Dietary Fiber Intake (Supplemental or Dietary Pattern Rich in Fiber) and Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.
Plain language summary
Most of the financial burden of diabetes mellitus is related to management of its complications, and chronic kidney disease is the most expensive and debilitating. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fibre (supplemental or dietary pattern rich in fibre) on diabetic kidney disease. The study is a systemic review that included seven interventional clinical trials that comprised 161 patients with diabetes with an age range of 20 to 74 years. The mean fibre intake in the intervention was 24 g/day and 16 g/day in the control group. Results indicate that only the vegetarian dietary pattern was associated with beneficial kidney outcomes in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There were no other dietary patterns that had favourable effects on kidney outcomes. Authors conclude that a vegetarian dietary pattern may have a beneficial effects on renal outcomes.
Fiber intake is associated with better glycemic control being an important nonpharmacologicaltreatment for diabetes (DM). We hypothesize that a dietary fiber intake can bringbenefits to diabetic kidney disease (DKD), improving renal outcomes. This systematic review aimedto evaluate the effect of dietary fiber (supplemental or dietary pattern rich in fiber) on DKD. Wesearched six databases to identify clinical trials that reported fiber intake and renal outcomes(albuminuria, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dialysis) in patients with DM.From 1814 studies, 48 papers were fully evaluated. In the end, seven trials (161 patients, aged 58.3years, 49% females) were included. The studies were organized into three categories (vegetarian,Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and fiber supplement), two evaluatedsupplements and five dietary patterns. Vegetarian diet reduced albuminuria in three trials, two inpatients with type 1 DM and one in patients with type 2 DM; and one study demonstrated a change inthe eGFR in type 1 DM. The individual quality of the studies was low/uncertain. A vegetarian dietarypattern may have a beneficial effect on these renal outcomes. However, the individual effect of theintake of fiber on DKD not was possible to be evaluated.
Effects of the DASH Diet and Walking on Blood Pressure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Uncontrolled Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.). 2015;(11):895-901
Data on the potential beneficial effects of combining diet and exercise on blood pressure (BP) are still scarce. A 4-week randomized controlled clinical trial was undertaken in 40 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) in office and daytime ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Patients were assigned to follow a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet associated with advice to increase walking using a pedometer (intervention group) or a diet based on the American Diabetes Association recommendations (control group). The lifestyle intervention caused a greater ABPM (mm Hg) reduction in systolic 24-hour, diastolic 24-hour, nighttime systolic, daytime systolic, and daytime diastolic measurements than observed in the control group. In the intervention group there was a decrease in urinary sodium and an increase in urinary potassium, plasma aldosterone, and the number of steps per day (P<.05). The DASH diet and increased walking were associated with clinically significant reductions in ABPM values in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.