Mindful Learning Improves Positive Feelings of Cancer Patients' Family Caregivers.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019;(2)
Positive feelings are an important health dimension for family caregivers of cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Langerian mindfulness is a valid proactive method to increase the positive feelings of family caregivers for cancer patients. Participants were randomly assigned to either a mindfulness group or a mindlessness group and completed the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA) as a measure of caregivers' feelings before the intervention. Subsequently, both groups were given four sessions of mindfulness training using "innovation classification". Finally, participants completed the Langer Mindfulness Scale (LMS) and the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) scale as post-intervention measures. The results revealed that participants in the mindfulness and mindlessness groups differed significantly in LMS and PAC scores, with the mindfulness group having higher levels of positive feelings than those in the mindlessness group. The results also indicated that mindfulness level significantly predicted positive feelings of caregivers. Thus mindful interventions may play a meaningful role in promoting family caregivers' spirituality and faith, improving the willingness of sharing their thoughts, beliefs, and grief, which could be useful for increasing the positive feelings of caregivers.
Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):99
Plain language summary
Dietary factors, including glycaemic load, fat, phytoestrogen, fruit and vegetable intake, play an important role in the development of ovarian cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine: 1. The available evidence from epidemiological studies; 2. The differences of ovarian cancer risk reported according to study design, geographic location and types or sources of fibre; 3) A possible dose-response relationship between dietary fibre intake and risk of ovarian cancer. 13 studies, comprising 5,777 ovarian cancer cases and 142,189 participants, published between 1994 and 2015, were included in this meta-analysis. All studies measured dietary intakes using a food-frequency questionnaire. The meta-analysis showed that the women with the highest intake of total fibre had a significantly lower risk (22%) of developing ovarian cancer than those with the lowest fibre intake, and that there was a dose dependent reduction in risk, for every 10g of fibre consumed, there was a 12% reduction in risk. When looking at different types/sources of fibre, vegetable fibre showed the biggest protective effect, whilst cereal fibres showed an increased risk for ovarian cancer. Factors which influenced the risk were contraceptive use and menopausal status. The authors discuss possible mechanisms for the protective effect of fibre: 1. Decrease of circulating oestrogen through changing of bacterial composition in the gut and 2. Reduction of glycaemic load through fibre.
BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies regarding the association between dietary fiber intake and ovarian cancer risk are still inconsistent. We aimed to review the available evidence and conduct a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between dietary fiber intake and ovarian cancer risk. METHODS Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases before August 2017. Studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of ovarian cancer were included. Random-effects models were used to combine the estimated effects extracted from individual study. RESULTS Thirteen studies, with a total of 5777 ovarian cancer cases and 142,189 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The pooled multivariable RRs of ovarian cancer for the highest vs. the lowest category of dietary fiber intake was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.88) with no evidence of heterogeneity (I = 4.20%, P = 0.40). Our dose-response analysis also showed a significant inverse association between dietary fiber intake and ovarian cancer risk (an increment of 10 g/day; combined RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.93). There was no evidence for a nonlinear association (P for nonlinearity = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis suggests a significant inverse dose-response association between dietary fiber intake and ovarian cancer risk. Further studies with prospective design that take account of more potential confounders are warranted to confirm this association.
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among rural adults in Nantong, China.
Scientific reports. 2016;:38089
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) varies worldwide due to genetic and environmental factors. A population-based cross-sectional study, with 37,582 participants recruited in Nantong, China in 2007-2008 (stage I) and 2013 (stage II). Socio-demographic, lifestyle factors, disease history and fasting blood sample were collected. The prevalence of MS was much higher in 2013 (42.6%) than that in 2007-2008 (21.6%), which was significantly higher in older people in both stages. Participants with two or more familial history of diseases were associated with a higher MS prevalence compared to those who didn't have familial history of diseases. Total physical activity (PA) was associated with 24 and 19% decreased risk of MS in men and women. Occupational PA in moderate and vigorous intensity was associated with a 25%-45% decreased risk of MS. Female smokers who smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day or over 25 years were associated with 96 and 74% increased MS risk, respectively. The highest quartile of rice wine consumption was associated with a lower risk of MS with OR of 0.63 in women, compared with female non-drinkers. These findings indicated that PA and rice wine are two protective factors in MS prevention in rural areas of East China.
Recurrent exercise-induced acute kidney injury by idiopathic renal hypouricemia with a novel mutation in the SLC2A9 gene and literature review.
BMC pediatrics. 2014;:73
BACKGROUND Idiopathic renal hypouricemia (iRHUC) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder, characterized by impaired tubular uric acid transport, re-absorption insufficiency and/or the acceleration of secretions. Some patients present with severe complications, such as exercise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI) and nephrolithiasis. CASE PRESENTATION Herein, we report the case of a girl with severe iRHUC (serum urate 0.05 mg/dL, fractional excretion of uric acid 295.99%) associated with recurrent EIAKI, in whom the disease was caused by a homozygous mutation (g.68G > A in exon 3) in the SLC2A9 gene. Her family members (father, mother and brother) carried the same mutation but were heterozygous, without any signs of severe hypouricemia. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that iRHUC is a rare disorder but that it should also be considered in patients with EIAKI, especially in those patients who manifest with moderately elevated or normal serum concentrations of uric acid during the acute phase of AKI. Mutational screening of the SLC2A9 gene is necessary for the diagnosis of iRHUC, and homozygous mutations of the SLC2A9 alleles can cause severe hypouricemia. Careful attention should be paid to any signs of hypouricemia during the recovery phase of AKI and long-term follow-up.
Strategic targeted exercise for preventing falls in elderly people.
The Journal of international medical research. 2013;(2):418-26
OBJECTIVE Randomized, controlled, blinded trial to evaluate the effectiveness of strategic targeted exercise for preventing falls in elderly people. METHODS Elderly people were randomly allocated to either a control group that received conventional exercise, or a training group that received conventional exercise plus proprioception and cognitive exercises. Subjects were asked to exercise three times a week (40 min per session) for 8 weeks. In the pre- and post-training sessions, all participants were assessed using a static postural control test with eyes open and closed, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the joint position sense test of the lower limbs. RESULTS After 8 weeks, there were statistically significant improvements in the training group (n = 50) compared with the control group (n = 50) for mediolateral sway distance with eyes open and eyes closed, anteroposterior sway distance with eyes open but not with eyes closed, BBS scores and joint position sense test for the left but not the right knee. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that strategic targeted exercise could produce more beneficial effects on balance and proprioception function than conventional exercise alone, in elderly people.
Tracheal traction exercise reduces the occurrence of postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery.
STUDY DESIGN We designed a novel anterior cervical spine surgery preoperative treatment comprising mechanical trachea/esophagus traction and compared the postoperative outcome regarding dysphagia with nontreated patients. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether the newly developed preoperative tracheal/esophageal traction exercise (TTE) treatment has an effect on postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Dysphagia is a postoperative complication that occurs after anterior cervical spine surgery, and known treatments are perioperative application of methylprednisolone, monitoring of endotracheal tube cuff pressure, and the use of low-profile plates. METHODS.: We compared the neck disability index, visual analogue scale scores for arm and neck pain, and Bazaz dysphagia scores, a dysphagia index, of 2 randomized groups, 1 week, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after cervical spine surgery. One group received TTE treatment for 3 consecutive days before surgery, whereas the control group did not. RESULTS.: In the first week after operation, the Bazaz dysphagia scores for patients with second- to fourth-level fusions in the TTE group were significantly better than that in the control group (P = 0.000 for second- and third-level fusions and P = 0.013 for fourth-level fusion). Also at 3 weeks after surgery, the second- to fourth-level fusion patients in the TTE group had better Bazaz scores than those in the control group (P = 0.000 for second- and third-level fusions and P = 0.004 for fourth-level fusion). There was no significant difference of neck disability index and visual analogue scale scores between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION Dysphagia could be reduced in patients with multiple-level fusion after anterior cervical spine surgery by preoperative TTE treatment.
Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2009;(1):45-50
BACKGROUND Capsinoids from the Capsicum genus of plants are nonpungent capsaicin-related substances with effects on metabolism and body weight in animals. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to explore the safety and efficacy of capsinoids taken orally (6 mg/d) for weight loss, fat loss, and change in metabolism and to examine whether candidate genes are predictors of capsinoid response. DESIGN This was a 12-wk, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study. Eligibility criteria included a body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 25-35. Body weight was measured, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, indirect calorimetry (men only), and genotyping were conducted. RESULTS Forty women and 40 men with a mean (+/- SD) age of 42 +/- 8 y and BMI of 30.4 +/- 2.4 were randomly assigned to a capsinoid or placebo group. Capsinoids were well tolerated. Mean (+/- SD) weight change was 0.9 +/- 3.1 and 0.5 +/- 2.4 kg in the capsinoid and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.86). There was no significant group difference in total change in adiposity, but abdominal adiposity decreased more (P = 0.049) in the capsinoid group (-1.11 +/- 1.83%) than in the placebo group (-0.18 +/- 1.94%), and this change correlated with the change in body weight (r = 0.46, P < 0.0001). Changes in resting energy expenditure did not differ significantly between groups, but fat oxidation was higher at the end of the study in the capsinoid group (least-squares mean difference: 21.0 mg/min; P = 0.06). Of 13 genetic variants tested, TRPV1 Val585Ile and UCP2 -866 G/A correlated significantly with change in abdominal adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with 6 mg/d capsinoids orally appeared to be safe and was associated with abdominal fat loss. Capsinoid ingestion was associated with an increase in fat oxidation that was nearly significant. We identified 2 common genetic variants that may be predictors of therapeutic response.
Sexual function among overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence in a randomized controlled trial of an intensive behavioral weight loss intervention.
The Journal of urology. 2009;(5):2235-42
PURPOSE We examined sexual function in overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence, and evaluated the effects of an intensive behavioral weight reduction intervention on sexual function in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 338 overweight and obese women reporting 10 or more incontinence episodes weekly were randomized to an intensive behavioral change (226) or structured education program (112) for 6 months. Sexual function was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate regression was used to examine factors associated with baseline and 6-month change in sexual function as well as intervention effects. RESULTS Two-thirds of participants (233) were sexually active at baseline but more than half (188) reported low desire and a quarter (91) were sexually dissatisfied. More than half of sexually active participants (123) reported problems with arousal, lubrication, orgasm or incontinence during sex. Compared to controls women in the intervention group demonstrated a borderline increase in frequency of sexual activity at 6 months (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.99-1.81, p = 0.06) but no differences in satisfaction (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.83-1.99, p = 0.26), desire (OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.79-1.61, p = 0.52) or problems (beta +/- SE 0.03 +/- 0.07, p = 0.68 for intervention effects on problems score). Neither clinical incontinence severity nor body mass index was independently associated with baseline or 6-month change in function (p >0.10 for all). CONCLUSIONS Sexual dysfunction is common in overweight and obese women with incontinence but the severity of this dysfunction may not be directly related to the severity of incontinence or obesity. An intensive 6-month behavioral weight reduction intervention did not significantly improve sexual function in this population relative to controls.
Weight loss: a novel and effective treatment for urinary incontinence.
The Journal of urology. 2005;(1):190-5
PURPOSE We evaluated the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence (UI) in overweight and obese women. MATERIALS AND METHODS A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted among overweight and obese women experiencing at least 4 UI episodes per week. Women were randomly assigned to a 3-month liquid diet weight reduction program (24 in the immediate intervention group) or a wait-list delayed intervention group (24 in the wait-list control group). Participants in the wait-list control group began the weight reduction program in month 3 of the study. All women were followed for 6 months after completing the weight reduction program. Wilcoxon tests were used to compare intergroup differences in change in weekly UI episodes and quality of life scores. RESULTS A total of 48 women were randomized and 40 were assessed 3 months after randomization. Median (with 25% to 75% interquartile range [IQR]) baseline age was 52 years (IQR 47 to 59), weight was 97 kg (IQR 87 to 106) and UI episodes were 21 weekly (IQR 11 to 33). Women in the immediate intervention group had a 16 kg (IQR 9 to 20) weight reduction compared with 0 kg (IQR -2 to 2) in the wait-list control group (p <0.0001). The immediate intervention group experienced a 60% reduction (IQR 30% to 89%) in weekly UI episodes compared with 15% (IQR -9% to 25%) in the wait-list control group (p <0.0005) and had greater improvement in quality of life scores. Stress (p =0.003) and urge (p =0.03) incontinent episodes decreased in the immediate intervention vs wait-list control group. Following the weight reduction program the wait-list control group experienced a similar median reduction in weekly UI episodes (71%). Among all 40 women mean weekly UI episodes decreased 54% (95% CI 40% to 69%) after weight reduction and the improvement was maintained for 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Weight reduction is an effective treatment for overweight and obese women with UI. Weight loss of 5% to 10% has an efficacy similar to that of other nonsurgical treatments and should be considered a first line therapy for incontinence.