The association between the metabolic syndrome and iron status in pre- and postmenopausal women: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2012.
The British journal of nutrition. 2022;127(4):630-640
We aim to determine the association between Fe status and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) during menopause. Records of 1069 premenopausal and 703 postmenopausal Korean women were retrieved from the database of the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V 2012) and analysed. The association between the MetS and Fe status was performed using multivariable-adjusted analyses, subsequently develop a prediction model for the MetS by margin effects. We found that the risk of Fe depletion among postmenopausal women was lower than premenopausal women (PR = 0·813, 95 % CI 0·668, 0·998, P = 0·038). The risk of the MetS was 2·562-fold lower among premenopausal women with than without Fe depletion (PR = 0·390, 95 % CI 0·266, 0·571, P < 0·001). In contrast, the risk of the MetS tended to be higher among postmenopausal women with than without Fe depletion (PR = 1·849, 95 % CI 1·406, 2·432, P < 0·001). When the serum ferritin levels increased, the risk of the MetS increased in both premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The margin effects showed that an increase in serum Hb and ferritin was associated with an increase in the risk of the MetS according to menopausal status and age group. Therefore, ferritin is the most validated and widely used Fe marker, could be a potential clinical value in predicting and monitoring the MetS during menopause. Further prospective or longitudinal studies, especially, clinically related studies on menopause and Fe status, are needed to clarify the causality between serum ferritin levels and the MetS that could offer novel treatments for the MetS.
Prenatal yoga and excessive gestational weight gain: A review of evidence and potential mechanisms.
Complementary therapies in clinical practice. 2022;:101551
PURPOSE To review the evidence of the potential mechanisms (behavioral, psychological/emotional, and physical factors) of prenatal yoga for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) in pregnant women to guide future research. MAIN BODY Prenatal yoga is a common form of physical activity during pregnancy and includes a combination of physical postures, breath control and meditation. This review theorizes how combining physical activity (i.e., prenatal yoga postures) with the add-ons brought by prenatal yoga (e.g., breath control, meditation), might provide a more comprehensive and effective strategy to prevent excessive GWG than physical activity alone. This article a) summarizes the literature on potential mechanisms of prenatal yoga to prevent excessive GWG specifically focusing on behavioral (diet, physical activity, and sleep), psychological/emotional (self-awareness, emotion regulation, stress, mood, mindfulness) and physical factors (pregnancy discomforts), b) highlights limitations of current studies, and c) provides suggestions for future research. The findings demonstrate there is insufficient evidence that prenatal yoga improves behavioral, psychological/emotional and physical factors in pregnant women and more research is needed. Though these factors have been more strongly linked to improved weight outcomes in non-pregnant populations, further testing in pregnant women is necessary to draw definitive conclusions for the efficacy of prenatal yoga to prevent excessive GWG. CONCLUSION Effective strategies are needed to prevent excessive GWG to encourage optimal maternal and child health outcomes. More research is warranted to evaluate the impact of prenatal yoga on weight outcomes during pregnancy and design studies to test the proposed mechanisms discussed in this review.
Interventions to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Digital Media Use in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.
Pediatrics. 2022;(Suppl 5)
OBJECTIVES To identify effective interventions that promote healthy screen time use and reduce sedentary behavior in school-age children and adolescents (SACA) in all settings, over the last 20 years. METHODS Searches were conducted from 2000 until March 2021 using PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Ovid SP, The Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, and the WHO regional databases, including Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Randomized-controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies assessing interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors and screen time in healthy SACA (aged 5-19.9 years) globally. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and where possible, pooled with a random-effects model. RESULTS The review included 51 studies, of which 23 were included in meta-analyses with 16 418 children and adolescents. Nondigital randomized-controlled trials reported a small, but significant reduction of TV-specific screen time (minutes per day) (mean difference, -12.46; 95% confidence interval, -20.82 to -4.10; moderate quality of evidence) and sedentary behavior (minutes per day) (mean difference, -3.86; 95% confidence interval, -6.30 to -1.41; participants = 8920; studies = 8; P = .002; moderate quality of evidence) as compared with control groups. For quasi-experimental studies, nondigital interventions may make little or no difference on screen time (minutes per day) or sedentary behavior (minutes per day), given the high uncertainty of evidence. Most studies were conducted in a high-income country. Generalizability of results to low- and middle- income countries remain limited. CONCLUSIONS Public health policies and programs will be necessary to reduce excessive sedentary behavior and screen time, especially in the post-coronavirus disease 2019 reality.
Partition of Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Flap as a Salvage Procedure for Simultaneous Coverage of the Exposed Carotid Artery and Reconstruction of Cervical Esophagus.
Annals of plastic surgery. 2021;(4):435-439
BACKGROUND In advanced pharyngoesophageal cancer patients, a critical event is represented by the failure of primary reconstruction with exposure of the carotid artery and partial or total defect of the cervical esophagus. For these high-risk patients, a partitioned pectoralis major musculocutaneous (PMMC) flap can prevent carotid blowout and provide skin for simultaneous esophageal reconstruction. METHODS Twenty-six patients needing pharyngoesophageal reconstruction together with coverage of carotid artery exposure were included in this retrospective case series. The patients were treated with a partitioned PMMC flap, based on the branching pattern of the pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery and the perforators of the pectoralis major muscle, to simultaneously reconstruct the defect and provide coverage for the carotid artery. RESULTS In 25 patients, the partitioned PMMC flap reconstructions resulted in complete wound healing without occurrence of carotid blowout syndrome or fistula formation. Minor complications as partial flap necrosis (7.7%) and strictures formation (7.7%) were recorded but did not compromise reconstruction. Twenty-two patients were able to adopt a semisolid diet, and 4 had recurrence of cancer. CONCLUSIONS The partitioned PMMC flap reconstruction represents a useful salvage solution to simultaneously restore the continuity of the alimentary tract and provide reliable coverage for the exposed carotid artery.
Effects of Soy Foods in Postmenopausal Women: A Focus on Osteosarcopenia and Obesity.
Journal of obesity & metabolic syndrome. 2020;29(3):180-187
Plain language summary
The body composition of postmenopausal women changes rapidly due to hormonal changes, including the loss of bone (osteoporosis) and muscle (sarcopenia), usually in the presence of increased adiposity and fat redistribution towards central-type obesity. The aim of this study was to summarise the efficacy of soy foods and their impact on body composition. Research shows that soy products: - may improve the body composition of menopausal and premenopausal women. - delay the physical disabilities of menopausal women with osteosarcopenia and obesity. - may improve muscle mass and bone strength to prevent the development of osteosarcopenia in post-menopausal women. Authors conclude that further research is required since some studies have questioned the mechanism of the protective effect of soybean ingredients on certain metabolic diseases.
Chronic diseases in postmenopausal women are caused by rapid changes in hormones and are accompanied by rapid changes in body composition (muscle, bone, and fat). In an aging society, the health of postmenopausal women is a social issue, and people's interest in ingesting high-quality protein is increasing in order to maintain a healthy body composition. This review aims to summarize the efficacy of soy foods and their impact on body composition. The soy protein and isoflavones contained in soy foods can improve muscle and bone density quality and reduce body weight. It is considered a breakthrough in preventing osteosarcopenia and obesity that may occur after menopause.
Does vitamin D affect sarcopenia with insulin resistance in aging?
Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2020;(3):648-656
There are many studies investigating nutritional factors that affect both sarcopenia and muscle formation. According to extensive research, protein has an essential role in muscle formation. More recently, vitamin D has emerged as an important factor that regulates muscle metabolism. However, studies and research of association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and components of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in older are limited. Nineteen studies were found through a search of electronic databases and were subjected to a meta-analysis to investigate the differences in serum levels of 25(OH)D and HOMA-IR between patients with controls and sarcopenia. The random-effects standardized mean difference (SD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated as the effect size. Nineteen studies with 19,528 participants (5,081 with sarcopenia and 14,447 without) were analyzed. Sarcopenic participants had significantly lower serum levels of 25(OH)D (SD =1.163; 95% CI 0.514, 1.812; p<0.001; I2=99.652%) and HOMA-IR (SD=-2.040; 95% CI -3.376, -0.705; p<0.005; I2=99.837%) than controls. It has been reiterated that sarcopenia may be related serum levels of 25(OH)D and HOMA-IR. This relationship needs to be clarified by future longitudinal studies.
Advantage of Dairy for Improving Aging Muscle.
Journal of obesity & metabolic syndrome. 2019;(3):167-174
The risk of sarcopenia increases with aging. Malnutrition in the elderly population is an important risk factor for sarcopenia. Calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), vitamin D and protein are key nutrients for the human body and affect muscle mass and quality. Dairy products are rich in these nutrients, which implicates that dairy products might be ideal for elderly population. This systematic review highlights the effects of dairy products on muscle mass, muscle strength and body performance in the elderly population in the perspective of Ca, P, vitamin D and protein.
Age-dependent ferritin elevations and HFE C282Y mutation as risk factors for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in males: a longitudinal cohort study.
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2014;:8
BACKGROUND Age, gender and genetic predisposition are major intrinsic risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Iron increases are associated with age and gene mutation. In the present study, we examined whether serum ferritin, an indicator of total body iron stores, correlates with clinical features in patients with OA, and whether the hemochromatosis Fe (HFE) gene mutation plays a role. METHODS In a 2-year longitudinal observational study, 127 patients with knee OA and 20 healthy individuals (controls) were enrolled. All patients underwent standardized weight-bearing fixed-flexion posteroanterior knee radiographs. Peripheral blood samples were analyzed for serum ferritin, and genotyped for HFE using allelic discrimination methods. RESULTS Higher levels of serum ferritin were found in patients older than 56 years (P =0.0186) and males (P =0.0006), with a trend toward higher ferritin in patients with OA. HFE gene mutation carriers were more prevalent among patients with OA than among healthy controls. When stratified further by gender, we found that male patients with OA had higher levels of serum ferritin than male control subjects [odds ratio = 4.18 (limits of 95% confidence interval: 0.86-27.69, P = 0.048)]. Analyses of radiographic data indicated that higher ferritin was associated with narrower joint space width at baseline (P = 0.032) in male patients. Additionally, among men, risk prediction of radiographic severity [Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade >2)] in the higher ferritin group was almost five times that of the lower ferritin group (odds ratio = 4.74, P = 0.023). CONCLUSION Our data suggest that increased ferritin levels are associated with symptomatic knee OA in males. This finding needs to be validated in a larger cohort of patients.
Physical properties of root cementum: Part 19. Comparison of the amounts of root resorption between the right and left first premolars after application of buccally directed heavy orthodontic tipping forces.
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. 2011;(1):e49-52
INTRODUCTION Previous studies have used the right and left sides of the same jaw to compare different force levels, types of movement, and durations of forces. However, the amounts of root resorption have not been compared between the right and left sides after applying the same amount of force. The aims of the study were to quantitatively compare the volumes of the root resorption lacunae between the right and left first premolars to determine whether 1 side can serve as a control to the other and to compare the volumes of root resorption lacunae of the first premolars between the maxilla and the mandible. METHODS Forty-four first premolars, orthodontically indicated for extraction from 11 patients (left and right maxillary and mandibular first premolars from each) were moved buccally by using beta-titanium-molybdenum alloy 0.017 × 0.025-in cantilever springs with continuous heavy (225 g) force. After the experimental period, the teeth were extracted under a strict protocol to prevent root cementum damage and then analyzed by using a microcomputed tomography scan x-ray system (1172; SkyScan, Aartselaar, Belgium) and specially designed software (Convex Hull 2D, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia) for direct volumetric measurements. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in the mean cube root volumes of root resorption craters between the right and left sides (P = 0.18) or between the maxillary and mandibular jaws (P = 0.10). There was also no statistical significance for the interception (P = 0.41), which indicated that the jaw and the side had independent effects. CONCLUSIONS The amount of root resorption on the left and right sides of the jaw were similar in both the maxilla and the mandible. Therefore, for future root resorption studies, it is justifiable to use the split-mouth technique so that teeth from 1 side of the jaw can serve as the controls.