Tissue Engineering Microtissue: Construction, Optimization, and Application.
Tissue engineering. Part B, Reviews. 2022;(2):393-404
Until now, there is no clear definition of microtissue; it usually refers to the microtissue formed by the aggregation of seed cells under the action of cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM). Compared with traditional cell monolayer culture, cells are cultivated into a three-dimensional microstructure in a specific way. The microstructure characteristics of microtissue are similar to natural tissues and can promote cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, it has a broader range of biomedical applications in tissue engineering. The traditional tissue engineering strategy is to add high-density seed cells and biomolecules on a preformed scaffold to construct a tissue engineering graft. However, due to the destruction of the ECM of the cells cultured in a monolayer during the digestion process with trypsin, the uneven distribution of the cells in the scaffold, and the damage of various adverse factors after the cells are implanted in the scaffold, this strategy is often ineffective, and the subsequent applications still face challenges. This article reviews the latest researches of a new strategy-tissue engineering microtissue strategy; discuss several traditional construction methods, structure, and function optimization; and practical application of microtissue. The review aims to provide a reference for future research on tissue engineering microtissue. Impact statement The traditional tissue engineering strategies have several disadvantages, researchers have conducted extensive research on tissue engineering microtissues in recent years, and they make significant progress. Microtissue is a kind of microtissue with three-dimensional structure, its microstructure is similar to that of natural tissue. In addition, microtissue implantation can protect cells from mechanical interference, inflammation, and other adverse factors. Furthermore, it improves the survival rate of cells and the therapeutic effect of tissue-engineered grafts. However, the practical conditions, advantages, and disadvantages of tissue engineering microtissue have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is to discuss the latest research progress of microtissue and provide a reference for future research.
Exercise: A Possibly Effective Way to Improve Vitamin D Nutritional Status.
Vitamin D deficiency has become a widespread public health problem owing to its potential adverse health effects. Generally, the nutritional status of vitamin D depends on sunlight exposure and dietary or supplementary intake. However, recent studies have found that exercise can influence circulating 25(OH)D levels; although, the results have been inconclusive. In this review, we focused on the effect of exercise on circulating vitamin D metabolites and their possible mechanisms. We found that endurance exercise can significantly increase serum 25(OH)D levels in vitamin D-deficient people but has no significant effect on vitamin D-sufficient people. This benefit has not been observed with resistance training. Only chronic endurance exercise training can significantly increase serum 1,25(OH)2D, and the effect may be sex-dependent. Exercise may influence 25(OH)D levels in the circulation by regulating either the vitamin D metabolites stored in tissues or the utilization by target tissues. The effects of exercise on 25(OH)D levels in the circulation may be dependent on many factors, such as the vitamin D nutritional status, exercise type and intensity, and sex. Therefore, further research on the effects and mechanisms of exercise on vitamin D metabolites is required.
Effect of Physical Exercise on Cognitive Function of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial.
Frontiers in psychiatry. 2022;:927128
This review aims to systematically review the effects of physical exercise on the cognitive performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its mechanisms of action. Databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until December 2021. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the effect of an exercise intervention (compared with no exercise) on patients with AD. The measures included cognitive function [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease assessment scale-cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA) and Executive Function (EF)]. The methodological quality of the included literature was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Twenty-two studies (n = 1647, mean age: 77.1 ± 6.3 years) were included in the systematic review, sixteen of which were included in the meta-analysis. A systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that physical exercise positively affects cognitive performance in older patients with AD. However, the positive effects of the intervention should be interpreted with caution considering the differences in methodological quality, type, frequency, and duration of exercise in the included studies. Future studies should consider the design rigor and specification of RCT protocols.
Effects of Acupuncture and Rehabilitation Training on Limb Movement and Living Ability of Patients with Hemiplegia after Stroke.
Behavioural neurology. 2022;:2032093
Stroke is a disease with a high disability rate, having a serious impact on that patient's working and daily survival quality and bringing economic burden to the family and society. Patients with stroke hemiplegia are mostly tetraplegic and have difficulty regulating their balance, and their long-term symmetry has been destroyed. The application in the rehabilitation process of acupuncture in patients with hemorrhagic stroke may produce unexpected effects. It is very effective to study the effect of acupuncture combined with rehabilitation training on limb movement and patient survival. It is very helpful in improving normal motor function and normal life, increasing joint mobility and muscle strength, and reducing muscle tension. In this paper, it is found that the observational group has a complication rate of 2.13%, in contrast to 17.02% as in the group of control, and the pin-prick combined with a rehabilitative training makes a significant improvement to the patients. This study provides suggestions for the study to investigate acupuncture combined with recovery exercise on limb movement and living capacities of people with stroke paraparesis.
New Insights into Stroke Prevention and Treatment: Gut Microbiome.
Cellular and molecular neurobiology. 2022;(2):455-472
Stroke, a lethal neurological disease, accounts for a grave economic burden on society. Despite extensive basic and clinical studies on stroke prevention, a precise effective treatment approach for stroke at this stage remains unavailable. The majority of our body's gut microbiota plays a vital role in food digestion, immune regulation, and nervous system development, which is highly associated with the development of some diseases. Multiple clinical studies have documented variation in the composition of gut microbiota between stroke patients and healthy counterparts. Moreover, the intervention of intestinal symbiotic microorganisms via several mechanisms plays an active role in stroke prognosis. In the prevention and treatment of stroke, the gut microbiota gives off a seductive glow, this is a promising therapeutic target. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of stroke and gut microbiota, and systematically describes the possible mechanisms of interaction between stroke and gut microbiota, the relationship between stroke-related risk factors and gut microbiota, and the treatment of gut flora using microorganisms. Thus, it could valuably elucidate the correlation of gut microbiota with stroke incidence, providing stroke researchers with a new strategy for stroke prevention and treatment by regulating gut microbiota.
Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years for 29 Cancer Groups From 2010 to 2019: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.
JAMA oncology. 2022;(3):420-444
IMPORTANCE The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) provided systematic estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality to inform local and international efforts toward reducing cancer burden. OBJECTIVE To estimate cancer burden and trends globally for 204 countries and territories and by Sociodemographic Index (SDI) quintiles from 2010 to 2019. EVIDENCE REVIEW The GBD 2019 estimation methods were used to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2019 and over the past decade. Estimates are also provided by quintiles of the SDI, a composite measure of educational attainment, income per capita, and total fertility rate for those younger than 25 years. Estimates include 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). FINDINGS In 2019, there were an estimated 23.6 million (95% UI, 22.2-24.9 million) new cancer cases (17.2 million when excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 10.0 million (95% UI, 9.36-10.6 million) cancer deaths globally, with an estimated 250 million (235-264 million) DALYs due to cancer. Since 2010, these represented a 26.3% (95% UI, 20.3%-32.3%) increase in new cases, a 20.9% (95% UI, 14.2%-27.6%) increase in deaths, and a 16.0% (95% UI, 9.3%-22.8%) increase in DALYs. Among 22 groups of diseases and injuries in the GBD 2019 study, cancer was second only to cardiovascular diseases for the number of deaths, years of life lost, and DALYs globally in 2019. Cancer burden differed across SDI quintiles. The proportion of years lived with disability that contributed to DALYs increased with SDI, ranging from 1.4% (1.1%-1.8%) in the low SDI quintile to 5.7% (4.2%-7.1%) in the high SDI quintile. While the high SDI quintile had the highest number of new cases in 2019, the middle SDI quintile had the highest number of cancer deaths and DALYs. From 2010 to 2019, the largest percentage increase in the numbers of cases and deaths occurred in the low and low-middle SDI quintiles. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this systematic analysis suggest that the global burden of cancer is substantial and growing, with burden differing by SDI. These results provide comprehensive and comparable estimates that can potentially inform efforts toward equitable cancer control around the world.
Meta-analysis of sleep deprivation effects on depression in rodents.
Brain research. 2022;:147841
OBJECTIVE To our knowledge, the relationship of sleep deprivation (SD) and depression on the rodents remains unclear. In this article, we performed a meta-analysis to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the experimental effects of SD on rodents and explore the heterogeneous factors that may be associated with outcomes. METHODS PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for articles before January 5th, 2022. The strains of rodents, SD method, and depression measurement tools were recorded. Standardized mean differences based on Hedge's g were calculated as measures of the effect size. RESULTS In total, 19 studies involving 51 trials were included. The overall data suggested that SD had a large effect on exacerbating depression-like behaviors, but there was high heterogeneity [-1.09 (-1.57, -0.62); I2 = 90.3%; P < 0.05]. Subgroup analysis showed that tail suspension test better reflected the effect of SD in exacerbating depression-like behavior [-3.677 (-4.758, -2.597); I2 = 56.7%; P = 0.001] than forced swimming test [-0.821 (-1.439, -0.203); I2 = 91%; P = 0.009] and sucrose preference test [-1.033 (-1.709, -0.358); I2 = 81.6%; P = 0.003]. CONCLUSION This study found that SD worsened depression-like behaviors by tail suspension test. Our results also indicated that the effects of SD on depression in rodents were related to different assessment methods, strains, SD methods and SD types.
A self-efficacy-enhancing physical activity intervention in women with high-risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.
BACKGROUND Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical disorders in pregnancy. Evidence has demonstrated that moderate-intensity physical activity may reduce the risk of gestational diabetes. However, women at risk of GDM spend most of their time performing sedentary behaviors. Although researchers identified self-efficacy as a mediator to overcome physical activity barriers, exercise intervention during pregnancy based on self-efficacy theory has not been discussed so far. Furthermore, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of a physical exercise intervention on the incidence of GDM and other maternal or neonatal outcomes in women at higher risk for GDM. METHODS/DESIGN A single-center, parallel, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in a maternal-child health care center. A total of 244 pregnant women at high risk for GDM will be randomized into a study group receiving a self-efficacy-enhancing physical activity intervention or a control group receiving the usual care. The intervention will consist of four group sessions and everyday reminders by WeChat (Tencent, Shenzhen, China). The program will begin at approximately 13-14+6 gestational weeks and end at 36+6 gestational weeks. The primary outcomes will include the incidence of GDM, blood sugar values, and physical activity. The secondary outcomes will include physical activity self-efficacy, gestational weight gain, maternal outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. DISCUSSION The findings of this research will contribute toward understanding the effects of a self-efficacy theory-oriented physical activity program on the incidence of GDM, blood sugar values, physical activity level, gestational weight gain, physical activity self-efficacy, maternal outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (CHiCTR) ChiCTR2200056355 . Registered on February 4, 2022.
Effects of Exercise on Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Brain Imaging Studies.
Frontiers in human neuroscience. 2022;:796712
BACKGROUND Exercise is increasingly recognized as a key component of Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment strategies, but the underlying mechanism of how exercise affects PD is not yet fully understood. OBJECTIVE The activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method is used to study the mechanism of exercise affecting PD, providing a theoretical basis for studying exercise and PD, and promoting the health of patients with PD. METHODS Relevant keywords were searched on the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Seven articles were finally included according to the screening criteria, with a total sample size of 97 individuals. Using the GingerALE 3.0.2 software, an ALE meta-analysis was performed using seven studies that met the requirements, and the probability of the cross-experiment activation of each voxel was calculated. RESULTS The meta-analysis produced seven clusters, and major activations were found in the cerebellum, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe brain regions. CONCLUSION Exercise for PD mainly results in the enhanced activation of the cerebellum, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe. Exercise for PD does not cause a change in the activation of a single brain area, and the observed improvement may result from coordinated changes in multiple brain areas.
Intermittent fasting two days versus one day per week, matched for total energy intake and expenditure, increases weight loss in overweight/obese men and women.
Nutrition journal. 2022;(1):36
BACKGROUND Intermittent fasting (IF), consisting of either a one-day (IF1) or two consecutive days (IF2) per week, is commonly used for optimal body weight loss. Our laboratory has previously shown an IF1 diet combined with 6d/week of protein pacing (P; 4-5 meals/day evenly spaced, ~ 30% protein/day) significantly enhances weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic health in obese men and women. Whether an IF1-P or IF2-P, matched for weekly energy intake (EI) and expenditure (EE), is superior for weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic health is unknown. METHODS This randomized control study directly compared an IF1-P (n = 10) versus an IF2-P (n = 10) diet on weight loss and body composition, cardiovascular (blood pressure and lipids), hormone, and hunger responses in 20 overweight men and women during a 4-week weight loss period. Participants received weekly dietary counseling and monitoring of compliance from a registered dietitian. All outcome variables were assessed pre (week 0) and post (week 5). RESULTS Both groups significantly reduced body weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, fat mass, hunger, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and increased percent fat-free mass (p < 0.05). However, IF2-P resulted in significantly greater reductions in body weight (-29%) and waist circumference (-38%) compared to IF1-P (p < 0.05), and showed a strong tendency for greater reductions in fat mass, glucose, and hunger levels (p < 0.10) despite similar weekly total EI (IF1-P, 9058 ± 692 vs. IF2-P, 8389 ± 438 kcals/week; p = 0.90), EE (~ 300 kcals/day; p = 0.79), and hormone responses (p > 0.10). CONCLUSIONS These findings support short-term IF1-P and IF2-P to optimize weight loss and improve body composition, cardiometabolic health, and hunger management, with IF2-P providing enhanced benefits in overweight women and men. TRIAL REGISTRATION This trial was registered March 03, 2020 at www. CLINICALTRIALS gov as NCT04327141 .