Effect of physical fitness on colorectal tumor development in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.
Plain language summary
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), is a rare genetic disease leading to a very high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), with about half of all these patients developing cancer by the age of 40 years. Research has shown that exercise and physical fitness can reduce the risk of sporadic CRC. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between physical fitness and CRC development in patients with FAP. 119 patients with FAP participated in the study and underwent an exercise stress test to determine physical fitness. The risk of CRC was significantly higher in those who were less physically fit. There was also a significant negative correlation between maximum polyp diameter and physical fitness. The authors conclude that physical fitness may play a role not only in the development of sporadic CRC, but also in cancer development in FAP. The mechanism by which physical fitness prevents the development of CRC and adenoma is largely unknown, but it is thought that improved insulin resistance and altered intestinal transit time may mediate the association.
Although accumulated epidemiological evidence indicates that a good physical fitness level may prevent the development of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), few studies have examined the effect of physical fitness level on familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between physical fitness and CRC development in patients with FAP.A total of 119 patients (54 male; 65 female) with FAP, aged 17 to 73 years, underwent a step test to induce exercise stress. Predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was calculated for each patient by using heart rate as an index of physical fitness. The association of VO2max with the presence or absence of CRC and polyp diameter was examined. Patients with FAP were divided into 3 categories according to their VO2max (high, medium, and low). The association between maximum polyp size and VO2max among the patients with FAP without a history of colectomy was examined.The risk of CRC was significantly higher in the low VO2max group than in the high VO2max group (odds ratio = 4.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-16.26). The maximum polyp diameter was significantly negatively correlated with the VO2max among the patients with FAP without a history of colectomy (r = -.44, P = .01). In the multiple linear regression analysis, maximum polyp diameter was independently correlated with VO2max.Our results suggest a preventive association between physical fitness and CRC development or colorectal adenoma growth exists in patients with FAP.
First Case Report of a Huge Giant Cell Tumor of Soft Tissue Originating from the Retroperitoneum.
The American journal of case reports. 2018;:642-650
BACKGROUND Giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) is a rare disease generally generated from superficial tissue. We report an extremely rare case of giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising from retroperitoneal tissue. CASE REPORT A 78-year-old man visited our medical center with the chief complaint of fatigue and weight loss for 1 month. He had a hard and immobilized mass without pain in the left upper quadrant. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a huge tumor (22×20×16 cm) in the retroperitoneal space, and it invaded into the stomach, colon, pancreas, spleen, and left kidney. MRI demonstrated the tumor had a serous cystic component as T1 was low, T2 was high, and DWI was slightly high. We diagnosed the retroperitoneal malignant tumor, and tumor resection was performed with total gastrectomy, partial colectomy, distal pancreatectomy, left nephrectomy, and left adrenalectomy for complete resection, without any postoperative complications. The tumor predominantly consisted of a solid mass, and had necrotic lesions, cystic lesions, and calcification. The histological exam showed it was composed of spindle and multinucleated giant cells; however, there was no cellular atypia or pleomorphism. Immunohistochemical staining characterized the tumor with CD68+, SMA+, CD34-, Desmin-, and S-100-. We finally diagnosed it as GCT-ST with the intermediate group of malignancy, according to WHO criteria. Thereafter, the patient had no recurrence at 1 year after resection. CONCLUSIONS The huge GCT-ST arising from the retroperitoneal space, which has never before been reported, was successfully resected. We report it with pathological findings to add to the relevant literature.
Effect of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 on loose stools in healthy volunteers.
Beneficial microbes. 2018;9(3):357-365
Plain language summary
The cause of IBS has yet to be established, however the role of the gut microbiota in modulating symptoms is the subject of significant recent research. This randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of 88 healthy subjects with chronic diarrhoea, aimed to assess the impact of ingestion of probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis C-3102 over an 8 week period on patient symptoms. Approximately 8.5 billion spores of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 were administered daily to the treatment group, once a day, immediately after breakfast. The results, after 8 weeks of ingestion, showed: an improved Bristol Stool Chart score; a reduction in stool frequency; significantly decreased abdominal sounds; and significantly altered relative abundance of Lachnospira, Actinomyces and SMB53. Intake of 4 weeks or more were required to achieve these results. Even though this was a small study, nutrition and lifestyle practitioners looking to support the digestive health of IBS patients may wish to consider adding this probiotic strain to their recommendations on the grounds of improved symptoms of diarrhoea.
Ingestion of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 spores (C-3102) has relieved the symptoms of diarrhoea in piglets and changed the composition of gut microbiota in humans. Recently, it was suggested that the composition of the human gut microbiota affects stool consistency. In this study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to assess the preventive effects of chronic diarrhoea in healthy volunteers with loose stools by ingestion of C-3102. The results showed that oral doses of C-3102 tablets significantly decreased the Bristol Stool Scale score and stool frequency, and also significantly improved abdominal sounds. With regard to gut microbiota, the relative abundance of Lachnospira, Actinomyces and SMB53 were significantly changed. This study shows that C-3102 could be effective for treating loose stools (Trial registration: UMIN000022583, http://tinyurl.com/ya4refqn ).
Beneficial Effect of Intradialytic Electrical Muscle Stimulation in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Artificial organs. 2018;(9):899-910
Many hemodialysis (HD) patients cannot perform self-administered exercise training for their muscle wasting, weakness, and sarcopenia. Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) has the advantages of easy application, and minimal risks for these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intradialytic EMS. This was a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-nine HD patients were randomly assigned to either the EMS group or the control (no training) group, and 13 patients in each group were eventually analyzed. The EMS group received intradialytic EMS over an 8-week period. Measurement of isometric knee extensor strength using a handheld dynamometer, evaluation of the quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the Timed Up & Go Test (TUG) for physical function assessment, the Japanese version of the Short Form-8 Health Survey (SF-8), and blood tests were performed before and after the intervention period. The primary and secondary outcomes were improvement of quadriceps muscle strength and size, respectively. The EMS group demonstrated significant improvement compared with the control group in terms of knee extensor strength (right: 22.3 ± 12.8 vs. -10.8 ± 22.3 N, P < 0.001; left: 26.1 ± 29.7 vs. -8.3 ± 18.7 N, P < 0.001), quadriceps CSA at three positions, 25, 50, and 75% of the segment length from the greater trochanter to the inferior border of the lateral epicondyle of the femur (25% right: EMS group 1.7 ± 2.0 vs. Control group -0.4 ± 1.8cm2 , P = 0.05; 25% left: EMS group 1.3 ± 1.1 vs. Control group -0.6 ± 1.8cm2 , P = 0.01; 50% right: EMS group 2.0 ± 2.2 vs. Control group -0.7 ± 1.9cm2 , P = 0.004; 50% left: EMS group 2.7 ± 2.1 vs. Control group -0.7 ± 1.6cm2 , P = 0.001; 75% right: EMS group 1.8 ± 2.2 vs. Control group -0.7 ± 1.5cm2 , P = 0.003; 75% left: EMS group 2.1 ± 1.9 vs. Control group -0.4 ± 1.5cm2 , P = 0.003); and TUG time (-0.8 ± 0.6 vs. 0.2 ± 0.5s, P < 0.001). The EMS group showed improvement after intervention in all components of SF-8, but these were not statistically significant. EMS could be an effective exercise training tool for HD patients with either muscle wasting, weakness, or sarcopenia.
Postprandial Glucose Surges after Extremely Low Carbohydrate Diet in Healthy Adults.
The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine. 2017;243(1):35-39
Plain language summary
Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. The aim of the study was to investigate, through continuous glucose monitoring, whether carbohydrate restriction for one day in actual life could affect the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy subjects. The study enrolled ten healthy volunteers (2 males and 8 females), who had normal haemoglobin A1c, with an age range between 20 years and 65 years. The participants wore a continuous glucose monitoring device and were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. Results show that after extreme restriction of carbohydrate, an influence on the blood glucose variability persisted for at least 24 hours in healthy subjects. The day after the low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, the glucose fluctuation increased significantly when compared with the fluctuations on days after the ingestion of normal carbohydrate diet. Authors conclude that low carbohydrate/high-fat diets can induce increasing blood glucose fluctuations that last for at least all the following day and have adverse effects in daily life.
undefined: Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. Here, we report that extreme carbohydrate restriction for one day affects the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Ten subjects (median age 30.5 years, BMI 21.1 kg/m , and HbA1c 5.5%), wearing with a continuous glucose monitoring device, were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. On day 1, day 2 (D2), and day 4 (D4), they consumed normal-carbohydrate (63-66% carbohydrate) diet, while on day 3, they took low-carbohydrate/high-fat (5% carbohydrate) diet. The daily energy intake was 2,200 kcal for males and 1,700 kcal for females. On D2 and D4, we calculated the mean 24-hr blood glucose level (MEAN/24h) and its standard deviation (SD/24h), the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose over 140 mg/dL within 4 hours after each meal (AUC/4h/140), the mean amplitude of the glycemic excursions (MAGE), the incremental AUC of 24-hr blood glucose level above the mean plus one standard deviation (iAUC/MEAN+SD). Indexes for glucose fluctuation on D4 were significantly greater than those on D2 (SD/24h; p = 0.009, MAGE; p = 0.013, AUC/4h/140 after breakfast and dinner; p = 0.006 and 0.005, and iAUC/MEAN+SD; p = 0.007). The value of MEAN/24h and AUC/4h/140 after lunch on D4 were greater than those on D2, but those differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, consumption of low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet appears to cause higher postprandial blood glucose on subsequent normal-carbohydrate diet particularly after breakfast and dinner in healthy adults.
Impact of elemental diet on early recovery after laparoscopic colectomy: findings of a randomized controlled trial.
Surgery today. 2017;(2):166-173
PURPOSE An amino acid-containing elemental diet (ED) does not require digestion for nutritional absorption, making it a good option for patients with gastrointestinal malabsorption. We conducted a randomized trial to confirm that perioperative ED enhanced the recovery of patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy. METHODS Patients in the intervention arm received commercially available ED from the day prior to surgery until postoperative day (POD) 3, whereas patients in the control group received a conventional perioperative diet program. To verify the endpoints, "estimated minimum length of stay in hospital after surgery" (emLOS) was defined as the number of days necessary to reach all the five criteria; namely, "sufficient oral intake", "sufficient pain control", "withdrawal of intravenous alimentation", "no abnormal findings in routine examinations", and "no rise in fever". RESULTS A total of 102 patients were randomized, 94 of whom were analyzed (ED 45, control 49). There was no morbidity or mortality. Shorter emLOS (POD 4 vs. POD 7; p = 0.018), earlier resumption of sufficient oral intake (POD 3 vs. POD 4; p = 0.034) and faster recovery to defecation (2.2 vs. 3.1 days; p = 0.005) were observed in the ED group vs. the control group. CONCLUSIONS The perioperative ingestion of ED by patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy is safe and can reduce the postoperative hospital stay by supporting the acceleration of oral intake.
A case of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies due to push-up exercise.
Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology. 2017;(7):383-386
A 17-year-old man with no familial history developed motor and sensory disturbance of the left upper limb a few days after starting push-up exercise. Neurological examination revealed broad weakness and radial sensory disturbance of the left upper limb and magnetic resonance neurography showed laterality of brachial plexus intensity signals. Therefore, we suspected left brachial plexopathy. However, a nerve conduction study showed a broad disturbance that could not be explained by only brachial plexopathy. Genetic tests revealed a diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). HNPP should be included in the differential diagnosis for neuropathy due to slight exercise or nerve compression even when familial history is negative.
Myotonia-like symptoms in a patient with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.
Neuromuscular disorders : NMD. 2015;(11):913-5
We describe the case of a 33-year-old man with a 4-year history of worsening muscle stiffness and weakness in his right hand. He showed elevated serum creatine kinase levels at the onset of muscle stiffness that was characterized by delayed muscle relaxation after voluntary contraction. This symptom often occurred during cold exposure, and was partially attenuated by sodium channel blockade. Electrodiagnostic findings in repetitive nerve stimulation, short-exercise, and cooling tests were normal. Electromyography showed chronic denervation potentials in his cranial, cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral myotomes without myotonic discharge. He exhibited facial and tongue fasciculations, hypernasality, gynecomastia, neurogenic changes in muscle biopsy, and increased serum testosterone levels. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) was diagnosed on the basis of the CAG trinucleotide expansion in the gene coding androgen receptor. A myotonia-like symptom without myotonic discharge may present as an early neurological sign of SBMA, which possibly reflects a sodium channel dysfunction in skeletal muscles.
Pentosan polysulfate treatment ameliorates motor function with increased serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease.
Journal of neurovirology. 2014;(3):269-77
The main therapeutic strategy against human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) characterized by lower extremity motor dysfunction is immunomodulatory treatment, with drugs such as corticosteroid hormone and interferon-α, at present. However, there are many issues in long-term treatment with these drugs, such as insufficient effects and various side effects. We now urgently need to develop other therapeutic strategies. The heparinoid, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been safely used in Europe for the past 50 years as a thrombosis prophylaxis and for the treatment of phlebitis. We conducted a clinical trial to test the effect of subcutaneous administration of PPS in 12 patients with HAM/TSP in an open-labeled design. There was a marked improvement in lower extremity motor function, based on reduced spasticity, such as a reduced time required for walking 10 m and descending a flight of stairs. There were no significant changes in HTLV-I proviral copy numbers in peripheral blood contrary to the inhibitory effect of PPS in vitro for intercellular spread of HTLV-I. However, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 was significantly increased without significant changes of serum level of chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL2). There was a positive correlation between increased sVCAM-1and reduced time required for walking 10 m. PPS might induce neurological improvement by inhibition of chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, through blocking the adhesion cascade by increasing serum sVCAM-1, in addition to rheological improvement of the microcirculation. PPS has the potential to be a new therapeutic tool for HAM/TSP.
Effects of testosterone and progressive resistance exercise in healthy, highly functioning older men with low-normal testosterone levels.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2013;(5):1891-900
CONTEXT Aging in men is associated with reduced testosterone (T) levels and physiological changes leading to frailty, but the benefits of T supplementation are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE We studied the effects of T supplementation with and without progressive resistance training (PRT) on functional performance, strength, and body composition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We recruited 167 generally healthy community-dwelling older men (66 ± 5 years) with low-normal baseline total T levels (200-350 ng/dL). INTERVENTION Subjects were randomized to placebo or transdermal T gel [2 doses targeting either a lower (400-550 ng/dL) or higher (600-1000 ng/dL) T range] and to either PRT or no exercise for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The primary outcome was functional performance, whereas secondary outcomes were strength and body composition. RESULTS A total of 143 men completed the study. At 12 months, total T was 528 ± 287 ng/dL in subjects receiving any T and 287 ± 65 ng/dL in the placebo group. In the PRT group, function and strength were not different between T- and placebo-treated subjects, despite greater improvements in fat mass (P = .04) and fat-free mass (P = .01) with T. In the non-PRT group, T did not improve function but improved fat mass (P = .005), fat-free mass (P = .03), and upper body strength (P = .03) compared with placebo. There were fewer cardiovascular events in the T-treated groups compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS T supplementation was well tolerated and improved body composition but had no effect on functional performance. T supplementation improved upper body strength only in nonexercisers compared with placebo.