Effects of Dental Implants and Nutrition on Elderly Edentulous Subjects: Protocol for a Factorial Randomized Clinical Trial.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;:930023
Background: Loss of masticatory function consequent to tooth loss has been associated with changes in food choices and insufficient nutritional intake. To date, interventions based on dental prostheses alone did not significantly improve nutrient intake. Pilot studies have shown positive impacts of interventions combining implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis with brief dietary advice. The relative contribution and the potential synergy of the components of such interventions need to be determined as it has major public health implications for the community-dwelling aging population that continues to disproportionately suffer from tooth loss and its consequences. Objective: To assess the effect of rehabilitation of masticatory function with fixed implant supported dentures and nutrition education in older subjects with terminal dentition (stage IV periodontitis) or full edentulism. Methods: A 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial with 16-month follow-up of eligible adults (≥60 years) with loss of masticatory function consequent to full arch edentulism or terminal dentition (n = 120) will be conducted to test whether the rehabilitation of masticatory function with fixed implant supported dentures, nutrition education and/or their combination improves intake of fresh fruits and vegetables for aging subjects. The study has been designed to detect changes in fresh fruits and fresh vegetables intake at 4 months using the 24-h dietary recall method. Changes in protein as percentage of total energy, nutritional biomarkers, plasma metabolomics, oral and gut microbiome, quality of life and masticatory function will also be assessed. Discussion: We hypothesize that receiving rehabilitation of masticatory function with fixed implant dentures together with nutrition education is the most effective intervention for improving nutrient intake in aging community-dwelling subjects with extensive tooth loss. The results of this study will assist in designing better treatment regimens, guide medical care for individual subjects, and inform public health and policy. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT05334407.
Zinc Finger Proteins in Neuro-Related Diseases Progression.
Frontiers in neuroscience. 2021;:760567
Zinc finger proteins (ZNF) are among the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic genomes. It contains several zinc finger domains that can selectively bind to certain DNA or RNA and associate with proteins, therefore, ZNF can regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. In terms of neurological diseases, numerous studies have shown that many ZNF are associated with neurological diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize the types and roles of ZNF in neuropsychiatric disorders. We will describe the structure and classification of ZNF, then focus on the pathophysiological role of ZNF in neuro-related diseases and summarize the mechanism of action of ZNF in neuro-related diseases.
Thinner Strut Sirolimus-Eluting BRS Versus EES in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: FUTURE-II Trial.
JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2021;(13):1450-1462
OBJECTIVES The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of thinner strut Firesorb (100/125 μm) sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) versus cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (CoCr-EES) in patients with coronary artery disease. BACKGROUND First-generation thicker strut BRS were associated with unexpected device-related adverse outcomes at long-term follow-up. METHODS Eligible patients with 1 or 2 de novo noncomplex coronary lesions were randomized to the Firesorb BRS group or CoCr-EES group in a 1:1 ratio. The primary endpoint was 1-year angiographic in-segment late loss (LL), powered for noninferiority testing. The key secondary endpoint was the 1-year proportion of covered struts assessed on optical coherence tomography, powered for noninferiority and subsequent superiority testing. RESULTS A total of 433 participants from 28 Chinese centers were randomized to the Firesorb BRS group (n = 215) or CoCr-EES group (n = 218). Patient-level 1-year in-segment LL was 0.17 ± 0.27 mm in the Firesorb BRS group and 0.18 ± 0.37 mm in the CoCr-EES group (difference -0.01 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.07 to 0.06; pnoninferiority < 0.0001) in the intention-to-treat population and was 0.17 ± 0.27 mm in the Firesorb BRS group and 0.19 ± 0.37 mm in the CoCr-EES group (difference -0.005 mm; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.06; pnoninferiority < 0.0001) in the per-protocol set. The proportion of covered struts was 99.3% in the Firesorb BRS group and 98.8% in the CoCr-EES group (difference 0.8%; 95% CI: -0.5% to 2.1%; pnoninferiority < 0.0001; psuperiority = 0.21). One-year clinical outcomes were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS The thinner strut Firesorb BRS was noninferior to the CoCr-EES for the primary endpoint of 1-year angiographic in-segment LL and the key secondary endpoint of 1-year proportion of covered struts by optical coherence tomography. (A Trial of Firesorb in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: FUTURE-II [FUTURE-II]; NCT02890160).
Serum Detection of Anti-thyroid Peroxidase and Anti-thyroglobulin Antibodies in Chinese Patients With Pemphigus Vulgaris and Pemphigus Foliaceus and Literature Review.
Frontiers in immunology. 2021;:653356
Background: Pemphigus is a rare but life-threatening autoimmune skin disease characterized by blistering on skin and/or mucous membranes. The physiological process of blister formation involves IgG antibodies against the desmogleins (Dsgs) and desmocollins (Dscs). Additional autoAbs have also been suggested to mediate the disease heterogeneity, such as anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies, the essential culprits of the immune system in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Purpose: To investigate the levels and antibody positivity of anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies in pemphigus patients. Methods: Antibody positivity and levels of anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies in pemphigus patients as compared to healthy controls were examined. A meta-analysis was conducted by reviewing six similar studies. Results: 98 Chinese pemphigus patients and 65 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Our meta-analysis revealed a significant correlation between increased presence of positive anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies and pemphigus, particularly for pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Such correlation was also observed in our own hospitalized PV patients, but not in pemphigus foliaceus (PF) patients. In addition, the status of anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies were also compared between females and males within PV patients, PF patients or controls, as well as compared for females or males between pemphigus patients and controls. In the analysis of T cell counts, we found abnormal low CD3 + T cell counts (< 690 n/µl) were only detected in patients whose thyroid antibody levels were less than 20 IU/ml. Conclusion: Pemphigus patients showed higher levels and antibody positivity of anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies than healthy controls. Further investigations are needed to identify the pathogenic functions of these antibodies in pemphigus, as well as to identify the potential shared susceptibility genes.
Nitrate removal by anammox biomass with intracellular carbon source as electron donors via DNRA pathway.
Environmental research. 2021;:111390
In this work, a novel nitrate (NO3-) reduction pathway by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) biomass was firstly discovered with the intracellular carbon sources as the only electron donors. And the possible reaction mechanism was deduced to be intracellular dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) pathway according to the experimental results. In batch experiments, without any external electron donors, NO3--N (about 50 mg/L) was reduced to N2 within 48 h, and a small amount of NO2--N was detected (the maximum of 2 mg/L) with the anammox biomass concentration of 4400 mg/L. Acetylene (4.46 mmol/L) addition resulted in obvious NH4+ accumulation during NO3- degradation by anammox biomass, since acetylene mainly interfered in hydrazine (N2H4) generation from NH4+ and NO. Without HCO3- addition, the NO3--N degradation rate was slower than that with HCO3- addition. Simultaneously, glycogen contents inside anammox biomass decreased to 133.22 ± 1.21 mg/g VSS and 129.79 ± 1.21 mg/g VSS with and without HCO3-, respectively, from 142.20 ± 0.61 mg/g VSS. In the long-term experiment, anammox biomass stably degraded NO3--N without external electron donors addition, and the maximum removal efficiency of NO3--N reached 55.4%. The above results indicated the anammox bacteria utilized the DNRA pathway to reduce NO3- to NO2- and further NH4+, then normal anammox metabolism would continue to convert the produced NO2- and NH4+ to N2. The intracellular stored carbon sources (e.g., glycogen) were supposed to be electron donors for NO3- degradation. This capability would enhance the viability and living space of anammox bacteria in different natural ecosystems, and make it plausible that complete nitrogen removal could be implemented only by the anammox process.
The Impact of Health Promotion Interventions on Telomere Length: A Systematic Review.
American journal of health promotion : AJHP. 2020;(6):633-647
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of health promotion interventions in delaying telomere shortening (a biomarker for aging). DATA SOURCE PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases. STUDY INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA Inclusion criteria: (1) empirical studies involving human subjects; (2) health promotion intervention studies including both randomized control trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs.; (3) measured telomere length as an intervention outcome; and (4) were written in English. Exclusion criteria: (1) observational studies without any health promotion intervention practices and (2) did not report intervention effects. DATA EXTRACTION Data extraction was performed by two reviewers following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis guidelines. DATA SYNTHESIS Substantial heterogeneity in intervention type and study design in the included studies precluded a meta-analysis. We conducted a narrative synthesis instead. RESULTS Thirty studies were included in the review, of which 16 were RCTs. One-third of the included studies reported significant intervention impacts in delaying telomere shortening, with relatively consistent significant results emerged from weight-loss interventions and interventions involving multiple lifestyle modification components (eg, diet and exercise). Most of supplement intervention studies observed null effects in telomere length. CONCLUSIONS Weight-loss and comprehensive lifestyle intervention strategies show encouraging impacts in delaying telomere shortening. More rigorous studies targeting populations at different age stages through life span are needed.
A preoperative whey protein and glucose drink before hip fracture surgery in the aged improves symptomatic and metabolic recovery.
Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2020;(2):234-238
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES We investigated the effects of a carbohydrate-whey protein solution on aged patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN Forty patients were randomly assigned to the carbohydrate-whey protein (CHP) group or the control group (CTL). In the CHP group, a mixed solution of CHP was orally administered to patients before surgery: 400 mL was administered on the day before surgery, and 200 mL was administered 3 h before surgery. The size of the liquid dark area in the gastric antrum was measured by ultrasound, and the bleeding volume during surgery was assayed. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, thirst, hunger, and days of hospitalization and the levels of blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum albumin were assessed. RESULTS There was no obvious liquid dark space in the gastric antrum. CHP administration improved postoperative thirst and hunger and resulted in increased albumin levels and decreased CRP concentrations and blood glucose fluctuations. CONCLUSIONS Oral CHP before hip fracture surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative thirst and hunger and improves recovery in the aged.
Predictors and Periprocedural Myocardial Injury Rate of Small Side Branches Occlusion in Coronary Bifurcation Intervention.
Occlusion of small side branch (SB) may result in significant adverse clinical events. We aim to characterize the predictors of small SB occlusion and incidence of periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) in coronary bifurcation intervention.Nine hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with 949 bifurcation lesions (SB ≤ 2.0 mm) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were studied. All clinical characteristics, coronary angiography findings, PCI procedural factors, and quantitative coronary angiographic analysis data were collected. SB occlusion after main vessel (MV) stenting was defined as no blood flow or any thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade decrease in SB after MV stenting. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of small SB occlusion. Creatine kinase-myocardial band activity was determined by using an immunoinhibition assay and confirmed by mass spectrometry. Incidence of PMI between no SB occlusion group and SB occlusion group was compared.SB occlusion occurred in 86 (9.1%) of 949 bifurcation lesions. Of SB occlusion, total occlusion occurred in 64 (74.4%) lesions and a decrease in TIMI flow occurred in 22 (25.6%) lesions. True bifurcation lesion, irregular plaque, predilation in SB, preprocedural SB TIMI flow grade, preprocedural diameter stenosis of distal MV, preprocedural diameter stenosis of bifurcation core, bifurcation angle, diameter ratio between MV and SB, diameter stenosis of SB before MV stenting, and MV lesion length were independent risk factors of SB occlusion. We observed a significantly higher incidence of PMI in each cutoff level in patients with SB occlusion compared with those without SB occlusion.True bifurcation lesion, irregular plaque, and 8 other predictors were independent predictors of SB occlusion. Patients with small SB occlusion had significant higher incidence of PMI.
Effects of quinoid redox mediators on the activity of anammox biomass.
Bioresource technology. 2014;:116-23
This study first explored the relationship between the activity of anammox biomass/key enzymes and quinoid redox mediators, which were anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), 2-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone (LAW) and anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQC). Experimental results demonstrated that the total nitrogen removal performance showed a downward trend with all three redox mediators (RMs) dosage increasing. For instance, when the AQC addition increased to 0.8 mM, the TN removal rate sharply reduced to 17.2 mg-N/gVSS/h, only about 20% of the control. This phenomenon might be caused by microbial poisoning with the extracellular RMs additions. Nevertheless, the crude hydrazine dehydrogenase, nitrite reductase, and nitrate reductase activities were enhanced with RMs addition, about 0.6-3 folds compared to the control experiments without RMs addition. The RMs was inferred to play the role as ubiquinol/ubiquinone (Q/QH2) during the anammox process. Furthermore, the specific ladderane membrane structure could block the contacting between RMs and the key enzymes inside anammoxosome. This might be the main reason for the contrary effects of RMs on anammox biomass and the key enzymes.
Calcidiol and prostate cancer.
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2005;(2-5):183-90
Epidemiological studies suggest that serum calcidiol (25(OH)-Vitamin D3) seems to be associated with several cancers including prostate cancer. We have made several experimental studies in order to clarify the mechanism(s) involved in the association. Calcidiol has been regarded as an inactive prohormone for calcitriol, which possesses the highest biological activity of the Vitamin D metabolites, when it is evaluated on the basis of bioactivity/nmol. However, we found recently that at the physiological concentration calcidiol (100-200 nM) is an active hormone, whereas calcitriol (1alpha,25(OH)2-Vitamin D3) (100 pM) is inactive in human primary prostate stromal cells. Calcidiol is able to inhibit cell growth and to induce or inhibit several genes including 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase genes. This suggests that calcidiol might be an independent endocrine system involved in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation, whereas calcitriol might be mainly involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorous balance. Several mechanisms may mediate the action of Vitamin D in the prostate. This is a review of some recent studies on the role of (1) Vitamin D metabolism, (2) growth factors and (3) fatty acid metabolism.