Avocado Intake, and Longitudinal Weight and Body Mass Index Changes in an Adult Cohort.
Plain language summary
There is increasing research aimed at reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide. Evidence suggests nutrient-dense, whole food choices may help reduce weight gain by increased fibre intake, reduced fat absorption and improved satiety levels, and avocados have recently been suggested to help reduce excess adiposity. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of habitual avocado intake on adult weight gain and changes in body mass index (BMI). This longitudinal study analysed data from the Adventist Health Study-2, which is comprised of approximately 96,000 members. Subjects were mailed a comprehensive lifestyle questionnaire that included self-reported weight, height and avocado consumption. Two follow-up questionnaires were sent out to collect self-reported weight, with follow-up time varying between 4-11 years. This study found avocado intake to be associated with a lower prevalence of overweight and attenuated weight gain in normal weight individuals over time. While avocado intake reduced the odds of becoming overweight or obese, when adjusted for BMI it was found baseline BMI had more of an impact on the odds of becoming overweight or obese than avocado intake. Based on these results, the authors suggest avocado consumption, as part of a healthy diet, may impact long-term changes in weight at the population level.
Avocados contain nutrients and bioactive compounds that may help reduce the risk of becoming overweight/obese. We prospectively examined the effect of habitual avocado intake on changes in weight and body mass index (BMI). In the Adventist Health Study (AHS-2), a longitudinal cohort (~55,407; mean age ~56 years; U.S. and Canada), avocado intake (standard serving size 32 g/day) was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Self-reported height and weight were collected at baseline. Self-reported follow-up weight was collected with follow-up questionnaires between four and 11 years after baseline. Using the generalized least squares (GLS) approach, we analyzed repeated measures of weight in relation to avocado intake. Marginal logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds of becoming overweight/obese, comparing low (>0 to <32 g/day) and high (≥32 g/day) avocado intake to non-consumers (reference). Avocado consumers who were normal weight at baseline, gained significantly less weight than non-consumers. The odds (OR (95% CI)) of becoming overweight/obese between baseline and follow-up was 0.93 (0.85, 1.01), and 0.85 (0.60, 1.19) for low and high avocado consumers, respectively. Habitual consumption of avocados may reduce adult weight gain, but odds of overweight/obesity are attenuated by differences in initial BMI values.
[Unroofing Technique on Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Left Coronary Artery;Report of a Case].
Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery. 2018;(6):463-467
An anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery is a cause of sudden death in young people. We report a surgical case of an anomalous aortic origin of the left coronary artery. A 16-year-old man with chest pain, which occurred while playing football, was taken in an ambulance. Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed an ST-segment elevation in V1-V5. We performed coronary angiogram (CAG) and detected the anomalous aortic origin of left anterior descending artery. The computer tomography( CT) angiography revealed the intramural pathway of the left coronary artery. Surgery performed as an unroofing procedure for releasing the intramural portion of the left coronary artery. We confirmed a dilation of the left coronary artery ostia in postoperative coronary CT angiography. He did not have chest pain and other symptoms while cardiopulmonary exercise testing. He was discharged on the 18th postoperative day. He is seen as an outpatient without any symptoms.
Effects of Long-Term Walnut Supplementation on Body Weight in Free-Living Elderly: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts and Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University (LLU)), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns only the LLU cohort. Healthy elders (mean age 69 year, 67% women) were randomly assigned to walnut (n = 183) or control diets (n = 173). Subjects in the walnut group received packaged walnuts (28⁻56 g/day), equivalent to ≈15% of daily energy requirements, to incorporate into their habitual diet, while those in the control group abstained from walnuts. Adiposity was measured periodically, and data were adjusted for in-trial changes in self-reported physical activity. Results: After 2 years, body weight significantly decreased (p = 0.031), while body fat significantly increased (p = 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the control and walnut groups regarding body weight (-0.6 kg and -0.4 kg, respectively, p = 0.67) or body fat (+0.9% and +1.3%, respectively, p = 0.53). Lean body mass, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio remained essentially unchanged. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of primary analysis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without concern for adverse effects on body weight or body composition.
Effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.
Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation. 2017;(1):50
BACKGROUND Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults. METHODS A total of 24 elderly women (75-83 years old) were randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group. Those in the intervention group attended 3 months of biweekly 90-min sessions focused on aerobic exercise, strength training, and physical therapy. We monitored changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism during walking in both groups using positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS All subjects completed the 3-month experiment and the adherence to the exercise program was 100%. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed a significantly greater step length in the right foot after 3 months of physical activity. The FDG-PET assessment revealed a significant post-intervention increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left posterior entorhinal cortex, left superior temporal gyrus, and right superior temporopolar area in the intervention group. Interestingly, the control group showed a relative increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left premotor and supplemental motor areas, left and right somatosensory association cortex, and right primary visual cortex after the 3-month period. We found no significant differences in FDG uptake between the intervention and control groups before vs. after the intervention. CONCLUSION Exercise training increased activity in specific brain regions, such as the precuneus and entorhinal cortices, which play an important role in episodic and spatial memory. Further investigation is required to confirm whether alterations in glucose metabolism within these regions during walking directly promote physical and cognitive performance. TRIAL REGISTRATION UMIN-CTR ( UMIN000021829 ). Retrospectively registered 10 April 2016.
Case of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis due to peach with Pru p 7 sensitization.
The Journal of dermatology. 2016;(2):222-3
A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes.
Nutrition journal. 2014;:10
BACKGROUND According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. METHODS This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34-84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. RESULTS A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, α-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01-P = 0.04). Both groups experienced mild reductions in weight, BMI, and WC during the study (P = 0.01-P = 0.03), however there were no differences between the two groups in these measurements or in FBG, HbA1c or blood lipids. For each kilogram of weight loss in the entire cohort there were associations for reductions in WC of 0.48 cm (P < 0.01), FBG of 0.11 mmol/l (P = 0.01) and HbA1c of 0.07% (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Daily consumption of a peanut enriched (46 g/d) ADA meal plan over 24 weeks improves the nutrient profile of the total diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222.
Aortic vascular graft infection caused by Cardiobacterium valvarum: a case report.
Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. 2014;(12):804-9
A 53-year-old man with a past medical history of total arch replacement surgery and severe aortic regurgitation presented with a 1-month history of persistent general malaise, anorexia, body weight loss and night sweats. His recent history included gingival hyperplasia for 6 years, gingivitis after tooth extraction 3 years before, prolonged inflammatory status for 4 months, fundal hemorrhage and leg tenderness for 2 months. A pathogen was detected from blood culture, but conventional microbiological examination failed to identify the pathogen. The organism was eventually identified as Cardiobacterium valvarum by 16S rRNA analysis, and the patient was diagnosed with infective endocarditis and prosthetic vascular graft infection. The patient received intravenous antibiotic therapy using a combination of ceftriaxone and levofloxacin for 5 weeks and was discharged with a good clinical course. C. valvarum is a rare human pathogen in clinical settings. Only 10 cases have been reported to date worldwide, and therefore, the clinical characteristics of C. valvarum infection are not fully known. This is a first well-described case of C. valvarum infection in Japan, and further, a first report of aortic prosthetic vascular graft infection worldwide. Identification of C. valvarum is usually difficult due to its phenotypic characteristics, and molecular approaches would be required for both clinicians and microbiologists to facilitate more reliable diagnosis and uncover its clinical picture more clearly.
[Long-term efficacy of chemotherapy for unresectable gastric cancer with multiple bone metastases-a case report].
Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy. 2013;(12):2235-7
A 49-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with back pain, appetite loss, and body weight loss in January 2009. Gastroduodenal endoscopy, abdominal computed tomography( CT), and magnetic resonance imaging( MRI) revealed type 4 advanced gastric cancer( signet-ring cell carcinoma) with multiple lymph node( No. 16 LNs), right adrenal gland, and multiple bone metastases. Between February 2009 and April 2011, 20 courses of S-1( 80 mg/m2) plus CDDP( 60 mg/m2) and zoledronic acid hydrate (4 mg/body) were administrated. Since May 2011, S-1 (70 mg/m2) and zoledronic acid hydrate( 4 mg/body) have been continued. The lymph node and adrenal gland metastases showed a complete response( CR), and the gastric tumor showed a partial response; however, the bone metastases did not show CR or progressive disease (PD) for 4 years after initiation of therapy. Chemotherapy with zoledronic acid hydrate is considered as a useful therapeutic option for advanced unresectable gastric cancer with multiple bone metastases.
A randomized 3×3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass avocado intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults.
Nutrition journal. 2013;:155
BACKGROUND The behavioral outcome of food ingestion is a complex process that involves psychological and biological factors. Avocados are nutrient dense with properties that may favorably impact energy balance. This study sought to evaluate if incorporating approximately one half of a Hass avocado by addition or inclusion into a lunch meal will influence post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin response, and subsequent energy intake among overweight adults. METHODS This was a randomized 3×3 single-blind crossover design study with 26 healthy overweight adults (mean ±SD age 40.8±11.0 years and BMI 28.1±2.4 kg/m²). Participants consumed a standardized breakfast followed by 1 of 3 lunch test meals [Control (C), avocado-free; Avocado Inclusive (AI); and, Avocado Added (AA)]. Participants rated five appetite sensations using a visual analog scale (VAS) before lunch and at specific intervals over 5 hours following the start of the test meal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured before lunch and at specific intervals over 3 hours following the start of the test meal. Mixed models were used to compare differences among the 3 test meals, and the area under the curve (AUC(0-xh)) was computed for the VAS and biological measures. RESULTS There were significant differences in the AUC(0-5h) for the self-reported feelings of satisfaction (P=0.04) and desire to eat (P=0.05) in the mixed model analysis. Compared to the C test meal, the AA test meal increased satisfaction by 23% (P=0.05) and decreased the desire to eat by 28% (P=0.04) for the AUC(0-5h). For the AUC(0-3h), the AA test meal increased satisfaction by 26% (P=0.02) and decreased the desire to eat by 40% (P=0.01) as compared to the C test meal. Compared to the AI meal, the AUC(0-3h) for blood insulin was higher in the C and AA meals (P=0.04 and P=0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS The addition of approximately one half of a Hass avocado at a lunch meal can influence post-ingestive satiety over a subsequent 3 and 5 hour period in overweight adults. A caveat to these findings is that the avocado contained an additional 112 kcal, which may have accounted for the observed increase in satisfaction and decreased desire to eat. Future trials are warranted to evaluate the effects of avocado intake on weight management in adults of varying BMIs and among insulin resistant individuals.
Regional differences in blood flow and oxygen consumption in resting muscle and their relationship during recovery from exhaustive exercise.
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2003;(6):2204-10
This investigation evaluated regional differences in blood flow and oxygen consumption and their relationship in exercised muscle during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Five healthy men performed exhaustive one-legged cycling exercise. Positron emission tomography was used to measure blood flow, oxygen uptake, and oxygen extraction in the quadriceps femoris muscle before and after exercise. Regions of interest included five areas of the muscle (two proximal, one central, and two distal), which were evenly spaced across the muscle. Before exercise, blood flow and oxygen consumption decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the direction from the proximal to the distal portions; blood flow declined from 2.0 +/- 0.5 to 1.4 +/- 0.3 ml x 100 g-1 x min-1, and oxygen consumption decreased from 0.21 +/- 0.04 to 0.17 +/- 0.02 ml.100 g-1x min-1. In contrast, these gradients in blood flow and oxygen consumption diminished during recovery after exercise. Consequently, there was a positive relationship between changes in blood flow and oxygen consumption in an exercised muscle during recovery after exercise (r = 0.963, P < 0.01). These changes became larger in the direction from proximal to distal portions: blood flow increased from 2.9 +/- 0.7 to 3.9 +/- 0.8 and oxygen consumption from 1.4 +/- 0.1 to 1.8 +/- 0.4 times resting values. These results suggest that hemodynamic variables are heterogeneous within a muscle both at rest and during recovery from exercise and that there is a systematic difference in these variables in the direction from proximal to distal regions within the quadriceps femoris muscle.