Effect of a Combination of Magnesium, B Vitamins, Rhodiola, and Green Tea (L-Theanine) on Chronically Stressed Healthy Individuals-A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.
The effect of a combination of magnesium, vitamins B6, B9, B12, rhodiola and green tea/L-theanine (Mg-Teadiola) on stress was evaluated in chronically stressed, otherwise healthy individuals. Effects on stress-related quality-of-life parameters (sleep and perception of pain) were also explored. Adults with stress for ≥1 month, scoring ≥14 points on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-42 questionnaire, were randomized (1:1) to receive oral Mg-Teadiola (n = 49) or a placebo (n = 51), for 28 days, with a follow-up assessment on Day 56 (NCT04391452). The primary endpoint was the change in the DASS-42 stress score from baseline to Day 28 with Mg-Teadiola versus placebo. The DASS-42 stress scores significantly decreased from baseline to Day 28 with Mg-Teadiola versus placebo (effect size, 0.29; 95% CI [0.01, 0.57]; p = 0.04). Similar reductions were observed on Day 14 (p = 0.006) and Day 56 (p = 0.02). A significant reduction in sensitivity to cold pain (p = 0.01) and a trend for lower sensitivity to warm pain was observed (p = 0.06) on Day 28. Improvements in daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-7 component score) were reported on Day 28, and were significant on Day 56 (p < 0.001). Mg-Teadiola is effective in managing stress in otherwise healthy individuals. Its beneficial effects on sleep and pain perception need further investigation.
Effect of magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation on mental health and quality of life in stressed healthy adults: Post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial.
Stress and health : journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress. 2021;37(5):1000-1009
Plain language summary
Stress and low magnesemia are shown to be linked by previous research evidence. Additionally, Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) has been shown to have stress-relieving and neuromodulating effects. This 1:1 randomised, investigator-blinded, parallel-group trial compared the effectiveness of magnesium alone and a combination of magnesium and vitamin B6 in participants with moderate to severe stress on mental and physical health. Participants consumed 300 mg magnesium lactate dihydrate daily with 30 mg Vitamin B6 or 300 mg magnesium lactate dihydrate daily for 8 weeks. Treatment with magnesium with or without vitamin B6 improved depression and anxiety, specifically a significant improvement observed after week four of the intervention. Quality of life improvements were sustained over 8 weeks among participants with magnesemia. Combined supplementation of magnesium and vitamin B6 increased the perceived capacity for physical activity in participants. Further robust research is needed to evaluate the combined effects of vitamin B6 and magnesium on stress-related mental health in people with magnesemia. However, healthcare professionals can use the results of this study to better understand magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation's positive effects on stress-related mental health.
Magnesium status and vitamin B6 intake have been linked to mental health and/or quality of life (QoL). In an 8-week Phase IV randomised controlled study in individuals with low magnesemia and severe/extremely severe stress but who were otherwise healthy, greater stress reduction was achieved with magnesium combined with vitamin B6 than with magnesium alone. We present a previously unreported secondary analysis of the effect of magnesium, with and without vitamin B6, on depression, anxiety, and QoL. Adults with Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42) stress subscale score >18 were randomised 1:1 to magnesium + vitamin B6 combination (Magne B6® ; daily dose 300 and 30 mg, respectively) or magnesium alone (Magnespasmyl® ; daily dose 300 mg). Outcomes included changes from baseline in DASS-42 depression and anxiety scores, and QoL (Short Form-36 Health Survey). DASS-42 anxiety and depression scores significantly improved from baseline to week 8 with both treatments, particularly during the first 4 weeks. Improvement in QoL continued over 8 weeks. Participants' perceived capacity for physical activity in daily life showed greater improvement with magnesium + vitamin B6 than magnesium alone (Week 4). In conclusion, magnesium supplementation, with or without vitamin B6, could provide a meaningful clinical benefit in daily life for individuals with stress and low magnesemia.
Magnesium Status and Stress: The Vicious Circle Concept Revisited.
Magnesium deficiency and stress are both common conditions among the general population, which, over time, can increase the risk of health consequences. Numerous studies, both in pre-clinical and clinical settings, have investigated the interaction of magnesium with key mediators of the physiological stress response, and demonstrated that magnesium plays an inhibitory key role in the regulation and neurotransmission of the normal stress response. Furthermore, low magnesium status has been reported in several studies assessing nutritional aspects in subjects suffering from psychological stress or associated symptoms. This overlap in the results suggests that stress could increase magnesium loss, causing a deficiency; and in turn, magnesium deficiency could enhance the body's susceptibility to stress, resulting in a magnesium and stress vicious circle. This review revisits the magnesium and stress vicious circle concept, first introduced in the early 1990s, in light of recent available data.
Relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic comparison of calcium glucoheptonate with calcium carbonate.
Pharmacology research & perspectives. 2020;(2):e00589
Adequate calcium intake is important for the prevention of bone loss and osteoporosis. For some populations such as those of Southeast Asia where calcium intake is very low, supplements represent a suitable dietary source of calcium. The objective of this study was to compare the relative oral bioavailability of calcium from calcium glucoheptonate, a highly soluble calcium salt containing 8.2% of elemental calcium, to that of calcium carbonate. A single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study, with a 7-day washout period, was conducted in 24 Indonesian healthy adult volunteers. After a 12-hour (overnight) fast, subjects received either two oral ampoules of 250 mg/10 mL of calcium glucoheptonate each or one effervescent tablet of calcium carbonate containing 500 mg of elemental calcium. The relative oral bioavailability of calcium from calcium glucoheptonate as compared to calcium carbonate was 92% within 6 hours and 89% within 12 hours after study drug administration. The 90% confidence intervals for the mean test/reference ratios of the maximum plasma concentration and the area under the concentration-time curve at 12 hours post-administration were 77.09%-120.31% and 60.58%-122.30%, respectively. Five subjects experienced a total of eight adverse events which were all mild and transient; no serious adverse events or deaths were reported. These results indicate that calcium glucoheptonate is associated with a high relative bioavailability of calcium compared to calcium carbonate, and is well-tolerated. Calcium glucoheptonate might thus be a potential choice for calcium supplementation in Southeast Asian populations.
Impact of magnesium supplementation, in combination with vitamin B6, on stress and magnesium status: secondary data from a randomized controlled trial.
Magnesium research. 2020;(3):45-57
Primary findings from a recent study reported that magnesium supplementation significantly reduced stress in severely stressed subjects with low magnesemia, and additional vitamin B6 enhanced this effect. The mechanism by which combining magnesium and vitamin B6 leads to reduced stress in these subjects remains to be elucidated. This secondary analysis investigated the impact of magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation and perceived stress on erythrocyte magnesium levels, as a marker of body magnesium status. This was a secondary analysis from an 8-week randomized controlled trial comparing oral magnesium (300 mg) and magnesium-vitamin B6 (300 mg + 30 mg) supplementation. Stress level and erythrocyte magnesium level at baseline, and change in erythrocyte magnesium and serum vitamin B6 levels at weeks 4 and 8, were analyzed. Overall, 264 subjects were randomized to treatment and had evaluable Depression Anxiety Stress Scale scores (132 in each treatment arm). At baseline, stress scores, and mean serum magnesium, erythrocyte magnesium, and serum vitamin B6 concentrations were similar between arms. Although not significant between groups, a significant increase over time in erythrocyte magnesium levels was observed in the subgroup of subjects with low baseline erythrocyte magnesium levels (<1.6 mmol/L) following treatment with magnesium and magnesium-vitamin B6 (week 4:0.21 mmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.10 to 0.31], p = 0.0003; and 0.13 mmol/L [95% CI, 0.02 to 0.23], p = 0.0233, respectively). Change from baseline in circulating vitamin B6 levels at weeks 4 and 8 in the magnesium-vitamin B6 supplemented group (314.96 nmol/L [95%CI, 294.61 to 335.31]) was significantly different (p < 0.0001) compared with the magnesium supplemented group (-0.39 nmol/L [95% CI, -20.73 to 19.94]). Magnesium alone and magnesium-vitamin B6 provided statistically significant increases in erythrocyte magnesium in subjects with low magnesium status (<1.6mmol/L). Vitamin B6 supplementation did not further increase magnesium levels.
Superiority of magnesium and vitamin B6 over magnesium alone on severe stress in healthy adults with low magnesemia: A randomized, single-blind clinical trial.
PloS one. 2018;13(12):e0208454
Plain language summary
Magnesium (Mg) plays a role in over 600 biochemical reactions. It is depleted during stress, and a lack of Mg increases the release of stress hormones, leading to a vicious cycle of lowered resistance to stress and further Mg depletion. Vitamin B6 influences neurotransmitters involved in depression and anxiety, and may improve the uptake of magnesium into cells. The aim of this randomised control trial was to evaluate the effects of combined magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation in stressed people with low blood levels of magnesium. 260 adults aged 18-50 completed the 8-week study. At the beginning of the trial, all participants had suboptimal blood serum magnesium (0.45 mmol/L to 0.85 mmol/L) and reported moderate to extremely severe stress levels. Participants were divided into two groups. One group received magnesium supplementation (465mg magnesium lactate dihydrate, equivalent to 300mg elemental magnesium; Mg), whilst the other received a combined magnesium and vitamin B6 supplement (470 mg magnesium lactate dihydrate plus 5 mg pyridoxine hydrochloride; Mg-B6). After 8 weeks, the Mg-B6 group reported a reduction in stress levels of 44.9%, and the Mg group reported a reduction of 42.4%, with no statistical difference between the two groups overall. However, participants who reported severe or extremely severe stress levels at the start of the study experienced 24% greater improvement with Mg-B6 versus Mg. Researchers concluded that in people with low magnesium levels experiencing severe or extremely severe stress, combining vitamin B6 with magnesium appears to be of greater benefit than supplementing Mg alone.
INTRODUCTION Animal and clinical studies suggest complementary effects of magnesium and high-dose pyridoxine (vitamin B6) on stress reduction. This is the first randomized trial evaluating the effects of combined magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation on stress in a stressed population with low magnesemia using a validated measure of perceived stress. METHODS In this Phase IV, investigator-blinded trial (EudraCT: 2015-003749-24), healthy adults with Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42) stress subscale score >18 and serum magnesium concentration 0.45 mmol/L-0.85 mmol/L, were randomized 1:1 to magnesium-vitamin B6 combination (Magne B6 [Mg-vitamin B6]; daily dose 300 mg and 30 mg, respectively) or magnesium alone (Magnespasmyl [Mg]; daily dose 300 mg). Outcomes included change in DASS-42 stress subscale score from baseline to Week 8 (primary endpoint) and Week 4, and incidence of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS In the modified intention-to-treat analysis (N = 264 subjects), both treatment arms substantially reduced DASS-42 stress subscale score from baseline to Week 8 (Mg-vitamin B6, 44.9%; Mg 42.4%); no statistical difference between arms was observed (p>0.05). An interaction (p = 0.0097) between baseline stress level and treatment warranted subgroup analysis (as per statistical plan); adults with severe/extremely severe stress (DASS-42 stress subscale score ≥25; N = 162) had a 24% greater improvement with Mg-vitamin B6 versus Mg at Week 8 (3.16 points, 95% CI 0.50 to 5.82, p = 0.0203). Consistent results were observed in the per protocol analysis and at Week 4. Overall, 12.1% of Mg-vitamin B6 treated and 17.4% of Mg-treated subjects experienced AEs potentially treatment related. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest oral Mg supplementation alleviated stress in healthy adults with low magnesemia and the addition of vitamin B6 to Mg was not superior to Mg supplementation alone. With regard to subjects with severe/extremely severe stress, this study provides clinical support for greater benefit of Mg combined with vitamin B6.
Intramyocellular lipid stores increase markedly in athletes after 1.5 days lipid supplementation and are utilized during exercise in proportion to their content.
European journal of applied physiology. 2006;(4):341-54
Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and muscle glycogen provide local energy during exercise (EX). The objective of this study was to clarify the role of high versus low IMCL levels at equal initial muscle glycogen on fuel selection during EX. After 3 h of depleting exercise, 11 endurance-trained males consumed in a crossover design a high-carbohydrate (7 g kg(-1) day(-1)) low-fat (0.5 g kg(-1) day(-1)) diet (HC) for 2.5 days or the same diet with 3 g kg(-1) day(-1) more fat provided during the last 1.5 days of diet (four meals; HCF). Respiratory exchange, thigh muscle substrate breakdown by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and plasma FFA oxidation ([1-(13)C]palmitate) were measured during EX (3 h, 50% W (max)). Pre-EX IMCL concentrations were 55% higher after HCF. IMCL utilization during EX in HCF was threefold greater compared with HC (P < 0.001) and was correlated with aerobic power and highly correlated (P < 0.001) with initial content. Glycogen values and decrements during EX were similar. Whole-body fat oxidation (Fat(ox)) was similar overall and plasma FFA oxidation smaller (P < 0.05) during the first EX hour after HCF. Myocellular fuels contributed 8% more to whole-body energy demands after HCF (P < 0.05) due to IMCL breakdown (27% Fat(ox)). After EX, when both IMCL and glycogen concentrations were again similar across trials, a simulated 20-km time-trial showed no difference in performance between diets. In conclusion, IMCL concentrations can be increased during a glycogen loading diet by consuming additional fat for the last 1.5 days. During subsequent exercise, IMCL decrease in proportion to their initial content, partly in exchange for peripheral fatty acids.
Colonic fermentation from lactulose inhibits lipolysis in overweight subjects.
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. 2005;(4):E716-20
One of the strategies to prevent insulin resistance is to reduce circulating free fatty acids (FFA). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an oral lactulose load on fatty acid metabolism in overweight subjects. Eight overweight subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of [1-(13)C]acetate and of [1,1,2,3,3-(2)H(5)]glycerol for 9 h. After 3 h of tracer infusion, patients ingested 30 g lactulose, or saline solution. Arterialized blood samples were collected every 20 min. Basal plasma concentrations of acetate were similar before and between oral treatments as well as glycerol and FFA concentrations. Plasma acetate turnover was 11.4 +/- 2.4 vs. 10.7 +/- 1.4 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) [not significant (NS)], and plasma glycerol turnover was 3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.8 +/- 1.9 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) (NS). After lactulose ingestion, acetate concentration increased twofold and then decreased to baseline. Acetate turnover rate increased to 15.5 +/- 2.2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) after lactulose treatment, whereas it was unchanged after saline treatment (10.3 +/- 2.2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1), P < or = 0.0001). In contrast, FFA concentrations decreased significantly after lactulose ingestion and then increased slowly. Glycerol turnover decreased after lactulose ingestion compared with saline, 2.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.3 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) (P < or = 0.05). A significant negative correlation was found between glycerol and acetate turnover after lactulose treatments (r = -0.78, P < or = 0.02). These results showed in overweight subjects a short-term decrease in FFA level and glycerol turnover after lactulose ingestion related to a decrease of lipolysis in close relationship with an increase of acetate production.