The effect of pharmacological treatment and lifestyle modification in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: An umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.
Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2022;(9):e13464
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver disease that affects approximately 25% of the world's population, and various treatments have been applied for NAFLD patients. We compared the effectiveness of each intervention conducted to treat NAFLD by evaluating meta-analyses of pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification including diet and exercise. We searched Pubmed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library and included meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of pharmacological intervention and lifestyle modification on NAFLD. The quality of included meta-analyses was evaluated by AMSTAR-2. If the effect size was expressed as mean difference, it was converted to standardized mean difference based on the random-effects model. A total of 1694 meta-analyses were identified, and 27 meta-analyses were eventually included in the review. Regarding pharmacological interventions, there was a high strength of evidence for the ALT reduction effect of silymarin on inactive controls (SMD = 0.88, p < 0.01, seven trials, 518 participants). Meanwhile, it was confirmed that appropriate diet and exercise were important in reducing liver fat (SMD = 1.51, p < 0.01, 12 trials, 765 participants). This umbrella review assessed the effects of pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modifications in the treatment of NAFLD. The results of this review can be utilized for clinical decisions when treating NAFLD patients.
Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Inflammatory Parameters: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Magnesium (Mg) may have several beneficial effects on human health outcomes. One hypothesized mechanism eliciting such effects is the action of Mg on serum inflammatory parameters. However, studies on this topic to date have several important limitations. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the current state of the art of all randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of Mg supplementation versus placebo on serum parameters of inflammation. We searched several databases until 23 November 2021 for RCTs. Eligible studies were RCTs investigating the effect of oral Mg supplementation vs. placebo and having serum inflammatory markers as an outcome. Among 2484 papers initially screened, 17 randomized controlled trials (889 participants; mean age: 46 years; females: 62.5%) were included. Generally, a low risk of bias was present. In meta-analysis, Mg supplementation significantly decreased serum C reactive protein (CRP) and increased nitric oxide (NO) levels. In descriptive findings, Mg supplementation significantly reduced plasma fibrinogen, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5, tumor necrosis factor-ligand superfamily member 13B, ST2 protein, and IL-1. In conclusion, Mg supplementation may significantly reduce different human inflammatory markers, in particular serum CRP and NO levels.
Changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels post-vitamin D supplementation in people of Black and Asian ethnicities and its implications during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review.
Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association. 2022;(5):995-1005
BACKGROUND People of Black and Asian ethnicities have a higher infection rate and mortality as a result of COVID-19. It has also been reported that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in this, possibly because of the multi-gene regulatory function of the vitamin D receptor. As a result, increased dietary intake and/or supplementation to attain adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels could benefit people in these ethnicities. The present study aimed to review the literature examining the changes in 25(OH)D in different types of vitamin D supplementation from randomised controlled trials in this population. METHODS This systematic review was conducted using the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic databases were systematically searched using keywords related to vitamin D supplementation in Black and Asian ethnicities. RESULTS Eight studies were included in the review. All the included studies found that supplementation of vitamin D (D2 and D3 ), regardless of dosage, increased 25(OH)D levels compared to a placebo. All trials in which participants were vitamin D deficient at baseline showed increased 25(OH)D levels to a level considered adequate. Two studies that used food fortification yielded smaller 25(OH)D increases compared to similar studies that used oral supplementation (10.2 vs. 25.5 nmol L-1 , respectively). Furthermore, vitamin D2 supplementation yielded significantly lower 25(OH)D increases than vitamin D3 supplementation. CONCLUSIONS Oral vitamin D supplementation may be more efficacious in increasing 25(OH)D levels than food fortification of Black and Asian ethnicities, with vitamin D3 supplementation possibly being more efficacious than vitamin D2 . It is recommended that people with darker skin supplement their diet with vitamin D3 through oral tablet modes where possible, with recent literature suggesting a daily intake of 7000-10,000 IU to be potentially protective from unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes. As a result of the paucity of studies, these findings should be treated as exploratory.
Amebiasis and Amebic Liver Abscess in Children.
Pediatric clinics of North America. 2022;(1):79-97
Although rare in the developed world, amebiasis continues to be a leading cause of diarrhea and illness in developing nations with crowding, poor sanitation, and lack of clean water supply. Recent immigrants or travelers returning from endemic regions after a prolonged stay are at high risk of developing amebiasis. A high index of suspicion for amebiasis should be maintained for other high-risk groups like men having sex with men, people with AIDS/HIV, immunocompromised hosts, residents of mental health facility or group homes. Clinical presentation of intestinal amebiasis varies from diarrhea to colitis and dysentery. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common form of extraintestinal amebiasis. Various diagnostic tools are available and when amebiasis is suspected, a combination of stool tests and serology should be sent to maximize the yield of testing. Treatment with an amebicidal drug such as metronidazole/tinidazole and a luminal cysticidal agent such as paromomycin for clinical disease is indicated. However, for asymptomatic disease treatment with a luminal cysticidal agent to decrease chances of invasive disease and transmission is recommended.
Eye disease and mortality, cognition, disease, and modifiable risk factors: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies.
Eye (London, England). 2022;(2):369-378
Globally, 2.2 billion people live with some form of vision impairment and/or eye disease. To date, most systematic reviews examining associations have focused on a single eye disease and there is no systematic evaluation of the relationships between eye diseases and diverse physical and mental health outcomes. Moreover, the strength and reliability of the literature is unclear. We performed an umbrella review of observational studies with meta analyses for any physical and/or mental comorbidities associated with eye disease. For each association, random-effects summary effect size, heterogeneity, small-study effect, excess significance bias and 95% prediction intervals were calculated, and used to grade significant evidence from convincing to weak. 34 studies were included covering 58 outcomes. No outcomes yielded convincing evidence, six outcomes yielded highly suggestive results (cataract positively associated with type 2 diabetes, open-angled glaucoma positively associated with myopia and diabetes, diabetic retinopathy positively associated with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality, and retinopathy of prematurity positively associated with chorioamnionitis), eight outcomes yielded suggestive results (diabetic retinopathy positively associated with all-cause mortality and depression, diabetic macular oedema positively associated with dyslipidaemia, cataract positively associated with gout, nuclear sclerosis positively associated with all-cause mortality, open angled glaucoma positively associated with migraine and hypertension, and age-related macular degeneration positively associated with diabetes), and 18 outcomes yielded weak evidence. Results show highly suggestive or suggestive evidence for associations between several types of eye diseases with several comorbid outcomes. Practitioners and public health policies should note these findings when developing healthcare policies.
A reproducible dynamic phantom for sequence testing in hyperpolarised 13C-magnetic resonance.
The British journal of radiology. 2022;(1134):20210770
OBJECTIVE To develop a phantom system which can be integrated with an automated injection system, eliminating the experimental variability that arises with manual injection; for the purposes of pulse sequence testing and metric derivation in hyperpolarised 13C-MR. METHODS The custom dynamic phantom was machined from Ultem and filled with a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and lactate dehydrogenase mixture dissolved in phosphate buffered saline. Hyperpolarised [1-13C]-pyruvate was then injected into the phantom (n = 8) via an automated syringe pump and the conversion of pyruvate to lactate monitored through a 13C imaging sequence. RESULTS The phantom showed low coefficient of variation for the lactate to pyruvate peak signal heights (11.6%) and dynamic area-under curve ratios (11.0%). The variance for the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme rate constant (kP) was also seen to be low at 15.6%. CONCLUSION The dynamic phantom demonstrates high reproducibility for quantification of 13C-hyperpolarised MR-derived metrics. Establishing such a phantom is needed to facilitate development of hyperpolarsed 13C-MR pulse sequenced; and moreover, to enable multisite hyperpolarised 13C-MR clinical trials where assessment of metric variability across sites is critical. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE The dynamic phantom developed during the course of this study will be a useful tool in testing new pulse sequences and standardisation in future hyperpolarised work.
The global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 by continents and national income: A meta-analysis.
Journal of medical virology. 2022;(6):2402-2413
The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.
Adherence to a healthy lifestyle and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study from the UK Biobank.
Nutritional neuroscience. 2022;(6):1231-1239
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common and disabling condition. The importance of healthy lifestyle for this disease is poorly explored. OBJECTIVE To test whether adherence to healthier lifestyle patterns is associated with a lower presence of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS By using a case-control design, we investigated the combined association of four healthy lifestyle-related factors (no current smoking, healthy diet, exercising regularly, body mass index <30 kg/m2) and the prevalence of MS. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounders, was used and data reported as odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS 728 participants with MS were matched with healthy controls (n = 2,912) using a propensity score approach. In a multivariable analysis, compared to those who scored low in the composite lifestyle score (0-1 healthy lifestyle factors), people who adopted all four low risk lifestyle factors showed a 71% lower odds of having MS (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15-0.56). Moreover, there was a strong linear trend, suggesting that the higher number of healthy lifestyle behaviors was associated with lower odds of having MS. CONCLUSION Following a healthy lifestyle is associated with a lower prevalence of MS. This association should be explored further in cohort studies.
The global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of pediatric new-onset type 1 diabetes and ketoacidosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal of medical virology. 2022;(11):5112-5127
Viral infections may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), and recent reports suggest that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have increased the incidence of pediatric T1D and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and EMBASE was conducted for articles published up to March 2022. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to compare the relative risk of T1D and DKA among pediatric patients with T1D between the COVID-19 pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. We also compared glucose and HbA1c values in children who were newly diagnosed with T1D before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The global incidence rate of T1D in the 2019 period was 19.73 per 100 000 children and 32.39 per 100 000 in the 2020 period. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic, the number of worldwide pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 9.5%, 25%, and 19.5%, respectively. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels, the median glucose, and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 6.43% and 6.42%, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA. Moreover, higher glucose and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic mandates targeted measures to raise public and physician awareness.
Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: a systematic review.
BMJ open sport & exercise medicine. 2021;7(1):e000960
Plain language summary
COVID-19 has led several countries to enforce social distancing in order to reduce the rate of transmission, commonly called ‘lockdown’. These lockdowns have impacted people’s work, education, travel and recreation, and subsequent levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SB). The aim of this study was to review and compare the changes in all reported PA and SB behaviours during versus before the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, stratifying between adults and children, and special populations. This study is a systemic review of 66 studies which yielded a total of 86981 participants with an age range between 13 and 86 years. Results demonstrated that the majority of studies found that PA declined and SB increased during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, regardless of the subpopulation. In healthy adults and children, PA during lockdown decreased compared with pre-lockdown, despite various government organisations and health or exercise practitioners providing guidance on how to stay active during the pandemic and in self-quarantine. Authors conclude that the public health officials should promote ways of increasing PA and reducing SB should further lockdowns occur, especially in populations with medical conditions that are improved by PA.
OBJECTIVE In March 2020, several countries banned unnecessary outdoor activities during COVID-19, commonly called 'lockdowns. These lockdowns have the potential to impact associated levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Given the numerous health outcomes associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour, the aim of this review was to summarise literature that investigated differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour before vs during the COVID-19 lockdown. DESIGN DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Electronic databases were searched from November 2019 to October 2020 using terms and synonyms relating to physical activity, sedentary behaviour and COVID-19. The coprimary outcomes were changes in physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour captured via device-based measures or self-report tools. Risk of bias was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Sixty six articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review (total n=86 981). Changes in physical activity were reported in 64 studies, with the majority of studies reporting decreases in physical activity and increases in sedentary behaviours during their respective lockdowns across several populations, including children and patients with a variety of medical conditions. CONCLUSION Given the numerous physical and mental benefits of increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour, public health strategies should include the creation and implementation of interventions that promote safe physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour should other lockdowns occur.