SB should further lockdowns occur, especially in populations with medical conditions that are improved by PA.
OBJECTIVE In March 2020, several countries banned unnecessary outdoor activities during COVID-19, commonly called 'lockdowns. These lockdowns have the potential to impact associated levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Given the numerous health outcomes associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour, the aim of this review was to summarise literature that investigated differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour before vs during the COVID-19 lockdown. DESIGN DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Electronic databases were searched from November 2019 to October 2020 using terms and synonyms relating to physical activity, sedentary behaviour and COVID-19. The coprimary outcomes were changes in physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour captured via device-based measures or self-report tools. Risk of bias was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Sixty six articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review (total n=86 981). Changes in physical activity were reported in 64 studies, with the majority of studies reporting decreases in physical activity and increases in sedentary behaviours during their respective lockdowns across several populations, including children and patients with a variety of medical conditions. CONCLUSION Given the numerous physical and mental benefits of increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour, public health strategies should include the creation and implementation of interventions that promote safe physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour should other lockdowns occur.
The addition of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and isomaltulose to whey protein improves recovery from highly demanding resistance exercise.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2015;(2):91-9
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated whether a combination of whey protein (WP), calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrate exert additive effects on recovery from highly demanding resistance exercise. METHODS Thirteen resistance-trained men (age: 22.6 ± 3.9 years; height: 175.3 ± 12.2 cm; weight: 86.2 ± 9.8 kg) completed a double-blinded, counterbalanced, within-group study. Subjects ingested EAS Recovery Protein (RP; EAS Sports Nutrition/Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) or WP twice daily for 2 weeks prior to, during, and for 2 days following 3 consecutive days of intense resistance exercise. The workout sequence included heavy resistance exercise (day 1) and metabolic resistance exercise (days 2 and 3). The subjects performed no physical activity during day 4 (+24 hours) and day 5 (+48 hours), where recovery testing was performed. Before, during, and following the 3 workouts, treatment outcomes were evaluated using blood-based muscle damage markers and hormones, perceptual measures of muscle soreness, and countermovement jump performance. RESULTS Creatine kinase was lower for the RP treatment on day 2 (RP: 166.9 ± 56.4 vs WP: 307.1 ± 125.2 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05), day 4 (RP: 232.5 ± 67.4 vs WP: 432.6 ± 223.3 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05), and day 5 (RP: 176.1 ± 38.7 vs 264.5 ± 120.9 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05). Interleukin-6 was lower for the RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 1.2 ± 0.2 vs WP: 1.6 ± 0.6 pg · ml(-1), p ≤ 0.05) and day 5 (RP: 1.1 ± 0.2 vs WP: 1.6 ± 0.4 pg · ml(-1), p ≤ 0.05). Muscle soreness was lower for RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 2.0 ± 0.7 vs WP: 2.8 ± 1.1 cm, p ≤ 0.05). Vertical jump power was higher for the RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 5983.2 ± 624 vs WP 5303.9 ± 641.7 W, p ≤ 0.05) and day 5 (RP: 5792.5 ± 595.4 vs WP: 5200.4 ± 501 W, p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that during times of intense conditioning, the recovery benefits of WP are enhanced with the addition of HMB and a slow-release carbohydrate. We observed reductions in markers of muscle damage and improved athletic performance.
Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma with and without prior cytokine therapy, a subanalysis of TARGET.
Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England). 2010;(3):899-906
Before the development of targeted therapies, administration of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-2, interferon-alpha) was the primary systemic treatment option for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Sorafenib, an oral targeted, multikinase inhibitor, significantly prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival in the Treatment Approaches in Renal Cancer Global Evaluation Trial (TARGET), a large (N = 903) phase III, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma resistant to standard therapy. This analysis of a patient subgroup from TARGET evaluated the safety and efficacy of sorafenib in patients who had received prior cytokine therapy (sorafenib: n = 374; placebo: n = 368) and in patients who were cytokine-naïve (sorafenib: n = 77; placebo: n = 84). Progression-free survival was significantly prolonged with sorafenib therapy compared with placebo among patients with and without prior cytokine therapy (respectively 5.5 vs. 2.7 months; hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.64 and 5.8 vs. 2.8 months; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.73). Clinical benefit rates for sorafenib-treated patients compared with placebo patients were also higher (cytokine-treated: 83 vs. 54.3%; cytokine-naïve: 85.7 vs. 56.0%). Sorafenib was well tolerated in both subgroups (grade 3/4: 20 and 22%, respectively). Sorafenib demonstrated a consistent, significant clinical benefit against advanced renal cell carcinoma, with a twofold improvement in progression-free survival and disease control rate, with similar toxicities in patients with or without prior cytokine treatment.