Effects of circuit training or a nutritional intervention on body mass index and other cardiometabolic outcomes in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity.
PloS one. 2021;(1):e0245875
OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the first 6 months of a 24 month multidisciplinary intervention program including circuit training and a balanced diet in children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS A quasi-experimental intervention trial included 242 participants (age [mean±standard deviation]: 11.3±2.06 years, 97 girls) of at least 85th percentile of age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI). Participants were grouped into three to receive usual care (usual care group), exercise intervention with circuit training (exercise group), or intensive nutritional and feedback intervention with a balanced diet (nutritional group). Primary outcome was BMI z-score, while secondary outcomes included body composition, cardiometabolic risk markers, nutrition, and physical fitness. RESULTS Among the participants, 80.6% had a BMI ≥ the 97th percentile for age and sex. The BMI z-score of the overall completers decreased by about 0.080 after 6 months of intervention (p < 0.001). After the intervention, both exercise and nutritional groups had significantly lower BMI z-scores than the baseline data by about 0.14 and 0.075, respectively (p < 0.05). Significant group by time interaction effects were observed between exercise versus usual care group in BMI z-score (β, -0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.20 to -0.023) and adiponectin (β, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.58); and between nutritional versus usual care group in waist circumference (β, -3.47; 95% CI, -6.06 to -0.89). No statistically significant differences were observed in any of the other secondary outcomes assessed. CONCLUSION Multidisciplinary intervention including circuit training and a balanced diet for children and adolescents with obesity reduced the BMI z-score and improved cardiometabolic risk markers such as adiponectin and waist circumference.
Confirming Genetic Abnormalities of Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Using Next-Generation Sequencing: A Case Report and Literature Review.
Electrolyte & blood pressure : E & BP. 2021;(1):10-14
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP) is a disorder characterized by episodic, short-lived, and hypo-reflexive skeletal muscle weakness. HypoPP is a rare disease caused by genetic mutations related to expression of sodium or calcium ion channels. Most mutations are associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, but some are found in patients with no relevant family history. A 28-year-old man who visited the emergency room for paralytic attack was assessed in this study. He exhibited motor weakness in four limbs. There was no previous medical history or family history. The initial electrocardiogram showed a flat T wave and QT prolongation. His blood test was delayed, and sudden hypotension and bradycardia were observed. The blood test showed severe hypokalemia. After correcting hypokalemia, his muscle paralysis recovered without any neurological deficits. The patient's thyroid function and long exercise test results were normal. However, because of the history of high carbohydrate diet and exercise, hypoPP was suspected. Hence, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed, and a mutation of Arg669His was noted in the SCN4A gene. Although hypoPP is a rare disease, it can be suspected in patients with hypokalemic paralysis, and iden tification of this condition is important for preventing further attacks and improving patient outcomes. Diagnosing hypoPP through targeted NGS is a cost-effective and useful method.
The Effect of a Multidisciplinary Lifestyle Intervention on Obesity Status, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Children and Adolescents with Obesity.
Plain language summary
Children and adolescents with obesity are at a high risk of being obese in adulthood. The aim of this study was to develop a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention program targeted at children and adolescents with moderate to severe obesity. The study is based on the Intervention for Childhood and Adolescents Obesity via Activity and Nutrition (ICAAN) – quasi-experimental intervention trial - which recruited 103 participants aged between 6 and sixteen years (63 were boys and 40 girls). The study was based on 2 active treatment groups (usual care group vs exercise group) receiving a 16-week intervention program. Results indicate that children and adolescents with obesity can achieve positive effects on body composition, physical fitness, and cardiometabolic markers, particularly with the exercise intervention. Authors conclude that the moderate-intensity multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention program they developed, can be sustained in the real-world setting and it is applicable to both moderate and severe obesity.
undefined: This study aimed to develop a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention program targeted at children and adolescents with moderate to severe obesity, and assess the additional effects of exercise intervention when compared to usual care. Overall, the 103 enrolled participants were ≥85th percentile of age and sex-specific body mass index (BMI). Participants were divided into groups that received 16 weeks of either usual care or exercise intervention. The BMI -score of the overall completers decreased by about 0.05 after the 16-week intervention ( = 0.02). After the intervention, only the exercise group had a significantly lower BMI -score than the baseline score by about 0.1 ( = 0.03), but no significant group by time interaction effects were observed. At the 16-week follow-up, significant group by time interaction effects were observed in percentage body fat (%BF) (β = -1.52, 95%CI = -2.58⁻-0.45), lean body mass (LM) (β = 1.20, 95%CI = 0.12⁻2.29), diastolic blood pressure (β = -5.24, 95%CI = -9.66⁻-0.83), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β = -1.67, 95%CI = -2.77⁻-1.01), and wall sit test score (β = 50.74, 95%CI = 32.30⁻69.18). We developed a moderate-intensity intervention program that can be sustained in the real-world setting and is practically applicable to both moderate and severe obesity. After interventions, the exercise group had lower %BF and cardiometabolic risk markers, and higher LM and leg muscle strength compared to the usual care group.
Observational Study of Clinical and Functional Progression Based on Initial Brain MRI Characteristics in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.
Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. 2018;(4):1721-1730
BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool to predict the diagnosis and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially for primary physicians. However, the correlation between baseline MRI findings and AD progression has not been fully established. OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlation between hippocampal atrophy (HA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on initial brain MRI images and the degree of cognitive decline and functional changes over 1 year. METHODS In this prospective, 12-month observational study, dementia outpatients were recruited from 29 centers across South Korea. Baseline assessments of HA and WMH on baseline brain MRI were derived as well as cognitive function, dementia severity, activities of daily living, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) use. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS Among 899 enrolled dementia patients, 748 were diagnosed with AD of whom 654 (87%) were taking AChEIs. Baseline WMH showed significant correlations with age, current alcohol consumption, and Clinical Dementia Rating score; baseline HA was correlated with age, family history, physical exercise, and the results of cognitive assessments. Among the AChEI group, changes in the Korean version of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (K-IADL) were correlated with the severity of HA on baseline brain MRI, but not with the baseline severity of WMH. In the no AChEI group, changes in K-IADL were correlated with the severity of WMH and HA at baseline. CONCLUSION Baseline MRI findings could be a useful tool for predicting future clinical outcomes by primary physicians, especially in relation to patients' functional status.
A randomized controlled trial of physical activity, dietary habit, and distress management with the Leadership and Coaching for Health (LEACH) program for disease-free cancer survivors.
BMC cancer. 2017;(1):298
BACKGROUND We aimed to evaluate the potential benefits of the Leadership and Coaching for Health (LEACH) program on physical activity (PA), dietary habits, and distress management in cancer survivors. METHODS We randomly assigned 248 cancer survivors with an allocation ratio of two-to-one to the LEACH program (LP) group, coached by long-term survivors, or the usual care (UC) group. At baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, we used PA scores, the intake of vegetables and fruits (VF), and the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as primary outcomes and, for secondary outcomes, the Ten Rules for Highly Effective Health Behavior adhered to and quality of life (QOL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). RESULTS For primary outcomes, the two groups did not significantly differ in PA scores or VF intake but differed marginally in PTGI. For secondary outcomes, the LP group showed a significantly greater improvement in the HADS anxiety score, the social functioning score, and the appetite loss and financial difficulties scores of the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales from baseline to 3 months. From baseline to 12 months, the LP group showed a significantly greater decrease in the EORTC QLQ-C30 fatigue score and a significantly greater increase in the number of the Ten Rules for Highly Effective Health Behavior. CONCLUSION Our findings indicate that the LEACH program, coached by long-term survivors, can provide effective management of the QOL of cancer survivors but not of their PA or dietary habits. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinical trial information can be found for the following: NCT01527409 (the date when the trial was registered: February 2012).
Irisin in response to exercise in humans with and without metabolic syndrome.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2015;(3):E453-7
CONTEXT Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced myokine. However, the circulating levels of irisin in response to different types of exercise in subjects with metabolic syndrome are unknown. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to study the levels of irisin in healthy males and subjects with metabolic syndrome at baseline and in response to exercise. DESIGN Each individual completed high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE) sessions in a random, crossover design. Percentage change in circulating irisin levels was examined. Two different irisin assays were used to compare the results of the RE study. RESULTS Circulating irisin increased immediately after HIIE, CME, and RE and declined 1 hour later. The increase was greater in response to resistance compared with either high-intensity intermittent exercise or CME. Change in irisin in response to exercise did not differ between individuals with and without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Exercise is able to increase circulating irisin levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome as well as healthy individuals. Whether this increase may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on patients with the metabolic syndrome remains to be studied further.
Efficacy of a training program for long-term disease- free cancer survivors as health partners: a randomized controlled trial in Korea.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP. 2013;(12):7229-35
BACKGROUND To determine whether the Health Partner Program is effective in training long-term cancer survivors to be health coaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS We randomly assigned cancer survivors who were selected through a rigorous screening process to either the Health Partner Program or the waiting-list control group. The program consisted of 8 weeks of training in health management, leadership, and coaching. At baseline, 8, and 16 weeks, we measured primary outcomes using the Seven Habit Profile (SHP), the Korean Leadership Coaching Competency Inventory (KCCI), Ed Diner's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory (PTGI) and secondary outcomes using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) short form 36-item questionnaire (SF- 36). RESULTS We recruited 70 subjects and randomly assigned 34 to the intervention group. The Sharpen the Saw habit of the SHP increased significantly more in intervention group than in the control group (p = 0.049), as did most PTGI factors. The intervention group also showed a significantly greater enhancement of vitality (p = 0.015) and mental health (p = 0.049) SF-36 scores but no improvement in KCCI, SWLS, HADS, or IES-R scores. The intervention group also showed a greater clinically meaningful improvement in the "Think Win-Win" of SHP (p = 0.043) and in the personal strength score (p = 0.025) and total score (p = 0.015) of the PTGI. CONCLUSIONS Long-term cancer survivors can benefit from the Health Partner Program to become health coaches.
Application of Protein-Rich Oriental Diet in a community-based obesity control program.
Yonsei medical journal. 2011;(2):249-56
PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy, safety and availability of a 12-week, community-based obesity control program called the Protein-Rich Oriental Diet (PRO Diet) and to compare it to a conventional diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 515 overweight people (55 men and 460 women; mean age 41.9 ± 9.8 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.1 ± 3.6 kg/m²) participated in the program at two public health centers. PRO Diet was offered as the main diet recommendation for 12 weeks. As a control group, we selected a population who had followed a conventional diet program conducted at a public health center in 2006. RESULTS 177 subjects (34.3%) completed the 12-week PRO Diet program. In a per protocol (PP) analysis, the mean changes in anthropometry were (conventional program vs. PRO Diet; weight, -2.3 kg vs. -4.7 kg, p < 0.001; BMI, -1.1 kg/m² vs. -1.9 kg/m², p < 0.001; waist circumference, -3.3 cm vs. -6.8 cm, p < 0.001; fat mass, -2.0 kg vs. -4.2 kg, p < 0.001; fat % mass, -1.8% vs. -3.9%, p < 0.001). The triglyceride reduction was significantly greater (-30.16 mg/dL, p < 0.001) in the PRO Diet group after intervention compared to the conventional group. CONCLUSION The PRO Diet was an effective tool for weight loss in a community-based weight control program and well-tolerated.
Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial.
Nutrition journal. 2011;:94
BACKGROUND Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML) or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. METHODS Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 < 29) were randomly assigned to three groups and administered tablets containing EGML (2 g/day), GCE (2 g/day) or placebo (starch, 2 g/day) for 10 weeks. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition, plasma cholesterol and diet were assessed. Blood analysis was also conducted to examine plasma lipoproteins, triglycerides, adipocytokines and antioxidants. RESULTS EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). EGML and GCE had no effect on triglycerides, non-HDL-C, adipocytokines or antioxidants when compared to placebo supplementation. However, HDL-C was higher in the EGML group (p < 0.001) after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.
Effects of short-term chromium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and body composition in overweight children: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2011;(11):1030-4
Excessive body weight is inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in children and adults. Chromium supplementation produces modest improvement in insulin sensitivity in adults. The aim of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of chromium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and body composition in overweight children simultaneously modifying lifestyle. Twenty-five overweight children aged 9-12 years were randomized to receive either 400 μg of chromium chloride or placebo in double-blind fashion, during a 6-week lifestyle modification regimen that included nutritional education and 3×90 min of aerobic physical activity weekly. Insulin sensitivity was demonstrated using homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Changes in body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), BMI Z-score, waist circumference, body composition and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Although no significant benefit of chromium supplementation over placebo was evident for BMI, BMI Z-score and fasting insulin level, children who received chromium chloride demonstrated more positive changes versus the placebo group in HOMA (-1.84±1.07 vs. 0.05±0.42, P=.05), QUICKI (0.02±0.01 vs. -0.002±0.01, P=.05), lean body mass (2.43±0.68 kg vs. 1.36±1.61 kg, P=.02) and percentage body fat (-3.32±1.29% vs. 0.65±1.05%, P=.04). The desirable effects of chromium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and body composition were more apparent in pre-pubertal children. These results suggest that short-term chromium supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity and body composition in overweight children.