Oxalate crystal-related acute renal injury caused by orlistat: A case report.
Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences. 2022;(5):583-587
We reported a case of oxalate crystal-related acute kidney injury caused by orlistat. The patient was admitted for nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury. The pathomorphological assessment of renal biopsy showed intratubular oxalate crystals. The patient reported that she had taken orlistat regularly to loss weight for more than a year. This patient had a habit of drinking vegetable soup and strong herbal tea daily. Orlistat, an intestinal lipase inhibitor, may cause secondary hyperoxaluria, that is, intestinal hyperoxaluria. Dietary habits could be a common precipitating factor for orlistat-relevant hyperoxaluria. It was comprehensively considered to be oxalate crystal-related acute renal injury, and the patient's renal function recovered gradually after drug withdrawal. Clinicians should pay attention to screening drug-related acute kidney injury including orlistat when observing patients with unexplained acute kidney injury, and renal biopsy should be performed if necessary. It is also important to warn people who take the orlistat for weight loss about the side effects of this drug so as to adjust the eating habits.
Lifestyle and metabolic factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Mendelian randomization study.
European journal of epidemiology. 2022;(7):723-733
The risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have not been clearly identified. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to explore this. Independent genetic variants strongly associated with 5 lifestyle and 9 metabolic factors were selected as instrumental variables from corresponding genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Summary-level data for NAFLD were obtained from a GWAS meta-analysis of 8434 cases and 770,180 non-cases (discovery dataset) and another GWAS meta-analysis of 1483 cases and 17,781 non-cases (replication dataset). Univariable and multivariable MR analyses were performed. There were associations with NAFLD for lifetime smoking index (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-1.93 per SD-increase), body mass index (BMI, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43 per SD-increase), waist circumference (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.48-2.24 per SD-increase), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.15-1.27 per unit increase in log-transformed odds), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.07-1.26 per 10 mmHg increase), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.90 per SD-increase), and triglycerides (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.33 per SD-increase). The associations for type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, but not for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol remained strong after adjusting for genetically-predicted BMI. Genetic liability to type 2 diabetes mediated 51.4% (95% CI 13.4-89.3%) of the BMI-effects on NAFLD risk. There were suggestive inverse associations of genetically-predicted alcohol, coffee, and caffeine consumption, and vigorous physical activity with NAFLD risk. This study identified several lifestyle and metabolic factors that may be causally implicated in NAFLD.
Flipped Classroom Approach Used in the Training of Mass Casualty Triage for Medical Undergraduate Students.
Disaster medicine and public health preparedness. 2022;(1):94-101
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to explore the application of the flipped classroom approach in the training of Mass Casualty Triage (MCT) to medical undergraduate students. METHODS In this study, 103 fourth-year medical students were randomly divided into a Flipped Classroom (FC) group (n = 51) and a Traditional Lecture-based Classroom (TLC) group (n = 52). A post-class quiz, simulated field triage (SFT) and feedback questionnaires were performed to assess both groups of students for their learning of the course. RESULTS In the post-quiz, the median (IQR) scores achieved by students from the FC and TLC groups were 42(5) and 39(5.5), respectively. Significant differences were found between the two groups. In the SFT, overall triage accuracy was 67.06% for FC, and 64.23% for TLC students. Over-triage and under-triage errors occurred in 18.43% and 14.50% of the FC group, respectively. The TLC group had a similar pattern of 20.77% over-triage and 15.0% under-triage errors. No significant differences were found regarding overall triage accuracy or triage errors between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS The FC approach could enhance course grades reflected in the post-quiz and improve students' satisfaction with the class. However, there was no significant difference of competency between the two groups demonstrated in the SFT exercise.
Current development and perspectives of anaerobic bioconversion of crop stalks to Biogas: A review.
Bioresource technology. 2022;:126615
As one of the most abundant biomass resources, crop stalks are great potential feedstock available for anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. However, the specific physical properties and complex chemical structures of crop stalks form strong barriers to efficient AD bioconversion. To overcome these problems, many efforts have been made over the past few years. This paper reviewed recent research in the evolving field of anaerobic bioconversion of crop stalks and was focused on three critical aspects affecting AD performance: various pretreatment methods and their effects on the improvement of crop stalk biodegradability, determination of specific AD operation parameters for crop stalks, and development of AD technologies. Finally, recommendations on the future development of crop stalk AD were proposed.
The effect of periodic ketogenic diet on newly diagnosed overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
BMC endocrine disorders. 2022;22(1):34
Plain language summary
Currently, the ketogenic diet is gaining popularity in managing Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Ketogenic diets replace carbohydrates with fat and include limited carbohydrates and adequate protein. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effects of the 12-week ketogenic diet on sixty overweight or obese T2D patients. Both the ketogenic and control diabetes diet groups achieved significant reductions in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and HbA1c. However, the ketogenic group showed significantly greater reductions in body mass, blood lipids, and blood glucose than the control group. In the ketogenic diet group, serum uric acid levels were higher than those in the control diet group. It was found that the control diet group adhered to the diet for a longer period than the ketogenic diet group, whose willingness to adhere to the diet long-term was weaker. More robust long-term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet. In this study, more patients who followed the ketogenic diet experienced hypoglycaemic events during the first four weeks. Healthcare providers should exercise caution when recommending a short term therapeutic ketogenic diet.
BACKGROUND The ketogenic diet (KD) is characterized by fat as a substitute of carbohydrates for the primary energy source. There is a large number of overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while this study aims to observe periodic ketogenic diet for effect on overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM. METHODS A total of 60 overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM were randomized into two groups: KD group, which was given ketogenic diet, and control group, which was given routine diet for diabetes, 30 cases in each group. Both dietary patterns lasted 12 weeks, and during the period, the blood glucose, blood lipid, body weight, insulin, and uric acid before and after intervention, as well as the significance for relevant changes, were observed. RESULTS For both groups, the weight, BMI(body mass index), Waist, TG (triglyceride), TC(cholesterol), LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), FBG (fasting glucose), FINS (fasting insulin), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) were decreased after intervention (P < 0.05), while the decrease rates in the KD group was more significant than the control group. However, UA(serum uric acid) in the KD group showed an upward trend, while in the control group was not changed significantly (P > 0.05).The willingness to adhere to the ketogenic diet over the long term was weaker than to the routine diet for diabetes. CONCLUSION Among the overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus, periodic ketogenic diet can not only control the body weight, but also control blood glucose and lipid, but long-term persistence is difficult.
An atlas on risk factors for multiple sclerosis: a Mendelian randomization study.
Journal of neurology. 2021;(1):114-124
OBJECTIVES We conducted a systematic review and wide-angled Mendelian randomization (MR) study to examine the association between possible risk factors and multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS We used MR analysis to assess the associations between 65 possible risk factors and MS using data from a genome-wide association study including 14 498 cases and 24 091 controls of European ancestry. For 18 exposures not suitable for MR analysis, we conducted a systematic review to obtain the latest meta-analyses evidence on their associations with MS. RESULTS Childhood and adulthood body mass index were positively associated with MS, whereas physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were inversely associated with MS. There was evidence of possible associations of type 2 diabetes, waist circumference, body fat percentage, age of puberty and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Data of systematic review showed that exposure to organic solvents, Epstein Barr virus and cytomegalovirus virus infection, and diphtheria and tetanus vaccination were associated with MS risk. CONCLUSIONS This study identified several modifiable risk factors for primary prevention of MS that should inform public health policy.
Screening cardiovascular risk factors of diabetes patients in the primary diabetes clinics.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients from the primary diabetes clinics for further comprehensive intervention in China.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 primary diabetes chain hospitals in Beijing, Lanzhou, Harbin, Chengdu, and Taiyuan in continuous patients with type 2 diabetes from March 2016 to December 2019. The data collected at the first visit were analyzed, and proportions of patients reached the targets (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] < 7%, blood pressure < 130/80 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] < 2.6mmol/l) were calculated. The clinical characteristics and the associated factors with achievement in HbA1c, blood pressure, and LDL-C targets were analyzed.A total of 20,412 participants, including 11,353 men (55.6%), with an average age of (59.4 ± 10.4) years were enrolled. Nearly 95% diabetes had one or more ASCVD risk factors other than hyperglycemia. The control rates of HbA1c, blood pressure, and LDL-C were 26.5%, 27.8%, and 42.6%, respectively. Only 4.1% patients achieved all 3 targets. Nearly 95% patients had one or more ASCVD risk factors other than hyperglyciemia. Diabetes duration, family history, and overweight/obesity were associated with the number of aggregated ASCVD risk factors. The patients with older age, no overweight/obesity, not smoking, less ASCVD risk factors, and having special diabetes care insurance (Chengdu) were associated with a higher control rates.To deal with poor control status, global management of ASCVD risk factors, weight loss, and smoking cessation must be emphasized in the primary diabetes care settings. Special diabetes care insurance should be advocated.Current ClinicalTrial.gov protocol ID NCT03707379. Date of Registration: October 16, 2018. https://clinicaltrials.gov.
Probiotic supplements and bone health in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
BMJ open. 2021;11(3):e041393
Plain language summary
Osteoporosis is a disease where bone density is decreased and is often seen in postmenopausal women. Current prescribed treatments are costly and can often have serious side effects and as a result natural treatments are often requested. Probiotics have been shown in previous studies to be of benefit to bones, however no large review of all the available studies has been performed. This systematic review and meta-analysis of current randomised control trials (RCT’s) aimed to summarise the effect of probiotics on bone density in postmenopausal women. The results showed that only five RCT’s were available on the effect of probiotics on bone density of which there were 497 postmenopausal women. Bone density at the base of the spine was increased in women taking probiotics, however there was no difference seen in bone density of the hip. Bone markers for bone degradation were decreased, however other markers associated with bone density changes were unaffected. It was concluded that probiotics may increase bone density at the base of the spine, however more high-quality studies are needed. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand how probiotics may be of benefit to postmenopausal women, however definitive recommendations based on this study may need to be made with caution.
OBJECTIVE Osteoporosis is a common disease in postmenopausal women. Several studies have analysed the associations between dietary supplementation with probiotics and bone health in postmenopausal women, but the results are still controversial. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the effects of probiotics supplement on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers for postmenopausal women. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from their inception to November 2020 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing probiotic supplements and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effect models. RESULTS Five RCTs (n=497) were included. Probiotic supplements were associated with a significantly higher BMD in the lumbar spine (standardised mean difference, SMD=0.27, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.44) than in control. There was no difference between probiotic supplements and BMD in hips (SMD=0.22, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.52). Collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide levels in the treatment groups were significantly lower than those of the placebo group (SMD=-0.34, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.09). In subgroup meta-analysis, levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin and tumour necrosis factor did not differ between the probiotic and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS We conclude cautiously that supplementation with probiotics could increase lumbar BMD. More RCTs are recommended to validate or update these results.
Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2021;:709683
Background: Weight loss by lifestyle modification is the cornerstone therapy of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Intermittent fasting has shown favorable effects on body weight (BW) and relevant indicators of NAFLD in several reports. Objective: To estimate the effects of intermittent fasting on adults with NAFLD. Materials and methods: Literature searches were conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to May 10, 2021. Results: A total of six studies involving 417 patients with NAFLD were included. In the meta-analysis, there were significant differences in BW, body mass index (BMI), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) between the control and fasting group. Up to now, there is no significant difference in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and other metabolic parameters between the two groups. Conclusions: Intermittent fasting is beneficial for weight management and liver enzyme improvement, but long-term feasibility and safety of intermittent fasting should be conducted in further studies.
Role of Selective Autophagy in Spermatogenesis and Male Fertility.
Autophagy is a "self-eating" process that engulfs cellular contents for their subsequent digestion in lysosomes to engage the metabolic need in response to starvation or environmental insults. According to the contents of degradation, autophagy can be divided into bulk autophagy (non-selective autophagy) and selective autophagy. Bulk autophagy degrades non-specific cytoplasmic materials in response to nutrient starvation while selective autophagy targets specific cargoes, such as damaged organelles, protein aggregates, and intracellular pathogens. Selective autophagy has been documented to relate to the reproductive processes, especially for the spermatogenesis, fertilization, and biosynthesis of testosterone. Although selective autophagy is vital in the field of reproduction, its role and the underlying mechanism have remained unclear. In this review, we focus on selective autophagy to discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism and role of selective autophagy on spermatogenesis and male fertility in mammals. Understanding the role of selective autophagy during spermatogenesis will promote the recognition of genetic regulation in male infertility, and shed light on therapies of infertile patients.