Egg Consumption in U.S. Children is Associated with Greater Daily Nutrient Intakes, including Protein, Lutein + Zeaxanthin, Choline, α-Linolenic Acid, and Docosahexanoic Acid.
Plain language summary
Dietary guidelines recommend children and adolescents consume nutrient-dense foods to promote growth and development, and recently eggs have been included in these recommendations. At present, there are no studies in children and adolescents that have examined nutrient-related associations of egg consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. Using cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), data from 3,299 egg consumers and 17,030 non-egg consumers aged 2-18 was examined. Compared with non-egg consumption, egg consumption was associated with elevated intake of protein, healthy fats, antioxidants and various vitamins and minerals, and lower intake of sugar. There were several shortfall nutrients associated with egg consumption including fibre, iron, and folate. No associations were found when examining diet quality and growth-relate measures. This analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents. Based on these results, the authors conclude this study illustrates an opportunity to communicate the benefits linked with egg consumption to individuals that influence children and adolescents.
undefined: Dietary pattern recommendations include consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods in children and adolescents to promote optimal growth and development. The current study investigated associations with egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. The analysis used data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012 in children and adolescents aged 2-18 years ( = 3,299, egg consumers; = 17,030, egg non-consumers). Daily energy and nutrient intakes were adjusted for the complex sample design of NHANES using appropriate weights. Consuming eggs was associated with increased daily energy intake relative to non-egg consumption. Children and adolescents consuming eggs had elevated daily intake of protein, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and total fat, α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, lutein + zeaxanthin, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and selenium. Egg consumers had greater consumption, sodium, saturated fat, with reduced total and added sugar versus egg non-consumers. The analysis also showed that egg consumption was linked with lower intake of dietary folate, iron, and niacin. No associations were determined when examining diet quality and growth-related measures. A sub-analysis considering socioeconomic status showed that egg consumption was positively related with daily lutein + zeaxanthin and DHA intake. The current analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents.
Better cognitive performance following a low-glycaemic-index compared with a high-glycaemic-index carbohydrate meal in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Plain language summary
The aim of this study was to determine whether ingestion of low- rather than high-glycaemic index (GI) carbohydrate meals differentially affected cognitive performance immediately after eating (i.e. the 'postprandial period'). 21 individuals (65±7.3 years) with type 2 diabetes consumed 50g of either a low GI (pasta) or high GI (white bread) meal, or water on three separate mornings following an overnight fast. Cognitive function tests were administered and blood glucose levels were taken. Higher postprandial blood glucose (gAUC) was associated with poorer verbal memory recall. High GI consumption resulted in both higher gAUC and worse delayed verbal memory recall performance, compared to low GI consumption. Consuming 50g of a low-GI carbohydrate meal, relative to a high-GI carbohydrate meal, generally resulted in better cognitive performance in the postprandial period in adults with type 2-diabetes. The authors concluded that adults with type 2 diabetes are susceptible to poorer cognitive performance following ingestion of meals that result in large postprandial increases in blood glucose. Those with the highest postprandial increase in blood glucose showed the poorest memory performance. The authors recommended adopting diet strategies to minimise peaks in blood sugar.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Transient hyperglycaemia, consistent with that observed with normal meal ingestion, may be detrimental to cognitive performance in adults with type 2 diabetes. This study determined whether minimising the postprandial increase in blood glucose through the ingestion of low- rather than high-glycaemic-index (GI) carbohydrate meals differentially affected cognitive performance in the postprandial period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Using a within-individual design, 21 free-living subjects (65+/-7.29 years) with type 2 diabetes consumed 50 g carbohydrate as a meal with either a low GI (pasta) or a high GI (white bread), or water on three separate mornings following an overnight fast. Neuropsychological tests were administered and plasma glucose concentrations measured. RESULTS Higher postprandial blood glucose AUC (gAUC) was associated with poorer verbal memory (paragraph recall, p=0.01; word list recall, p=0.012). Both the GI of the carbohydrate meal and individual differences in response to meal ingestion contributed to the variation in gAUC and consequent memory recall. Bread consumption, relative to pasta, resulted in both a higher gAUC (p<0.05) and worse delayed verbal memory performance (paragraph recall, p=0.042; wordlist recall, p=0.035). Additionally, performance following bread consumption was poorer than that following pasta on measures of working memory, executive function and auditory selective attention, while sustained attention showed no sensitivity to type of carbohydrate food consumed. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION Consuming 50 g of a low-GI carbohydrate meal, relative to a high-GI carbohydrate meal, generally results in better cognitive performance in the postprandial period in adults with type 2 diabetes, particularly in those individuals who experience the greatest food-induced elevations in blood glucose levels.