Systematic Review on the Potential Effect of Berry Intake in the Cognitive Functions of Healthy People.
The increase in life expectancy poses health challenges, such as increasing the impairment of cognitive functions. Berries show a neuroprotective effect thanks to flavonoids, able to reduce neuroinflammatory and to increase neuronal connections. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the impact of berries supplementation on cognitive function in healthy adults and the elderly. Twelve studies were included for a total of 399 participants, aged 18-81 years (mean age: 41.8 ± 4.7 years). Six studies involved young adults (23.9 ± 3.7 years), and four studies involved the elderly (60.6 ± 6.4 years). Most studies investigated effects of a single berry product, but one used a mixture of 4 berries. Non-significant differences were detected across cognition domains and methodologies, but significant and positive effects were found for all cognitive domains (attention and concentration, executive functioning, memory, motor skills and construction, and processing speed), and in most cases they were present in more than one study and detected using different methodologies. Although some limitations should be taken into account to explain these results, the positive findings across studies and methodologies elicit further studies on this topic, to endorse the consumption of berries in healthy populations to prevent cognitive decline.
Ultra-processed foods and obesity and adiposity parameters among children and adolescents: a systematic review.
European journal of nutrition. 2022
Plain language summary
Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are mostly or entirely lacking whole foods and fibre and are often high in fat sugar and salt. The consumption of UPFs may be linked to obesity in adolescents and this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesis the current research investigating this link. The results showed that over the long-term, the consumption of UPFs was associated with obesity, abdominal obesity, and increased body mass index in children. It was concluded that the long-term consumption of UPFs negatively impacts body composition in children and adolescents. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand the importance of dietary advice recommending whole foods with limited or no processed foods for the healthy body development of children.
PURPOSE According to the NOVA classification, ultra-processed foods are products made through physical, biological and chemical processes and typically with multiple ingredients and additives, in which whole foods are mostly or entirely absent. From a nutritional point of view, they are typically energy-dense foods high in fat, sugar, and salt and low in fiber. The association between the consumption of ultra-processed food and obesity and adiposity measurements has been established in adults. However, the situation remains unclear in children and adolescents. METHODS We carried out a systematic review, in which we summarize observational studies investigating the association between the consumption of ultra-processed food, as defined by NOVA classification, and obesity and adiposity parameters among children and adolescents. A literature search was performed using PUBMED and Web of Science databases for relevant articles published prior to May 2021. RESULTS Ten studies, five longitudinal and five cross-sectional, mainly conducted in Brazil, were included in this review. Four longitudinal studies in children with a follow-up longer than 4 years found a positive association between the consumption of ultra-processed food and obesity and adiposity parameters, whereas cross-sectional studies failed to find an association. CONCLUSION These data suggest that a consistent intake of ultra-processed foods over time is needed to impact nutritional status and body composition of children and adolescents. Further well-designed prospective studies worldwide are needed to confirm these findings considering country-related differences in dietary habits and food production technologies.
Real-practice thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation.
Acta pharmaceutica (Zagreb, Croatia). 2017;(2):227-236
This retrospective observational study was based on databases of the Local Health Authority of Treviso, Italy. It evaluated the prevalence and the effectiveness of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT) for the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in everyday clinical practice. Out of 6,138 NVAF patients, only 3,024 received vitamin K antagonist (VKA). Potential barriers decreasing the probability of being treated with VKA were female sex, older age, antiplatelet treatment and history of bleeding. In addition, VKA-treatment was not in line with current ESC and AIAC guidelines, since the patients at high or low risk of stroke were under- or over-treated, resp. Among VKAtreated patients, 73 % of subjects were not at target with anticoagulation. OAT resulted to be effective in reducing stroke risk. However, stroke events were significantly influenced also by previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, HR = 2.99, p < 0.001) and by previous bleeding events (HR = 1.60, p < 0.001).