Global Trends and Research Hotspots of Exercise for Intervening Diabetes: A Bibliometric Analysis.
Frontiers in public health. 2022;:902825
Background: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that often occurs in adults. Many studies have indicated that exercise is beneficial to the medical management of diabetes. Bibliometric analysis can help investigators to identify the current research concerns to guide future research directions. Nevertheless, the overview bibliometric analysis of this global research topic related to exercise and diabetes is lacking. The present bibliometric study aimed to investigate development trends and research hotspots of exercise and diabetes research and provide researchers with new perspectives in further studies. Materials and Methods: The articles and reviews regarding exercise and diabetes between 2000 and 2020 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection. The scientometrics analytical tool CiteSpace software was used to analyze the cooperation among countries/institutions/journals/authors, analysis of co-occurrence keywords, keywords bursts, and references. Results: In all, 3,029 peer-reviewed papers were found with a persistently increased tendency over time. The most prolific country and institution were the USA (965) and Univ Alberta (76), respectively. Diabetes Care published most papers (178) and was the most co-cited journal (2,630). Riddell MC had the most publications (53), and Sigal RJ was the most influential author (503 cited times). Colberg et al.'s paper (co-citation counts: 183) showed the strongest citation bursts by the end of 2020, which was the most representative reference. The four research focuses were mellitus, exercise, physical activity, and glycemic control. The two frontiers trends were sedentary behavior and stress. The combination of aerobic and resistance training can effectively improve glycemic control, decrease HbA1c levels, enhance cardiorespiratory fitness, improve lipid levels, and decrease the demand for non-insulin antihyperglycemic agents. Conclusions: This study offers a scientific perspective on exercise and diabetes research and provides investigators with valuable information to detect the current research condition, hotspots, and emerging trends for further study.
Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Capacity in Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.
Advances in therapy. 2022;(1):94-116
INTRODUCTION This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS Ten databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, CNKI, Wanfang, Weipu, and CBM) were searched for relevant articles published from inception to 30 June 2020. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing a HIIT group with usual care or other training groups. Quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale, and the overall quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. The primary outcomes were peak VO2 and FEV1% predicted, and the secondary outcomes were FEV1/FVC, peak VE, peak WR, 6MWD, dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and adverse event. RESULTS Twelve articles (689 patients) were included. HIIT was shown to have a positive effect on exercise capacity (peak WR, 6MWD), pulmonary function (FEV1% pred, peak VE), dyspnea, and quality of life. However, sensitivity analyses for dyspnea were unstable, and the result changed from positive to negative after removing one study (SMD = - 0.13, 95% CI [- 0.44, 0.17], P = 0.40). CONCLUSIONS HIIT could improve pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life but may not decrease dyspnea in patients with COPD. It can be recommended as a safe and effective exercise modality in rehabilitation programs. Given that the overall results were based on a limited number of studies with significant heterogeneity and some of the results were based on low GRADE rating evidence, more high-quality, larger sample size, multicenter, and long-term follow-up RCTs are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of HIIT in patients with COPD. PROSPERO REGISTRATION CRD42020165897.
Risk of requiring a walking aid after 6.5 years of ocrelizumab treatment in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: Data from the OPERA I and OPERA II trials.
European journal of neurology. 2022;(4):1238-1242
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Requiring a walking aid is a fundamental milestone in multiple sclerosis (MS), represented by an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≥6.0. In the present study, we assess the effect of ocrelizumab (OCR) on time to EDSS score ≥6.0 in relapsing MS. METHODS Time to EDSS score ≥6.0 confirmed for ≥24 and ≥48 weeks was assessed over the course of 6.5 years (336 weeks) in the double-blind period (DBP) and open-label extension (OLE) period of the OPERA I (NCT01247324) and OPERA II (NCT01412333) studies. RESULTS Time to reach EDSS score ≥6.0 was significantly delayed in those initially randomized to OCR versus interferon. Over 6.5 years, the risk of requiring a walking aid confirmed for ≥24 weeks was 34% lower among those who initiated OCR earlier versus delayed treatment (average hazard ratio [HR] DBP + OLE 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.95; p = 0.024); the risk of requiring a walking aid confirmed for ≥48 weeks was 46% lower (average HR DBP+OLE 0.54, 95% CI 0.35-0.83; p = 0.004). CONCLUSION The reduced risk of requiring a walking aid in earlier initiators of OCR demonstrates the long-term implications of earlier highly effective treatment.
Prevalence of Eimeria Spp. Among Goats in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. 2022;:806085
Eimeria spp. infection can cause weight loss in goats, and severe cases can lead to the death of lambs, resulting in economic losses to the goat industry. To explore the pooled prevalence of Eimeria spp. in goats in China, we obtained 70 related publications from five databases and conducted a meta-analysis. In China, the combined prevalence of Eimeria spp. in goats was 78.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 68.15-87.67). Among them, the most serious infections occurred in Northeast China (88.0%, 95% CI: 83.54-91.86). The main Eimeria species were E. alijevi (43.7%, 95% CI: 29.53-58.45), E. arloingi (49.7%, 95% CI: 34.83-64.49), E. christenseni (41.2%, 95% CI: 27.07-56.16), and E. ninakohlyakimovae (35.9%, 95% CI: 21.02-52.31). In the sampling year subgroup, 2006 or later presented a lower prevalence (75.3%, 95%CI: 58.72-88.72). In terms of age, the point estimate for young goats (≤ 1 year) was higher (89.9%, 95% CI: 80.82-96.48). The Float (NaCl) method showed the lowest prevalence of Eimeria spp. in goats (75.9%, 95%CI: 62.00-87.46). In the season subgroup, the highest prevalence was in summer (81.5%, 95%CI: 49.62-99.18). Female goats presented a higher prevalence of Eimeria spp. infection than male goats (70.7%, 95%CI: 27.90-98.96). The prevalence was lower in the intensive feeding model (77.4%, 95%CI: 66.56-86.67) and higher in free feeding goats (79.4%, 95%CI: 66.46-89.92). In addition, we also analyzed the potential relationship between geographical factors and the prevalence of Eimeria spp. infection in goats in China. Our findings suggested that Eimeria spp. infection in goats is widespread in China. Despite the overall downward trend, this infection cannot be ignored. We recommend that breeders use anticoccidial drugs to prevent and treat this disease, while improving the feeding conditions and managemental practices to reduce the economic losses caused by Eimeria infection to the goat industry.
Pathobiology of the Klotho Antiaging Protein and Therapeutic Considerations.
Frontiers in aging. 2022;:931331
The α-Klotho protein (henceforth denoted Klotho) has antiaging properties, as first observed in mice homozygous for a hypomorphic Klotho gene (kl/kl). These mice have a shortened lifespan, stunted growth, renal disease, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension, pulmonary disease, cognitive impairment, multi-organ atrophy and fibrosis. Overexpression of Klotho has opposite effects, extending lifespan. In humans, Klotho levels decline with age, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions. Low Klotho levels correlate with an increase in the death rate from all causes. Klotho acts either as an obligate coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), or as a soluble pleiotropic endocrine hormone (s-Klotho). It is mainly produced in the kidneys, but also in the brain, pancreas and other tissues. On renal tubular-cell membranes, it associates with FGF receptors to bind FGF23. Produced in bones, FGF23 regulates renal excretion of phosphate (phosphaturic effect) and vitamin D metabolism. Lack of Klotho or FGF23 results in hyperphosphatemia and hypervitaminosis D. With age, human renal function often deteriorates, lowering Klotho levels. This appears to promote age-related pathology. Remarkably, Klotho inhibits four pathways that have been linked to aging in various ways: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Wnt and NF-κB. These can induce cellular senescence, apoptosis, inflammation, immune dysfunction, fibrosis and neoplasia. Furthermore, Klotho increases cell-protective antioxidant enzymes through Nrf2 and FoxO. In accord, preclinical Klotho therapy ameliorated renal, cardiovascular, diabetes-related and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. s-Klotho protein injection was effective, but requires further investigation. Several drugs enhance circulating Klotho levels, and some cross the blood-brain barrier to potentially act in the brain. In clinical trials, increased Klotho was noted with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (losartan, valsartan), a statin (fluvastatin), mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin, everolimus), vitamin D and pentoxifylline. In preclinical work, antidiabetic drugs (metformin, GLP-1-based, GABA, PPAR-γ agonists) also enhanced Klotho. Several traditional medicines and/or nutraceuticals increased Klotho in rodents, including astaxanthin, curcumin, ginseng, ligustilide and resveratrol. Notably, exercise and sport activity increased Klotho. This review addresses molecular, physiological and therapeutic aspects of Klotho.
Hydrogen sulphide management in anaerobic digestion: A critical review on input control, process regulation, and post-treatment.
Bioresource technology. 2022;:126634
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in biogas is a problematic impurity that can inhibit methanogenesis and cause equipment corrosion. This review discusses technologies to remove H2S during anaerobic digestion (AD) via: input control, process regulation, and post-treatment. Post-treatment technologies (e.g. biotrickling filters and scrubbers) are mature with >95% removal efficiency but they do not mitigate H2S toxicity to methanogens within the AD. Input control (i.e. substrate pretreatment via chemical addition) reduces sulphur input into AD via sulphur precipitation. However, available results showed <75% of H2S removal efficiency. Microaeration to regulate AD condition is a promising alternative for controlling H2S formation. Microaeration, or the use of oxygen to regulate the redox potential at around -250 mV, has been demonstrated at pilot and full scale with >95% H2S reduction, stable methane production, and low operational cost. Further adaptation of microaeration relies on a comprehensive design framework and exchange operational experience for eliminating the risk of over-aeration.
Association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
Environmental research. 2022;(Pt D):112352
BACKGROUND Numerous studies have examined the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) and hypertension. However, the results are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES Considering the limitations of previous meta-analyses and the publication of many new studies in recent years, we conducted this meta-analysis to assess the relationship between long-term PM2.5 exposure and the incidence and prevalence of hypertension in a healthy population. METHODS We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus for relevant studies published until April 2, 2021 and reviewed the reference lists of previous reviews. A total of 28 observational studies reporting RR or OR with 95% CI for the association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and the risk of hypertension were included. RESULTS After the sensitivity analysis, we excluded one study with a high degree of heterogeneity, resulting in 27 studies and 28 independent reports. Approximately 42 million participants were involved, and the cases of hypertension in cohort and cross-sectional studies were 508,749 and 1,793,003, respectively. The meta-analysis showed that each 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was significantly associated with the risks of hypertension incidence (RR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.35) and prevalence (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.09). Subgroup analyses showed that occupational exposure had a significant effect on the association of PM2.5 and hypertension incidence (p for interaction = 0.042) and that the PM2.5 concentration level and physical activity had a noticeable effect on the association of PM2.5 and hypertension prevalence (p for interaction = 0.005; p for interaction = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS A significantly positive correlation was observed between long-term PM2.5 exposure and risks of hypertension incidence and prevalence, and a high PM2.5 concentration resulted in an increased risk of hypertension.
The Impact of Physical Activity on Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic in China: A Systematic Review.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2022;(11)
The outbreak and spread of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2019 was a public health emergency of global concern. As an important health behavior, physical activity (PA) and its impact on mental health have been increasingly explored during the epidemic period. The keywords and references were searched on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, and CNKI since the inception of an electronic bibliographic database until October 2021. A total of 2979 articles were identified, of which 23 were eligible for inclusion to examine the relationship between PA and mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic. Residents with regular PA, high-intensity PA, and PA duration of 30-60 min or more per day were associated with a lower risk of anxiety, depression, and negative emotions. In contrast, residents with no exercise and physical inactivity were more likely to have anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and lower subjective well-being. In addition, the dose-response curve between PA and negative emotions indicated a U-shaped relationship, and there were urban-rural differences in the relationship between emotional status and the levels of PA in adolescents. The findings have significant implications for addressing mental health issues during the current pandemic and future pandemics. Future studies adopting an experimental study design, conducting objective PA measures, and focusing on the vulnerable subpopulations are warranted to further explore the association of PA on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Adding Dexamethasone to Adductor Canal Block Combined With iPACK Block Improve Postoperative Analgesia of Total Knee Arthroplasty.
The Clinical journal of pain. 2022;(9):575-581
OBJECTIVE Both adductor canal block (ACB) and infiltration between the popliteal artery and capsule of the knee (iPACK) block are mainly sensory blocks, preserving muscle strength and the ability to ambulate. This study was designed to evaluate whether adding dexamethasone to ropivacaine could improve postoperative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial included 60 patients who underwent unilateral TKA under general anesthesia. All patients who received ACB and iPACK block were randomly divided into a dexamethasone group (Group D, ropivacaine combined with dexamethasone) and a control group (Group C, ropivacaine only). The primary outcome was the time to first administration of rescue analgesic drugs. The secondary outcomes included the total amount of rescue analgesic drugs and the pain scores at different time points within 72 hours postoperatively; the time to first getting out of bed; the quality of recovery scale (QOR-15 score); and the levels of plasma inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) on postoperative day 1. RESULTS Compared with Group C, the time to first administration of rescue analgesic drugs in Group D was significantly extended by ∼10.5 hours. Patients in Group D had significantly lower pain scores at different postoperative time points and consumed significantly less total morphine within 72 hours postoperatively. In addition, patients in group D reported significantly higher QoR-15 scores on postoperative days 1 and 3, earlier first time of getting out of bed, and significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 on postoperative day 1. CONCLUSIONS Compared with using ropivacaine alone, ultrasonic-guided ACB combined with iPACK using ropivacaine and dexamethasone could prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia and strength analgesic intensity and promote the early rehabilitation exercise of patients undergoing TKA.
Effect of Zhan Zhuang Qigong on upper limb static tremor and aerobic exercise capacity in patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
BMJ open. 2022;(7):e059625
INTRODUCTION Currently, the first choice for the clinical treatment of static tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) is drug therapy, however side effects are common. In recent years, the effects of physical therapy on PD has become a serious research focus. Studies have indicated that aerobic and resistance exercises alleviate PD movement disorders and improve aerobic capacity, but the effects of Qigong on PD static tremor and aerobic capacity remain unknown. METHODS AND ANALYSIS OBJECTIVE To observe the effects of Zhan Zhuang Qigong on upper limb static tremor and aerobic capacity in patients with PD, we established a rigorous randomised, parallel-controlled, assignment hidden, evaluator-blinded protocol. METHODS Seventy-two patients with PD, at the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, were recruited and randomly divided into a control (n=36) and experimental group (n=36). The intervention group received conventional medicine plus Zhan Zhuang Qigong exercises five times a week at 30 min each time, over an 8-week period. The long-term effects of Zhan Zhuang Qigong on PD was investigated after the intervention. Phyphox APP, CRST, CPET, UPDRS(II, III) were used to evaluate tremor, aerobic capacity, and motor function in groups. DISCUSSION We are investigating the effects of Zhan Zhuang Qigong on upper limb static tremor and aerobic capacity in patients with PD. If positive are identified, they will add a new research direction and evidence for the clinical exploration of exercise therapy for PD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Approval Number: 2021-025-KY). The Committee will be informed of any changes to the trial protocol, such as intervention intensity, outcome indicators and data collection. Study results will be presented as a paper at an international conference or in a journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ChiCTR2100053529.