Early Feeding Practices and Celiac Disease Prevention: Protocol for an Updated and Revised Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Uncertainty remains in regard to when, how, and in what form gluten should be introduced into the diet, particularly of infants genetically predisposed to developing celiac disease (CD). MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases will be searched from inception. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies) investigating the association between early feeding practices and the risk of CD and/or CD autoimmunity will be included. In prospective studies, participants will be infants regardless of the risk of developing CD. For retrospective studies, participants will be children or adults with CD or presenting with positive serology indicative of CD. Interventions will be gluten-containing products of any type. Exposures will be breastfeeding and/or the introduction of gluten-containing products of any type. In control groups, there will be no exposure, different degrees of exposure (partial vs. exclusive breastfeeding, different amounts of gluten, etc.), or a placebo. The primary outcome measure will be CD or CD autoimmunity (i.e., anti-transglutaminase or anti-endomysial antibodies). At least two reviewers will independently assess the risk of bias using a validated risk assessment tool depending on study design. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion to achieve a consensus with the involvement of one or more additional reviewers if required. If appropriate, data will be pooled. If not, a narrative synthesis will be performed. The findings will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.
FODMAP dietary restrictions in the management of children with functional abdominal pain disorders: A systematic review.
Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society. 2022;:e14345
BACKGROUND Evidence for the management of pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to update evidence on the efficacy and safety of implementing low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) dietary restrictions for the management of children with FAPD. METHODS The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched up to October 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the use of a low-FODMAP diet with any comparator in children aged 3-18 years with FAPD. The primary outcome was abdominal pain intensity. KEY RESULTS Five RCTs assessing the effects of a low-FODMAP diet were included. An effect of a low-FODMAP diet on abdominal pain intensity was only found in two trials. In one trial, there was a decrease in abdominal pain intensity on a 0-10 point Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) between low-FODMAP and gastrointestinal protective diet groups after 2 months (mean difference, MD 1.77, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.23 to 2.31, n = 60). In another trial, there was a difference in abdominal pain intensity during the 3-day intervention between the low-FODMAP and typical Singaporean diet groups (MD -1.36 cm, 95% CI -2.38 to -0.34, n = 10) measured using a 0-10 cm VAS. CONCLUSIONS & INTERFERENCES There is insufficient evidence for or against the efficacy and safety of using a low-FODMAP diet for the management of children with FAPD.
A Randomised, Controlled Trial: Effect of a Multi-Strain Fermented Milk on the Gut Microbiota Recovery after Helicobacter pylori Therapy.
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication therapy alters gut microbiota, provoking gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that could be improved by probiotics. The study aim was to assess the effect in Hp patients of a Test fermented milk containing yogurt and Lacticaseibacillus (L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 and I-3689, L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690) strains on antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) (primary aim), GI-symptoms, gut microbiota, and metabolites. A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial was performed on 136 adults under 14-day Hp treatment, receiving the Test or Control product for 28 days. AAD and GI-symptoms were reported and feces analysed for relative and quantitative gut microbiome composition, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and calprotectin concentrations, and viability of ingested strains. No effect of Test product was observed on AAD or GI-symptoms. Hp treatment induced a significant alteration in bacterial and fungal composition, a decrease of bacterial count and alpha-diversity, an increase of Candida and calprotectin, and a decrease of SCFA concentrations. Following Hp treatment, in the Test as compared to Control group, intra-subject beta-diversity distance from baseline was lower (padj = 0.02), some Enterobacteriaceae, including Escherichia-Shigella (padj = 0.0082) and Klebsiella (padj = 0.013), were less abundant, and concentrations of major SCFA (p = 0.035) and valerate (p = 0.045) were higher. Viable Lacticaseibacillus strains were detected during product consumption in feces. Results suggest that, in patients under Hp treatment, the consumption of a multi-strain fermented milk can induce a modest but significant faster recovery of the microbiota composition (beta-diversity) and of SCFA production and limit the increase of potentially pathogenic bacteria.
The role of milk feeds and other dietary supplementary interventions in preventing allergic disease in infants: Fact or fiction?
Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2021;(2):358-371
Exclusive breastfeeding ideally up to 6 months of life is the feed of choice for infants and should be promoted by healthcare professionals. However, when human milk is not sufficient or not available, infant formula, generally cow's milk-based, meeting strictly regulated nutritional and safety requirements, are recommended. Human breastmilk feeding has a positive health impact for both mother and child, but there is limited evidence that it has a long-term protective effect on the development of allergic disease. Some studies have found an association of an increased risk to develop cow's milk allergy with early exposure to cow's milk protein in formula milk. As a result, over the last 30 years, partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHF) have gained popularity and, more recently, become embroiled in a debate about their role in the primary prevention of allergic outcomes. Similar debates exist in regards to the potential preventative effects of pre-, pro- and synbiotics as well as nutritional factors, notably vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids. This paper aims to critically address these aspects, drawing information from published data interpreted by an international expert group in paediatrics, allergy, gastro-intestinal diseases and nutrition. This group of experts emphasize that human milk is the optimal source of infant nutrition. With regards to pHFs, whilst no harm has been shown with their use and some studies have suggested potential benefit preventing atopic dermatitis in at risk infants, there is insufficient evidence for or against their routine recommendation for primary allergy prevention. The method of hydrolysation differs for every formula. There is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with vitamin D, omega-3 LCPUFA, specific prebiotic oligosaccharides or specific probiotic strains during pregnancy, lactation and early life to prevent the development of allergic disease in children. There remains a need for well-designed trials with the currently commercialised pHFs and supplements to allow for better clarity and evidence-based recommendations.
Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Celiac Disease Development.
Frontiers in immunology. 2021;:734763
Background & Aims: Celiac disease (CeD), an immune-mediated disease with enteropathy triggered by gluten, affects ~1% of the general European population. Currently, there are no biomarkers to predict CeD development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation, and certain disease- and stage-specific miRNA profiles have been found previously. We aimed to investigate whether circulating miRNAs can predict the development of CeD. Methods: Using next-generation miRNA-sequencing, we determined miRNAs in >200 serum samples from 53 participants of the PreventCD study, of whom 33 developed CeD during follow-up. Following study inclusion at 3 months of age, samples were drawn at predefined ages, diagnosis (first anti-transglutaminase antibody (TGA) positivity or diagnostic biopsy) and after the start of a gluten-free diet (GFD). This allowed identification of circulating miRNAs that are deregulated before TGA positivity. For validation of the biomarkers for CeD and GFD response, two additional cohorts were included in subsequent meta-analyses. Additionally, miRNAs were measured in duodenal biopsies in a case-control cohort. Results: 53 circulating miRNAs were increased (27) or decreased (26) in CeD versus controls. We assessed specific trends in these individual miRNAs in the PreventCD cohort by grouping the pre-diagnostic samples of the CeD patients (all had negative TGA) by how close to seroconversion (first sample positive TGA) the samples were taken. 8/53 miRNAs differed significantly between controls and samples taken <1 year before TGA positivity: miR-21-3p, miR-374a-5p, 144-3p, miR-500a-3p, miR-486-3p let-7d-3p, let-7e-5p and miR-3605-3p. 6/26 downregulated miRNAs reconstituted upon GFD, including miR-150-5p/-3p, whereas no upregulated miRNAs were downregulated upon GFD. 15/53 biomarker candidates also differed between CeD biopsies and controls, with a concordant direction, indicating that these circulating miRNAs might originate from the intestine. Conclusions: We identified 53 circulating miRNAs that are potential early biomarkers for CeD, of which several can be detected more than a year before TGA positivity and some start to normalize upon GFD.
Early-Life Respiratory Infections in Infants with Cow's Milk Allergy: An Expert Opinion on the Available Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research.
Acute respiratory infections are a common cause of morbidity in infants and young children. This high rate of respiratory infections in early life has a major impact on healthcare resources and antibiotic use, with the associated risk of increasing antibiotic resistance, changes in intestinal microbiota composition and activity and, consequently, on the future health of children. An international group of clinicians and researchers working in infant nutrition and cow's milk allergy (CMA) met to review the available evidence on the prevalence of infections in healthy infants and in those with allergies, particularly CMA; the factors that influence susceptibility to infection in early life; links between infant feeding, CMA and infection risk; and potential strategies to modulate the gut microbiota and infection outcomes. The increased susceptibility of infants with CMA to infections, and the reported potential benefits with prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics with regard to improving infection outcomes and reducing antibiotic usage in infants with CMA, makes this a clinically important issue that merits further research.
The International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of postbiotics.
Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology. 2021;(9):649-667
In 2019, the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) convened a panel of experts specializing in nutrition, microbial physiology, gastroenterology, paediatrics, food science and microbiology to review the definition and scope of postbiotics. The term 'postbiotics' is increasingly found in the scientific literature and on commercial products, yet is inconsistently used and lacks a clear definition. The purpose of this panel was to consider the scientific, commercial and regulatory parameters encompassing this emerging term, propose a useful definition and thereby establish a foundation for future developments. The panel defined a postbiotic as a "preparation of inanimate microorganisms and/or their components that confers a health benefit on the host". Effective postbiotics must contain inactivated microbial cells or cell components, with or without metabolites, that contribute to observed health benefits. The panel also discussed existing evidence of health-promoting effects of postbiotics, potential mechanisms of action, levels of evidence required to meet the stated definition, safety and implications for stakeholders. The panel determined that a definition of postbiotics is useful so that scientists, clinical triallists, industry, regulators and consumers have common ground for future activity in this area. A generally accepted definition will hopefully lead to regulatory clarity and promote innovation and the development of new postbiotic products.
Effect of a low-FODMAP diet for the management of functional abdominal pain disorders in children: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Nutrition journal. 2021;(1):1
BACKGROUND Evidence from studies in adults documents that fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) may be triggers of symptoms in individuals with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). However, in children, the evidence is very limited. We aim to assess the effects of a low-FODMAP diet compared with a regular diet for the management of children with FAPDs. METHODS We will perform a randomized, quadruple-blinded, controlled trial. Seventy-four children aged 8 to 18 years with a FAPD (Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Abdominal Pain-Not Otherwise Specified), diagnosed according to the Rome IV criteria, will be randomly allocated to receive either a low-FODMAP diet or a regular diet for 4 weeks. The primary outcome will be the percentage of the responders, defined as the participants who have at least 30% improvement in abdominal pain intensity on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during the last week of the trial compared with baseline, that is at least equal to the Reliable Change Index (≥ 25 mm change on VAS). Other outcomes will include changes in stool consistency, abdominal pain frequency, total scores on the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, KIDSCREEN-10 Index and World Health Organization Five Well-Being Index, child's school attendance and parents' work absenteeism, and BMI-for-age z-score. Compliance, tolerability of the low-FODMAP diet, and adverse events also will be evaluated. Each FAPD subtype will be assessed separately. DISCUSSION There is a need for high-quality evidence regarding the dietary management of children with FAPDs. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) of rigorous methodological design will help to establish the effectiveness, if any, of a low-FODMAP diet for the management of FAPDs in the pediatric population. The findings of this RCT will assist with the development of guidelines and influence the direction of further research. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT04528914 Data and protocol version identifier: 24/08/2020.
Paediatric functional abdominal pain disorders.
Nature reviews. Disease primers. 2020;(1):89
Paediatric functional abdominal pain disorders, currently referred to as disorders of gut-brain interaction, comprise irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, abdominal migraine and functional abdominal pain not otherwise specified, as defined by the Rome IV diagnostic criteria. Functional abdominal pain disorders are common disorders with a prevalence of 3-16% depending on country, age and sex. A greater understanding of aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiology is emerging and includes intestinal components (inflammation, motility and the microbiota), central factors (psychological aspects, sensitization and/or differences in connectivity or activity of certain brain regions) as well as extrinsic factors (infections). In particular, the timing of disruption of the microbiota-gut-brain axis seems to be important. Diagnosis is challenging but is primarily based on clinical symptoms and exclusion of other organic causes, with an emphasis on avoiding unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. The available pharmacological interventions are limited in children and, therefore, management has focused on combined approaches, including mind-targeted interventions (hypnotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy), diet (probiotics) and percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation. The evidence for their clinical efficacy, although limited, is favourable, with positive impacts on symptoms and overall quality of life. The coming decades hold promise for improved understanding and management of these enigmatic disorders.
Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated adverse events in children-A scoping review to inform development of a core outcome set.
PloS one. 2020;(5):e0228824
INTRODUCTION Routine use of probiotics during antibiotic therapy in children remains a subject of discussion. To facilitate synthesis of individual study results and guideline formulation, it is important to assess predefined, similar, and clinically important outcomes. Core outcome sets are a proposed solution for this issue. The aim of this review was to document choice, design, and heterogeneity of outcomes in studies that assessed the effects of probiotics used for the prevention of antibiotic-associated adverse events in children. METHODS A scoping literature search covering three major databases was performed. Studies that evaluated oral probiotics' use concomitant with antibiotic therapy in children were included. Data on outcome definitions, measurement instruments, and follow-up were extracted. The outcomes were assigned to predefined core areas and domains. Data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS Thirty-seven studies were included in this review. Diarrhea, the most commonly reported outcome, had diagnostic criteria clearly defined only in 21 studies. In total, 16 different definitions of diarrhea were identified. Diarrhea duration, severity, and etiology were reported in 9, 4, and 7 studies, respectively. Twenty studies assessed gastrointestinal symptoms other than diarrhea. Seven studies reported outcomes related to resource use or the economic impact of the intervention. Only 2 studies assessed outcomes related to life impact. None of the studies predefined adverse events of probiotic use. CONCLUSIONS Identified outcomes were characterized by substantial heterogeneity. The majority of outcomes were not designed to evaluate endpoints of real-life relevance. Results from this review suggest the need for a new core outcome set consisting of outcomes important for decision-making.