Efficacy and Safety of Shenfu Injection for Severe Pneumonia in the Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Based on Western and Eastern Medicine.
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;:779942
Background: Although increasing clinical trials studying Shenfu injection (SFI) comprising panaxoside 0.8 mg/ml extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. and aconitine 0.1 mg/ml extracted from Aconitum carmichaeli Debeaux for elderly patients with severe pneumonia on biomarkers associated with COVID-19 progression are emerging, there is no evidence-based evaluation for the effect of SFI on elderly severe pneumonia. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of SFI on elderly patients with severe pneumonia providing hints for treating critical COVID-19, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Nine databases, namely, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Wanfang, Chongqing VIP Database, CNKI, and SinoMed were used to search clinical trials reporting the effect of SFI as an adjuvant for elderly severe pneumonia on outcomes of interest. Primary outcomes were total effective rate, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, mortality, and safety. Secondary outcomes were predictors associated with COVID-19 progression. Duplicated or irrelevant articles with unavailable data were excluded. Cochrane Collaboration's tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias by two reviewers independently. All data were analyzed by Rev Man 5.4. Continuous variables were shown as weighted mean difference (WMD) or standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), whereas dichotomous data were calculated as the risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Results: We included 20 studies with 1, 909 participants, and the pooled data showed that compared with standard control, SFI could improve the total effective rate (RR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.14-1.37, and n = 689), APACHE II score (WMD = -2.95, 95% CI = -3.35, -2.56, and n = 809), and predictors associated with COVID-19 progression (brain natriuretic peptide, creatine kinase, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, sE-selectin, von Willebrand factor, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet counts, D-Dimer, procalcitonin, and WBC count). SFI may reduce mortality (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.37-0.73, and n = 429) and safety concerns (RR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.17-0.51, and n = 150) for elderly severe pneumonia. Conclusion: SFI as an adjuvant may improve the total effective rate, APACHE II score, gas exchange, and predictors associated with COVID-19 progression, reducing mortality and safety concerns for elderly patients with severe pneumonia.
Frontiers of ferroptosis research: An analysis from the top 100 most influential articles in the field.
Frontiers in oncology. 2022;:948389
In recent years, ferroptosis has become a research hotspot in programmed cell death. Since the concept of ferroptosis was proposed, a growing number of articles have been published on this topic. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, these ferroptosis-related publications that have received a great deal of attention have not been quantitatively evaluated. In this study, we analyzed the top 100 most influential articles over the past decade through a bibliometric method to characterize the research status and trends in this field. Web of Science Core Collection was searched to identify relevant studies. After being manually screened, the top 100 most cited studies with original data were identified and analyzed. Bibliometric software including VOSviewer and R-Bibliometrix were used to perform visualization analysis. The citation frequency for the top 100 selected articles ranged from 135 to 3603 (326.6 citations on average). These articles originated from 25 countries/regions, with more than half originating from the United States and China. The most frequently nominated author was Stockwell BR from the Columbia University, and of the top 100 articles, 19 listed his name. Three core journals were Nature, Cell and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. In addition to term of ferroptosis, these terms or phrases including cell death, cancer cell, GPX4, pathway, inhibitor, mechanism, iron, lipid peroxidation, resistance, erastin, sorafenib, P53, reactive oxygen species, necroptosis, apoptosis, glutathione peroxidase, ACSL4, autophagy, and SLC7A11 appeared more frequently in the top 100 articles. Overall, although much progress has been made, the research on ferroptosis is still at an early stage. The current attention in this field mainly focuses on potential regulatory mechanism and pathways including key ferroptosis-related genes/molecules, oxidant and antioxidant system, ferroptosis-inducing agents or nanomedicine for cancer therapy, as well as the role of ferroptosis in non-neoplastic disorders. Meanwhile, combination therapeutic strategies targeting ferroptosis in radiotherapy or immunotherapy also deserve further attention.
High production of jasmonic acid by Lasiodiplodia iranensis using solid-state fermentation: Optimization and understanding.
Biotechnology journal. 2022;(5):e2100550
BACKGROUND Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone involved in regulating developmental and growth controls as well as photosynthesis. In addition, this hormone protects the plant against insects and has good applications in agriculture, the flavored industry and other fields. Filamentous fungus generally produces JA using liquid static culture. In the present study, a solid-state fermentation (SSF) method is developed for high production of JA using Lasiodiplodia iranensis. MAIN METHODS AND MAJOR RESULTS By selecting the solid substrate and optimizing the initial water content, inoculum volume, loading volume and other culture conditions, the maximum JA yield reached 5306.38 mg kg-1 when fermented for 12 days in a petri dish containing a medium with crushed wheat as the solid substrate and 75% initial water content. The logistic and Luedeking-Piret models were used to characterize the relationship between microbial growth and product synthesis in the SSF process, and the maximum JA production is predicted to be 5263.23 mg kg-1 , which is close to the experimental value. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used to examine the metabolic changes that develop during fermentation. The results indicate that JA biosynthesis occurs in the α-linolenic acid metabolic pathway, of which 13(S)-HpOTrE is a key intermediate metabolite and both 13(S)-HOTrE and traumatic acid are byproducts of the branches of its synthesis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The results of this study provide a method for obtaining high JA yields by SSF, and offer new insights for understanding the production of JA by fungal fermentation.
Beneficial effects of psyllium on the prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic diseases.
Food & function. 2022;(14):7473-7486
Cardiometabolic diseases are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Dietary fiber intake can improve the risk factors associated with CMD. Psyllium, especially its husk, is one of the most widely used dietary fiber supplements, which is often used to enrich cereals and other food products. Numerous pharmacological studies have investigated the active ingredients and therapeutic effects of psyllium and its extracts, including antioxidant, anti-tumor, antidiabetic, hypotensive, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, antidiarrheal, and antiviral activities. In this review, we will summarize the available studies on the therapeutic potential and possible mechanisms of psyllium in treating CMDs, such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and its complications, hypertension, hyperuricemia and obesity, and its applications in food systems.
Vitamin D/VDR in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration: Does autophagy play a role?
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2022;:112739
To date, the underlying mechanisms involved intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) remain unclear, which has hindered the development of molecular biological therapy for IDD. Autophagy is vital for intracellular quality control and metabolic balance in intervertebral disc cells. Hence, autophagy homeostasis is important. Emerging evidence has implicated vitamin D (VD) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in IDD progression because of their effects on different autophagy steps. However, the results of clinical trials in which VD supplementation was assessed as a treatment for IDD are controversial. Furthermore, experimental studies on the interplay between VD/VDR and autophagy are still in their infancy. In view of the significance of the crosstalk between VD/VDR and autophagy components, this review focuses on the latest research on VD/VDR modulation in autophagy and investigates the possible regulatory mechanisms. This article will deepen our understanding of the relationship between VD/VDR and autophagy and suggests novel strategies for IDD prevention and treatment.
Impact of Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol with Contemporary Lipid-Lowering Medicines on Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Cardiovascular drugs and therapy. 2021;(1):153-166
PURPOSE To evaluate the potential association between the lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with contemporary lipid-lowering medicines and cognitive function. METHODS Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in databases including PubMed, Embase, and the Web of Science and all databases in the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov were collected from inception to January 1, 2020. The cognitive function of patients receiving proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, statins and ezetimibe was evaluated using meta-analysis. RESULTS A total of 2910 studies were obtained from databases and other sources. Thirty-three studies were selected by screening, including 11 studies on alirocumab, 9 studies on evolocumab, 11 studies on statins and 2 studies on ezetimibe. In our study, a total of 128,691 patients with no cognitive impairment were divided into an intervention group (66,330 patients) and a control group (62,361 patients). The data were subjected to a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model for meta-analysis. The contemporary lipid-lowering medicines significantly reduced LDL-C in terms of both percentage (WMD: -45.06%, 95% CI -50.12% to -40.00%, P < 0.001) and absolute value (WMD: -64.01 mg/dL, 95% CI -72.25 to -55.78, P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, patients receiving treatment with contemporary lipid-lowering medicines did not show a significant difference in the rate of neurocognitive disorder (RR: 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.16, I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.696). Subgroup analysis was performed according to the intervention and LDL-C stratification. The result of this subgroup analysis was consistent with the main findings. Regarding global cognitive performance, no difference in major cognition was found among the pooled data (SMD: 0.02, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.04, P = 0.002), except for psychomotor speed (SMD: 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, P = 0.0024). CONCLUSIONS Contemporary lipid-lowering medicines were not associated with cognitive impairment in RCTs. A low LDL-C level did not influence the incidence of cognitive disorder or global cognitive performance.
Regulatory roles and mechanisms of alternative RNA splicing in adipogenesis and human metabolic health.
Cell & bioscience. 2021;(1):66
Alternative splicing (AS) regulates gene expression patterns at the post-transcriptional level and generates a striking expansion of coding capacities of genomes and cellular protein diversity. RNA splicing could undergo modulation and close interaction with genetic and epigenetic machinery. Notably, during the adipogenesis processes of white, brown and beige adipocytes, AS tightly interplays with the differentiation gene program networks. Here, we integrate the available findings on specific splicing events and distinct functions of different splicing regulators as examples to highlight the directive biological contribution of AS mechanism in adipogenesis and adipocyte biology. Furthermore, accumulating evidence has suggested that mutations and/or altered expression in splicing regulators and aberrant splicing alterations in the obesity-associated genes are often linked to humans' diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysregulation phenotypes. Therefore, significant attempts have been finally made to overview novel detailed discussion on the prospects of splicing machinery with obesity and metabolic disorders to supply featured potential management mechanisms in clinical applicability for obesity treatment strategies.
Dielectric barrier discharge plasma coupled with WO3 for bisphenol A degradation.
Based on the difficulty of the refractory organic compounds degradation in water by the traditional wastewater treatment methods, the research relies on the technology of the dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) and the catalysis of the nano WO3, investigating the bisphenol A (BPA) degradation in the synergistic system of DBDP/WO3. The coupled degradation percentage of the BPA under different amounts of WO3 addition, different initial solution pH and carrier gas were investigated to confirm the catalysis of the WO3 in the DBDP system. It was obtained from the experimental results that the optimal additive amount of the WO3 was 175 mg L-1 and change of the solution pH value and the carrier gas variety could not change the catalysis of the WO3. The BPA degradation percentage could reach 100% after treating 30 min in the DBDP/WO3 system with 0.5 L min-1 O2 as the carrier gas. The WO3 still had a better catalysis after four times usage and the discharge had little effect on the microstructure of the WO3. The existence of the WO3 in the DBDP system could result in the reduction of the O3 concentration and the enhancement of the H2O2 concentration, which improve the catalysis of the WO3 in the DBDP system, while the experiments on the scavengers' addition verified the major role of the OH on the BPA degradation. The catalytic mechanism of the WO3 as well as the BPA degradation pathway was also speculated in the research.
[CRISPR/Cas9 technology in disease research and therapy: a review].
Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology. 2021;(4):1205-1228
Genome editing is a genetic manipulation technique that can modify DNA sequences at the genome level, including insertion, knockout, replacement and point mutation of specific DNA fragments. The ultimate principle of genome editing technology relying on engineered nucleases is to generate double-stranded DNA breaks at specific locations in genome and then repair them through non-homologous end joining or homologous recombination. With the intensive study of these nucleases, genome editing technology develops rapidly. The most used nucleases include meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats associated Cas proteins. Based on introducing the development and principles of above mentioned genome editing technologies, we review the research progress of CRISPR/Cas9 system in the application fields of identification of gene function, establishment of disease model, gene therapy, immunotherapy and its prospect.
Effect of Pilates on Glucose and Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Frontiers in physiology. 2021;:641968
Objective: The benefits of Pilates for blood glucose and lipids remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Pilates on their levels. Methods: Searches were conducted in five databases to identify relevant articles published until October 29, 2020. Paired reviewers independently screened the articles and extracted data from each included study. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of Pilates on blood glucose and lipids. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore heterogeneity. Results: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comprising 587 participants were included in the study. Overall, the Pilates group (PG) had a significantly greater reduction in post-prandial blood glucose than the control group (CG) (MD = -22.25 mg/dL, 95% CI: [-28.34, 16.17] mg/dL, P < 0.00001, I2 = 0%); glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (MD = -0.78%, 95% CI: [-1.13, -0.42]%, P < 0.0001, I2 = 88%); total cholesterol (TC) (MD = -20.90 mg/dL, 95% CI: [-37.21, -4.60] mg/dL, P = 0.01, I2 = 84%); triglycerides (TG) (MD = -12.59 mg/dL, 95% CI: [-19.88, -5.29] mg/dL, P = 0.0007, I2 = 86%); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD = -12.39 mg/dL, 95% CI: [-16.82, -7.95] mg/dL, P < 0.00001, I2 = 45%) compared to CG, whereas no significant difference was detected between the two groups in fasting blood glucose (MD = -7.04 mg/dL, 95% CI: [-17.26, 3.17] mg/dL, P = 0.18, I2 = 93%), insulin (MD = -1.44 μU/mL, 95% CI: [-4.30, 1.41] μU/mL, P = 0.32, I2 = 0%); and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (MD = -2.68 mg/dL, 95% CI: [-9.03, 3.67] mg/dL, P = 0.41, I2 = 89%). However, by subgroup analysis, we found that compared to the CG, PG showed no significant improvement in blood glucose and lipids levels for non-diabetics, while it presented a significantly greater decrease in post-prandial blood glucose, TC, TG, and LDL-C for diabetic patients. Notably, for diabetic patients, Pilates and medication treatments showed no significant reduction in fasting blood glucose (MD = -7.00 mg/dL, 95% CI: [-26.06, 12.06] mg/dL, P = 0.40) and HbA1c (MD = -0.23%, 95% CI: [-0.58, 0.13]%, P = 0.21, I2 = 0%) than medications treatment used alone, and Pilates combined with medications and dietary treatments presented no significant improvement in fasting blood glucose than a combination of medications and dietary treatments (MD = -10.90 mg/dL, 95% CI: [-32.35, 10.54] mg/dL, P = 0.32, I2 = 94%). Conclusions: Overall, Pilates could improve post-prandial blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, TG, TC, and LDL-C for diabetic patients, which could be influenced by its duration and intensity. Moreover, it had no significant effect on blood glucose and lipids for non-diabetic individuals. However, Pilates, as an adjunctive treatment to medications was not superior to medications used alone in lowering fasting blood glucose and HbA1c. Furthermore, Pilates combined with medications and dietary treatments showed no significant improvement in fasting blood glucose, whereas it had a greater reduction in post-prandial blood glucose and HbA1c for diabetic patients. Systematic Review Registration: https://osf.io/xgv6w.