Effects of circuit training or a nutritional intervention on body mass index and other cardiometabolic outcomes in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity.
PloS one. 2021;(1):e0245875
OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the first 6 months of a 24 month multidisciplinary intervention program including circuit training and a balanced diet in children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS A quasi-experimental intervention trial included 242 participants (age [mean±standard deviation]: 11.3±2.06 years, 97 girls) of at least 85th percentile of age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI). Participants were grouped into three to receive usual care (usual care group), exercise intervention with circuit training (exercise group), or intensive nutritional and feedback intervention with a balanced diet (nutritional group). Primary outcome was BMI z-score, while secondary outcomes included body composition, cardiometabolic risk markers, nutrition, and physical fitness. RESULTS Among the participants, 80.6% had a BMI ≥ the 97th percentile for age and sex. The BMI z-score of the overall completers decreased by about 0.080 after 6 months of intervention (p < 0.001). After the intervention, both exercise and nutritional groups had significantly lower BMI z-scores than the baseline data by about 0.14 and 0.075, respectively (p < 0.05). Significant group by time interaction effects were observed between exercise versus usual care group in BMI z-score (β, -0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.20 to -0.023) and adiponectin (β, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.58); and between nutritional versus usual care group in waist circumference (β, -3.47; 95% CI, -6.06 to -0.89). No statistically significant differences were observed in any of the other secondary outcomes assessed. CONCLUSION Multidisciplinary intervention including circuit training and a balanced diet for children and adolescents with obesity reduced the BMI z-score and improved cardiometabolic risk markers such as adiponectin and waist circumference.
The Effect of a Multidisciplinary Lifestyle Intervention on Obesity Status, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Children and Adolescents with Obesity.
Plain language summary
Children and adolescents with obesity are at a high risk of being obese in adulthood. The aim of this study was to develop a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention program targeted at children and adolescents with moderate to severe obesity. The study is based on the Intervention for Childhood and Adolescents Obesity via Activity and Nutrition (ICAAN) – quasi-experimental intervention trial - which recruited 103 participants aged between 6 and sixteen years (63 were boys and 40 girls). The study was based on 2 active treatment groups (usual care group vs exercise group) receiving a 16-week intervention program. Results indicate that children and adolescents with obesity can achieve positive effects on body composition, physical fitness, and cardiometabolic markers, particularly with the exercise intervention. Authors conclude that the moderate-intensity multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention program they developed, can be sustained in the real-world setting and it is applicable to both moderate and severe obesity.
undefined: This study aimed to develop a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention program targeted at children and adolescents with moderate to severe obesity, and assess the additional effects of exercise intervention when compared to usual care. Overall, the 103 enrolled participants were ≥85th percentile of age and sex-specific body mass index (BMI). Participants were divided into groups that received 16 weeks of either usual care or exercise intervention. The BMI -score of the overall completers decreased by about 0.05 after the 16-week intervention ( = 0.02). After the intervention, only the exercise group had a significantly lower BMI -score than the baseline score by about 0.1 ( = 0.03), but no significant group by time interaction effects were observed. At the 16-week follow-up, significant group by time interaction effects were observed in percentage body fat (%BF) (β = -1.52, 95%CI = -2.58⁻-0.45), lean body mass (LM) (β = 1.20, 95%CI = 0.12⁻2.29), diastolic blood pressure (β = -5.24, 95%CI = -9.66⁻-0.83), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β = -1.67, 95%CI = -2.77⁻-1.01), and wall sit test score (β = 50.74, 95%CI = 32.30⁻69.18). We developed a moderate-intensity intervention program that can be sustained in the real-world setting and is practically applicable to both moderate and severe obesity. After interventions, the exercise group had lower %BF and cardiometabolic risk markers, and higher LM and leg muscle strength compared to the usual care group.
Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2002;(1):65-71
The role of postoperative adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. This study was undertaken to evaluate the survival outcomes, relapse patterns, prognostic factors and complications of postoperative adjuvant MVP chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The study involved some 96 patients who had undergone curative resection of stage II and III NSCLC between 1991 and 1996. Among these, 94 patients who completed their adjuvant treatment were analyzed. Surgery consisted of pneumonectomy (33%), single lobectomy (54%) or bilobectomy (13%). Within 4 weeks of curative resection, two cycles of MVP chemotherapy (mitomycinC 8 mg/m(2), vinblastine 8 mg/m(2), cisplatin 60 mg/m(2)) were started at 4 weeks intervals. Conventionally fractionated radiotherapy was given 3 weeks after chemotherapy to a total dose of 50 Gy in completely resected patients and 55-60 Gy in patients with positive resection margins. The TNM classification of the AJCC, as revised in 1997, was used for pathologic staging. The number of patients at AJCC stages IIa, IIb, IIIa, and IIIb were four, 40, 45, and five, respectively. A pathologically positive bronchial resection margin was found in nine patients. At the time of analysis, death was recorded in 29 patients (31%), though five had died without evidence of lung cancer. Overall 2, 3, and 5-year-survival rates for all patients were 74.2, 70.2, and 65%, respectively, and locoregional disease-free survival (LRDFS) rates were 88.6, 83.7, 74.3%, at 2, 3, and 5-years, distant metastasis disease-free survival (DMDFS) rates were 67.7, 65.0, and 63.6%, respectively. In the multivariate model, a primary tumor size of more than 5 cm and the level of pathologically positive nodes were found to be associated with poor overall survival, LRDFS and DMDFS. Although positive bronchial resection margin affected overall survival, LRDFS and DMDFS were unaffected. With respect to the first site of relapse, distant metastasis occurred more frequently (N=33, 35%) than locoregional recurrence (N=15, 16%). Grade 3 esophagitis in two patients and weight loss of more than 10% in five patients were observed during adjuvant treatment. Grade 4 pulmonary toxicity was observed in one patient after radiotherapy and this patient ultimately died 5 months after treatment. The postoperative adjuvant MVP chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimen showed relatively low locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis rates and good survival with acceptable toxicity. A prospective randomized trial, which compares this regimen to surgery alone or postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy is needed.