Adipose Insulin Resistance and Decreased Adiponectin Are Correlated With Metabolic Abnormalities in Nonobese Men.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2021;(5):e2228-e2238
CONTEXT Adipose tissue dysfunction is characterized by decreased adiponectin (AN) levels and impaired adipose tissue insulin sensitivity (ATIS) and is associated with metabolic disorders. While Asians readily develop metabolic disease without obesity, it remains unclear how decreased AN level and impaired ATIS affect metabolic abnormalities in nonobese Asians. DESIGN AND SETTING To investigate the relationships between decreased AN level, impaired ATIS, and metabolic abnormalities, we studied 94 Japanese men whose body mass index was less than 25 kg/m2. We divided the subjects into 4 groups based on their median AN level and ATIS, the latter calculated as the degree of insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and compared the metabolic parameters in the 4 groups. RESULTS The High-ATIS/High-AN group (n = 29) showed similar anthropometric data to the High-ATIS/Low-AN group (n = 18). In contrast, both the Low-ATIS/High-AN (n = 18) and Low-ATIS/Low-AN (n = 29) groups showed significantly lower muscle insulin sensitivity than the High-ATIS groups. The intrahepatic lipid level in the Low-ATIS/Low-AN group was significantly higher than that in the High-ATIS groups. In addition, the Low-ATIS/Low-AN group had a significantly higher fasting serum triglyceride level and significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than the other 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS In nonobese Japanese men with high ATIS, the AN level was not associated with metabolic characteristics. On the other hand, subjects with low ATIS showed reduced muscle insulin sensitivity, and those with a decreased AN level demonstrated multiple metabolic abnormalities, represented by fatty liver and dyslipidemia.
Genome-wide association study of gastric cancer- and duodenal ulcer-derived Helicobacter pylori strains reveals discriminatory genetic variations and novel oncoprotein candidates.
Microbial genomics. 2021;(11)
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) can reveal genetic variations associated with a phenotype in the absence of any hypothesis of candidate genes. The problem of false-positive sites linked with the responsible site might be bypassed in bacteria with a high homologous recombination rate, such as Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastric cancer. We conducted a small-sample GWAS (125 gastric cancer cases and 115 controls) followed by prediction of gastric cancer and control (duodenal ulcer) H. pylori strains. We identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (eight amino acid changes) and three DNA motifs that, combined, allowed effective disease discrimination. They were often informative of the underlying molecular mechanisms, such as electric charge alteration at the ligand-binding pocket, alteration in subunit interaction, and mode-switching of DNA methylation. We also identified three novel virulence factors/oncoprotein candidates. These results provide both defined targets for further informatic and experimental analyses to gain insights into gastric cancer pathogenesis and a basis for identifying a set of biomarkers for distinguishing these H. pylori-related diseases.
Efficacy of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose Compared to Sodium Hyaluronate as Submucosal Injectant for Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
INTRODUCTION Sodium hyaluronate (SH) is a useful submucosal injectant for gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). On the other hand, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), which has high viscosity, has also been applied clinically. We evaluated the efficacy of SCMC compared to that of SH in gastric ESD. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of 1.0% SCMC as the injectant (SCMC group) compared to 0.4% SH (SH group) for ESD of gastric neoplasms. The primary end point was the procedure time of ESD. Secondary end points were treatment outcomes such as en bloc and R0 resection rates, number of hemostases, amount of injectant, ease of treatment (visual analog scale, 1-10 points), adverse events, and rate of ulcer healing 8 weeks after ESD. RESULTS A total of 60 patients were enrolled between October 2014 and October 2018, and 30 patients were allocated in each group. The procedure time (mean ± SD, minutes) was not significantly different between the SCMC (74.7 ± 54.5) and SH groups (67.1 ± 41.4) (p = 0.547). Furthermore, there were no differences between the 2 groups in terms of en bloc and R0 resection rates, number of hemostases, amount of injectant, ease of treatment, and rate of ulcer healing. No serious adverse events were observed in either group. CONCLUSION SCMC was comparable to SH in terms of procedure time, treatment outcome, and ease and safety of treatment in gastric ESD. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the differences between the 2 injectants.
c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1) attenuates curcumin-induced cell death differently from its family member, JNK-associated leucine zipper protein (JLP).
Drug discoveries & therapeutics. 2021;(2):66-72
Curcumin, a major component of turmeric, is known to exhibit multiple biological functions including antitumor activity. We previously reported that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) scaffold protein c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-associated leucine zipper protein (JLP) reduces curcumin-induced cell death by modulating p38 MAPK and autophagy through the regulation of lysosome positioning. In this study, we investigated the role of JNK/stress-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1), a JLP family member, in curcumin-induced stress, and found that JSAP1 also attenuates curcumin-induced cell death. However, JSAP1 knockout showed no or little effect on the activation of JNK and p38 MAPKs in response to curcumin. In addition, small molecule inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPKs did not increase curcumin-induced cell death. Furthermore, JSAP1 depletion did not impair lysosome positioning and autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, we noticed substantial autolysosome accumulation accompanied by an inefficient autophagic flux in JSAP1 knockout cells. Taken together, these results indicate that JSAP1 is involved in curcumin-induced cell death differently from JLP, and may suggest that JSAP1 plays a role in autophagosome degradation and its dysfunction results in enhanced cell death. The findings of this study may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches using curcumin for cancer.
Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged and Elderly Women Are Associated with a Low Intake of Vitamin B6: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Plain language summary
Depression and anxiety are common mental disorders, which are more prominent in women undergoing menopause. Large hormonal fluctuations are thought to be the driving factor, however treatments for this may have side effects such as heart disease and cancer. Interest in complementary therapies has increased and associations between several nutrients and mental health disorders has been reported, however their affects in perimenopausal and post-menopausal women is still unknown. This cross-sectional study of 289 women aged 40 and over aimed to look at associations between dietary nutrient consumption and anxiety/depressive symptoms. The results showed that over half of the women reported some symptoms of anxiety or depression. Of the 43 nutrients examined, only decreased vitamin B6 intake was associated with symptoms of moderate-severe depression but not symptoms of anxiety. It was concluded that moderate to severe depressive symptoms were associated with a lower dietary intake of vitamin B6. However, it should be noted that dietary intake and not serum levels were used to make associations. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to recommend increased dietary vitamin B6 intake for symptoms of moderate to severe depression in women aged 40 or over.
This study investigated the nutritional factors that are associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Japanese middle-aged and elderly women. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 study participants aged ≥40 years (mean age = 52.0 ± 6.9 years). Their dietary habits, menopausal status and symptoms, and varied background factors, such as body composition, lifestyle factors, and cardiovascular parameters, were assessed. Their anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), where scores of 0-7 points, 8-10 points, and 11-21 points on either the anxiety or depression subscales were categorized as mild, moderate, and severe, respectively. The dietary consumption of nutrients was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The relationships between the moderate-to-severe anxiety/depressive symptoms and the dietary intake of 43 major nutrients were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analyses. After adjusting for age, menopausal status, and the background factors that were significantly related to depressive symptoms, moderate and severe depression was significantly inversely associated with only vitamin B6 (adjusted odds ratio per 10 μg/MJ in vitamin B6 intake = 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.80-0.99). A higher intake of vitamin B6 could help relieve depressive symptoms for this population.
Predictors of early death, serious hemorrhage, and differentiation syndrome in Japanese patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Annals of hematology. 2020;(12):2787-2800
Significant advancements have been achieved with regard to the outcomes of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients through the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid; however, early hemorrhagic death and differentiation syndrome remain the major causes of remission induction failure in patients with APL. To investigate early death, serious hemorrhage, and differentiation syndrome during remission induction therapy in terms of incidence, risk factors, influence on outcomes, and prophylactic effects of several new anticoagulants, the results of 344 patients enrolled in the Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia 204 study conducted by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group were analyzed. Early death was observed in 16 patients (4.7%), of whom 14 had serious hemorrhage and 2 had differentiation syndrome. Serious hemorrhage and differentiation syndrome of grade 2 or higher were observed in 21 and 54 patients, respectively. Patients who achieved complete remission had a 7-year disease-free survival of 84.8% if they did not experience serious hemorrhage and 40.0% if they experienced serious hemorrhage during remission induction therapy (P = 0.001). Risk factor analyses showed that higher white blood cell count was associated with early death, higher white blood cell count and lower platelet count with serious hemorrhage, and leukocytosis during induction therapy and higher body surface area with differentiation syndrome. In conclusion, these results indicate that patients with such high-risk features may benefit from more intensive supportive care. The hemorrhagic risk was not relieved by the introduction of new anticoagulants. Further studies are required to establish the predictive impact of body surface area on differentiation syndrome. This trial is registered with UMIN-CTR as C000000154 on September 13, 2005.
Protective role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-associated leucine zipper protein (JLP) in curcumin-induced cancer cell death.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2020;(3):697-703
Previous studies have established the antitumor activity of curcumin, a major component of turmeric. Increasing evidence indicates that curcumin induces autophagy, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signaling pathways, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell death. The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-associated leucine zipper protein (JLP), a scaffold protein for MAPK signaling pathways, has been identified as a candidate biomarker for cancer. In this study, we explored the role of JLP in curcumin-induced cancer cell death. We found that JLP knockdown (KD) increases cell death and intracellular ROS levels. Furthermore, JLP KD impaired lysosomal accumulation around perinuclear regions, which led to the inhibition of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and attenuated p38 MAPK activation in curcumin-treated cells. The decreases in cell viability and p38 MAPK activation were reversed by expressing wild-type JLP but not a JLP mutant lacking the p38 MAPK-binding domain. In addition, the inactivation of a key gene involved in autophagy increased sensitivity to curcumin-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that JLP mediates the induction of autophagy by regulating lysosome positioning and p38 MAPK signaling, indicating an overall protective role in curcumin-induced ROS-mediated cancer cell death.
Tamibarotene maintenance improved relapse-free survival of acute promyelocytic leukemia: a final result of prospective, randomized, JALSG-APL204 study.
Between April 2004 and December 2010, we conducted a prospective randomized controlled study comparing tamibarotene with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in the maintenance therapy of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and here report the final results of this study with a median follow-up of 7.3 years. Of 344 eligible patients who had received ATRA and chemotherapy, 319 (93%) achieved complete remission (CR). After completion of three courses of consolidation chemotherapy, 269 patients in molecular remission underwent maintenance randomization, 135 to ATRA (45 mg/m2 daily), and 134 to tamibarotene (6 mg/m2 daily) for 14 days every 3 months for 2 years. The primary endpoint was relapse-free survival (RFS). The 7-year RFS was 84% in the ATRA arm and 93% in the tamibarotene arm (p = 0.027, HR = 0.44, 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.93). The difference was prominent in high-risk patients with initial leukocytes ≥ 10.0 × 109/L (62% vs. 89%; p = 0.034). Tamibarotene was significantly superior to ATRA by decreasing relapse in high-risk patients. Overall survival after randomization did not differ (96% vs. 97%; p = 0.520). Secondary hematopoietic disorders developed in nine patients, secondary malignancies in 11, and grade 3 or more late cardiac comorbidities in three. These late complications did not differ between the two arms.
JLP-JNK signaling protects cancer cells from reactive oxygen species-induced cell death.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2018;(3):724-730
Oxidative stress, which can be caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), often leads to cell death. In recent years, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-associated leucine zipper protein (JLP, also known as SPAG9 or JIP4), a scaffold protein for JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, was found to serve as a novel biomarker for cancer. However, although JNK MAPK pathways are reported to be activated in response to various stimuli, including oxidative stress, whether JLP is involved in ROS signaling remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of JLP in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cancer cell death, and found that JLP knockdown (KD) cells exhibit a substantially enhanced cell death response, along with increased intracellular ROS levels. This is the first demonstration of a protective role for JLP in response to cell-death stimulation. We also found that the H2O2-induced JNK activation was attenuated in JLP KD cancer cells. The decreases in cell viability and JNK activation in the JLP KD cells were almost completely reversed by expressing wild-type JLP, but not a mutant JLP lacking the JNK-binding domain. These data collectively suggest that the JLP-JNK signaling pathway counteracts ROS-induced cancer cell death.
Factors Associated with Intima-Media Complex Thickness of the Common Carotid Artery in Japanese Noncardioembolic Stroke Patients with Hyperlipidemia: The J-STARS Echo Study.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. 2018;(4):359-373
AIMS: There may be ethnic differences in carotid atherosclerosis and its contributing factors between Asian and other populations. The purpose of this study was to examine intima-media complex thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery and associated clinical factors in Japanese stroke patients with hyperlipidemia from a cohort of the Japan Statin Treatment Against Recurrent Stroke Echo Study. METHODS Patients with hyperlipidemia, not on statins, who developed noncardioembolic ischemic stroke were included in this study. Mean IMT and maximum IMT of the distal wall of the common carotid artery were centrally measured using carotid ultrasonography. Significant factors related to mean IMT and maximum IMT were examined using multivariable analysis. RESULTS In 793 studied patients, mean IMT was 0.89±0.15 mm and maximum IMT was 1.19±0.32 mm.Age (per 10 years, parameter estimate=0.044, p＜0.001), smoking (0.022, p=0.004), category of blood pressure (0.022, p=0.006), HDL cholesterol (per 10 mg/dl, －0.009, p=0.008), and diabetes mellitus (0.033, p=0.010) were independently associated with mean IMT. Age (per 10 years, 0.076, p＜0.001), smoking (0.053, p=0.001), HDL cholesterol (－0.016, p=0.036), and diabetes mellitus (0.084, p=0.002) were independently associated with maximum IMT. CONCLUSION Baseline mean and maximum values of carotid IMT in Japanese noncardioembolic stroke patients with hyperlipidemia were 0.89±0.15 mm and 1.19±0.32 mm, respectively, which were similar to those previously reported from Western countries. Age, smoking, hypertension, HDL cholesterol, and diabetes mellitus were associated with mean IMT, and those, except for hypertension, were associated with maximum IMT.