The effect of Vitamin C and Zn supplementation on the immune system and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.
Clinical nutrition open science. 2022;:144-154
SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2) is the most dangerous form of the coronavirus, which causes COVID-19. In patients with severe COVID-19, the immune system becomes markedly overactive. There is evidence that supplementation with select micronutrients may play a role in maintaining immune system function in this patient population. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, significant emphasis has been placed on the importance of supplementing critical micronutrients such as Vitamin C and Zinc (Zn) due to their immunomodulatory effects. Viral infections, like COVID-19, increase physiological demand for these micronutrients. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to provide comprehensive information regarding the potential effectiveness of Vitamin C and Zn supplementation during viral infection and specifically COVID-19. This review demonstrated a relation between Vitamin C and Zn deficiency and a reduction in the innate immune response, which can ultimately make patients with COVID-19 more vulnerable to viral infection. As such, adequate intake of Vitamin C and Zn, as an adjunctive therapeutic approach with any necessary pharmacological treatment(s), may be necessary to mitigate the adverse physiological effects of COVID-19. To truly clarify the role of Vitamin C and Zn supplementation in the management of COVID-19, we must wait for the results of ongoing randomized controlled trials. The toxicity of Vitamin C and Zn should also be considered to prevent over-supplementation. Over-supplementation of Vitamin C can lead to oxalate toxicity, while increased Zn intake can reduce immune system function. In summary, Vitamin C and Zn supplementation may be useful in mitigating COVID-19 symptomology.
Biological and pharmacological effects and nutritional impact of phytosterols: A comprehensive review.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2022;(1):299-322
Phytosterols (PSs), classified into plant sterols and stanols, are bioactive compounds found in foods of plant origin. PSs have been proposed to exert a wide number of pharmacological properties, including the potential to reduce total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and thereby decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Other health-promoting effects of PSs include anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Also, anticancer effects have been strongly suggested, as phytosterol-rich diets may reduce the risk of cancer by 20%. The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the available evidence regarding the beneficial physiological and pharmacological activities of PSs, with special emphasis on their therapeutic potential for human health and safety. Also, we will explore the factors that influence the physiologic response to PSs.
Does propolis have any effect on rheumatoid arthritis? A review study.
Food science & nutrition. 2022;(4):1003-1020
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which inflammation and oxidative stress play a key role in its pathophysiology. Complementary therapies along with medications may be effective in the control of RA. Propolis is a natural substance extracted from beehives, which have confirmed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present study aimed to review the possible effects of propolis on inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid profile in patients with RA. English articles in online databases such as PubMed‑Medline, AMED, Google Scholar, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched. Pieces of evidence show that supplementation with propolis may have therapeutic effects on RA patients. Due to increased inflammation and oxidative stress in the affected joints of RA patients, propolis could inhibit the inflammatory cascades by inhibiting the nuclear factor kappa B pathway and reducing reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and interleukin-17 by increasing some antioxidants. Therefore, inflammation and pain reduce, helping improve and control RA in patients. Further investigations are required with larger sample sizes and different doses of propolis to demonstrate the definite effects of propolis on various aspects of RA.
A comprehensive review of chemokine CXC17 (VCC1) in cancer, infection, and inflammation.
Cell biology international. 2022;(10):1557-1570
A crucial component of the immune system are chemokiness. Chemokine's dysregulation has been linked to a number of pathological diseases. Recently, CXCL17, a chemokine belonging to the CXC subfamily, was identified. With regard to a number of physiological conditions and disorders, CXCL17 either has homeostatic or pathogenic effects. Some research suggests that CXCL17 is an orphan ligand, despite the fact that G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 35 has been suggested as a possible receptor for CXCL17. Since CXCL17 is primarily secreted by mucosal epithelia, such as those in the digestive and respiratory tracts, under physiological circumstances, this chemokine is referred to as a mucosal chemokine. Macrophages and monocytes are the cells that express GPR35 and hence react to CXCL17. In homeostatic conditions, this chemokine has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and chemotactic properties. CXCL17 promotes angiogenesis, metastasis, and cell proliferation in pathologic circumstances like malignancies. However, other studies suggest that CXCL17 may have anti-tumor properties. Additionally, studies have shown that CXCL17 may have a role in conditions such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and systemic sclerosis. Additionally, deregulation of CXCL17 in some diseases may serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. Clarifying the underlying mechanism of CXCL17's activity in homeostatic and pathological situations may thus increase our understanding of its role and hold promise for the development of novel treatment strategies.
The role of Pycnogenol in the control of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic diseases: Molecular aspects.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2022;(6):2352-2374
The prevalence of chronic diseases has increased significantly with the rising trend of sedentary lifestyles, reduced physical activity, and dietary modifications in recent decades. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a key role in the pathophysiology of several chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hepatic conditions. Therefore, reducing inflammation and oxidative stress may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of various chronic disorders. Since chronic diseases are not completely curable, various methods have been proposed for their control. Complementary therapies and the use of natural antioxidant and antiinflammatory compounds are among these novel approaches. Pycnogenol (PYC) is a natural compound that could control inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, some previous studies have shown that PYC could effectively reduce inflammation through signaling the downstream of insulin receptors, inhibiting the phosphorylation of the serine residues of insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress indices through the stimulation of antioxidant pathways, increasing free radical scavenging activities, preventing lipid peroxidation, and protecting the erythrocytes in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals, although these effects have not been fully proved. The present study aimed to comprehensively review the evidence concerning the positive physiological and pharmacological properties of PYC, with an emphasis on the therapeutic potential of this natural component for enhancing human health.
The effects of l-Carnitine supplementation on inflammatory markers, clinical status, and 28 days mortality in critically ill patients: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2022;:61-67
AIM: Critical ill patients experience catabolic stress, which results in a systemic inflammatory response. The inflammatory response is associated with increased complications, including infection, multi-organ dysfunction, increased length of ICU stays, and mortality. l-Carnitine supplementation may play an important role in these patients by regulating inflammatory cell function. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of l-Carnitine supplementation on clinical status, inflammatory markers, and mortality rate in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on critically ill patients. Subjects were randomly assigned into placebo (n = 27) and l-Carnitine (n = 27) groups. l-Carnitine (3000 mg/day) was administered via nasogastric tube for the intervention group for 7 days, while the other group received a placebo for the same duration. Serum levels of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Nutritional status and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, and 28-day mortality were also recorded. RESULTS Fifty-one critically ill patients completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation significantly reduced the levels of CRP (mean change ± SE: -34.9 ± 6.5) and IL-6 (mean change ± SE: -10.64 ± 2.16) compared to the baseline, which is both statistically significant compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The SOFA and APACHE scores were significantly reduced in the l-Carnitine group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS l-Carnitine supplementation showed beneficial effects on inflammatory and clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS Trial registration: IRCT, Registered 30 May 2018, https://www.irct.ir/trial/30748.
Effects of microwave technology on the subcutaneous abdominal fat and anthropometric indices of overweight adults: A clinical trial.
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2022;(4):1482-1488
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Non-invasive body contouring devices have fewer side effects and are the new techniques for the treatment of obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of microwave technology on the abdominal obesity and anthropometric indices of overweight adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS This clinical trial was conducted on 53 overweight adults aged 18-65 years who referred to Behbood Clinic in Tehran, Iran. The participants were exposed to microwave technology (radiofrequency: 2.5 GHz) based on a standard treatment protocol at three intervals (0, 20, and 40 days). Abdominal obesity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass, and fat thickness were measured at the beginning and 20, 40, and 60 days after the study. In addition, three-day dietary records were collected at intervals. RESULTS In total, 77.6% of the subjects were female and 22.4% were male. The mean calorie intake of the participants was 2245.14 ± 1981.16 kcal/day. Microwave shock significantly reduced fat thickness in four abdominal areas (p < 0.001). Moreover, waist circumference (p < 0.001) and total fat thickness of the abdomen decreased (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). CONCLUSION According to the results, microwave technology and radiofrequency could effectively reduce anthropometric indices. In general, the reduction of these indicators and weight may be more significant in men compared to women.
Effects of Melatonin and Propolis Supplementation on Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Primary Pneumosepsis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
Complementary medicine research. 2022;(4):275-285
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to investigate the effects of propolis and melatonin supplementation on inflammation, clinical outcomes, and oxidative stress markers in patients with primary pneumosepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted on 55 patients with primary pneumosepsis who were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. In the three intervention groups, the patients received propolis alone (1,000 mg/day), propolis (1,000 mg/day) plus melatonin (20 mg/day), and melatonin alone (20 mg/day). The control group received placebo. The inflammatory and oxidative stress markers as well as clinical outcomes were evaluated before and after the intervention, and the 28-day survival rate was also recorded. RESULTS After the intervention, the combination of propolis and melatonin significantly reduced interleukin-6 (-55.282 pg/mL) and C-reactive protein (-21.656 mg/L) levels, while increasing gavage intake (326.680 mL/day) and improving some clinical outcomes (APACHE II, SOFA, and NUTRIC scores) compared to the control group. However, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of oxidative stress and hematological indices. In addition, there was no significant difference in the 28-day survival rate between the groups (p = 0.07). CONCLUSION Supplementation with propolis and melatonin may improve clinical outcomes by reducing inflammation. Further investigations are required to confirm these findings.
The effect of propolis supplementation on inflammatory factors and oxidative status in women with rheumatoid arthritis: Design and research protocol of a double-blind, randomized controlled.
Contemporary clinical trials communications. 2021;:100807
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is immune-inflammatory disease which is associated with great pain and disability. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress play an important role in RA pathogenesis and related outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of propolis on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress status in RA patients. METHODS/DESIGN Randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial aiming to recruit 48 patients with RA. Block randomization will be used. An intervention group will receive 500 mg/twice a day propolis capsules for 3 months and control group will receive the placebo for the same dose and duration. The oxidative stress status (malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-17 (IL-17), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)), lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and triglyceride (TG)) and also physical activity, anthropometric indices, clinical and nutritional status will be measured at beginning and end of this study. The primary analysis will be based on theintention-to-treat principle. DISCUSSION If this randomized clinical trial shows the reduction in inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress and improves clinical outcome, it would provide evidence for other clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of propolis supplementation in RA patients.
Correction to: The effect of vitamin D and magnesium supplementation on the mental health status of attention-deficit hyperactive children: a randomized controlled trial.
BMC pediatrics. 2021;(1):230