Within-trial cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention using a 3-tier shared care approach for pregnancy outcomes in Chinese women with gestational diabetes.
PloS one. 2020;(8):e0237738
This study assessed within-trial cost-effectiveness of a shared care program (SC, n = 339) for pregnancy outcomes compared to usual care (UC, n = 361), as implemented in a randomized trial of Chinese women with gestational diabetes (GDM). SC consisted of an individualized dietary advice and physical activity counseling program. The UC was a one-time group education program. The effectiveness was measured by number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one macrosomia/large for gestational age (LGA) infant. The cost-effectiveness was measured by incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in terms of cost (2012 Chinese Yuan/US dollar) per case of macrosomia and LGA prevented. The study took both a health care system and a societal perspective. This study found that the NNT was 16/14 for macrosomia/LGA. The incremental cost for treating a pregnant woman was ¥1,877 ($298) from a health care system perspective and ¥2,056 ($327) from a societal perspective. The cost of preventing a case of macrosomia/LGA from the two corresponding perspectives were ¥30,032/¥26,278 ($4,775/$4,178) and ¥32,896/¥28,784 ($5,230/$4,577), respectively. Considering the potential severe adverse health and economic consequences of a macrosomia/LGA infant, our findings suggest that implementing this lifestyle intervention for women with GDM is an efficient use of health care resources.
Mixed Spices at Culinary Doses Have Prebiotic Effects in Healthy Adults: A Pilot Study.
Plain language summary
An increasing body of evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a profound impact on human health. While the microbiome of a healthy individual is relatively stable, gut microbial dynamics can be influenced by host lifestyle and dietary choices. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed spices (cinnamon, oregano, ginger, black pepper, and cayenne pepper) at culinary doses consumed over 2 weeks in a standardized 5g capsule on the production of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids The study is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study carried out with a total of 31 healthy women and men aged between 18 and 65. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of the two intervention groups. Results indicate that daily intake of 5g of mixed spices for 2 weeks in healthy subjects resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes (bacteria), and a trend of increasing in phylum Bacteroidetes (bacteria) as compared with a matched control group. Authors conclude that a mixture of spices at culinary doses affects the composition of gut microbiota.
undefined: Spices were used as food preservatives prior to the advent of refrigeration, suggesting the possibility of effects on microbiota. Previous studies have shown prebiotic activities in animals and in vitro, but there has not been a demonstration of prebiotic or postbiotic effects at culinary doses in humans. In this randomized placebo-controlled study, we determined in twenty-nine healthy adults the effects on the gut microbiota of the consumption daily of capsules containing 5 g of mixed spices at culinary doses by comparison to a matched control group consuming a maltodextrin placebo capsule. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing data were used for microbial characterization. Spice consumption resulted in a significant reduction in Firmicutes abundance ( < 0.033) and a trend of enrichment in Bacteroidetes ( < 0.097) compared to placebo group. Twenty-six operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were different between the spice and placebo groups after intervention. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between fecal short-chain fatty acid propionate concentration and Firmicutes abundance in spice intervention group ( < 0.04). The production of individual fecal short-chain fatty acid was not significantly changed by spice consumption in this study. Mixed spices consumption significantly modified gut microbiota, suggesting a prebiotic effect of spice consumption at culinary doses.
Camera-Based Mirror Visual Input for Priming Promotes Motor Recovery, Daily Function, and Brain Network Segregation in Subacute Stroke Patients.
Neurorehabilitation and neural repair. 2019;(4):307-318
BACKGROUND Camera technique-based mirror visual feedback (MVF) is an optimal interface for mirror therapy. However, its efficiency for stroke rehabilitation and the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the possible treatment benefits of camera-based MVF (camMVF) for priming prior to hand function exercise in subacute stroke patients, and to reveal topological reorganization of brain network in response to the intervention. METHODS Twenty subacute stroke patients were assigned randomly to the camMVF group (MG, N = 10) or a conventional group (CG, N = 10). Before, and after 2 and 4 weeks of intervention, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Limb subscale (FMA_UL), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), manual muscle testing (MMT), and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were measured. Resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded before and after 4-week intervention. RESULTS The MG showed more improvements in the FMA_UL, the FMA_WH (wrist and hand), and the FIM than the CG. The clustering coefficient (CC) of the resting EEG network in the alpha band was increased globally in the MG after intervention but not in the CG. Nodal CC analyses revealed that the CC in the MG tended to increase in the ipsilesional occipital and temporal areas, and the bilateral central and parietal areas, suggesting improved local efficiency of communication in the visual, somatosensory, and motor areas. The changes of nodal CC at TP8 and PO8 were significantly positively correlated with the motor recovery. CONCLUSIONS The camMVF-based priming could improve the motor recovery, daily function, and brain network segregation in subacute stroke patients.
Metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced amenorrhea and weight gain in women with first-episode schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
The American journal of psychiatry. 2012;(8):813-21
OBJECTIVE Data on the treatment of antipsychotic-induced amenorrhea, particularly when occurring with weight gain, are limited. The authors investigated the efficacy and safety of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced amenorrhea and weight gain in women with first-episode schizophrenia. METHOD Eighty-four women (ages 18-40 years) with first-episode schizophrenia who suffered from amenorrhea during antipsychotic treatment were randomly assigned, in a double-blind study design, to receive 1000 mg/day of metformin or placebo in addition to their antipsychotic treatment for 6 months. The primary outcome measures were restoration of menstruation and change in body weight and body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcome measures were changes in levels of prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and testosterone; in fasting levels of insulin and glucose; in LH/FSH ratio; and in insulin resistance index. Repeated mixed models with repeated-measures regression analyses and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. RESULTS A total of 76 patients completed the 6-month trial. Significantly more patients in the metformin group (N=28, 66.7%) than in placebo group (N=2, 4.8%) resumed their menstruation. Among patients treated with metformin, BMI decreased by a mean of 0.93 and the insulin resistance index by 2.04. In contrast, patients who received placebo had a mean increase in BMI of 0.85. The prolactin, LH, and testosterone levels and LH/FSH ratio decreased significantly in the metformin group at months 2, 4, and 6, but these levels did not change in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS Metformin was effective in reversing antipsychotic-induced adverse events, including restoration of menstruation, promotion of weight loss, and improvement in insulin resistance in female patients with schizophrenia.
Lifestyle intervention and metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a randomized controlled trial.
CONTEXT Weight gain, a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medications, is associated with medical comorbidities in psychiatric patients. OBJECTIVE To test the efficacy of lifestyle intervention and metformin alone and in combination for antipsychotic-induced weight gain and abnormalities in insulin sensitivity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A randomized controlled trial (October 2004-December 2006) involving 128 adult patients with schizophrenia in the Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, China. Participants who gained more than 10% of their predrug weight were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. INTERVENTIONS Patients continued their antipsychotic medication and were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of placebo, 750 mg/d of metformin alone, 750 mg/d of metformin and lifestyle intervention, or lifestyle intervention only. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Body mass index, waist circumference, insulin levels, and insulin resistance index. RESULTS All 128 first-episode schizophrenia patients maintained relatively stable psychiatric improvement. The lifestyle-plus-metformin group had mean decreases in body mass index (BMI) of 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.3), insulin resistance index of 3.6 (95% CI, 2.7-4.5), and waist circumference of 2.0 cm (95% CI, 1.5-2.4 cm). The metformin-alone group had mean decreases in BMI of 1.2 (95% CI, 0.9-1.5), insulin resistance index of 3.5 (95% CI, 2.7-4.4), and waist circumference of 1.3 cm (95% CI, 1.1-1.5 cm). The lifestyle-plus-placebo group had mean decreases in BMI of 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.8) and insulin resistance index of 1.0 (95% CI, 0.5-1.5). However, the placebo group had mean increases in BMI of 1.2 (95% CI, 0.9-1.5), insulin resistance index of 0.4 (95% CI, 0.1-0.7), and waist circumference of 2.2 cm (95% CI, 1.7-2.8 cm). The lifestyle-plus-metformin treatment was significantly superior to metformin alone and to lifestyle plus placebo for weight, BMI, and waist circumference reduction. CONCLUSIONS Lifestyle intervention and metformin alone and in combination demonstrated efficacy for antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Lifestyle intervention plus metformin showed the best effect on weight loss. Metformin alone was more effective in weight loss and improving insulin sensitivity than lifestyle intervention alone. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00451399.