Wernicke's encephalopathy due to malnutrition and parenteral nutrition in a patient with cerebral infarction: A case report.
INTRODUCTION Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder, which results from a nutritional deficiency of thiamine. The occurrence of WE is rarely reported in patients with cerebral infarction, who often have complications of malnutrition. Cerebral infarction is a neurological disease, patients with cerebral infarction may show symptoms such as disturbance of consciousness and gait instability, which is difficult to differentiate from WE. Thus, early recognition and differential diagnosis of WE are important. We report a rare case of cerebral infarction patient who developed WE due to malnutrition and parenteral nutrition. PATIENT CONCERNS A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with cerebral infarction. She had lost 15 kg of weight in the past month or so and was diagnosed with malnutrition. In order to correct malnutrition, parenteral nutrition and intravenous glucose without thiamine were administered. Cognitive dysfunction, laloplegia, sleep rhythm inversion, somnolence and bilateral lower limbs weakness were presented 20 days after admission. DIAGNOSIS Brain magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of WE. INTERVENTIONS The patient was given thiamine and nutrition support therapy. OUTCOMES The patient's cognitive impairment, laloplegia and sleep condition improved within 4 days. Neurological status continued to improve and physical activity recovered gradually within 2 weeks. She received rehabilitation training when her condition was relatively stable, and her muscle strength of limbs and physical function gradually improved. CONCLUSION Infarction-related malnutrition may result in nutrient deficiency-related neurological complications, such as WE. Thus, it is important to pay close attention to the nutritional status of patients with cerebral infarction. In addition, early recognition and differential diagnosis of WE in patients with infarction-related malnutrition are necessary, early treatment of replete thiamine supplementation and nutrition support therapy can reduce the risk of WE and improve the prognosis.
Reduced plasma ghrelin concentrations are associated with decreased brain reactivity to food cues after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.
The "hunger" hormone ghrelin regulates food-intake and preference for high-calorie (HC) food through modulation of the mesocortico-limbic dopaminergic pathway. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat morbid obesity. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in appetite and total ghrelin levels in blood are associated with reduced prefrontal brain reactivity to food cues. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cue-reactivity task with HC and low-calorie (LC) food pictures was used to investigate brain reactivity in 22 obese participants tested before and one month after bariatric surgery (BS). Nineteen obese controls (Ctr) without surgery were also tested at baseline and one-month later. LSG significantly decreased (1) fasting plasma concentrations of total ghrelin, leptin and insulin, (2) craving for HC food, and (3) brain activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to HC vs. LC food cues (PFWE < 0.05). LSG-induced reduction in DLPFC activation to food cues were positively correlated with reduction in ghrelin levels and reduction in craving ratings for food. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) connectivity analyses showed that the right DLPFC had stronger connectivity with the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) after LSG, and changes in BMI were negatively correlated with changes in connectivity between the right DLPFC and vACC in the LSG group only. These findings suggest that LSG-induced weight-loss may be related to reductions in ghrelin, possibly leading to decreased food craving and hypothetically reducing DLPFC response to the HC food cues.
Evaluating the effects of mobile health intervention on weight management, glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Journal of endocrinological investigation. 2019;(6):709-714
PURPOSE To explore the effects of mobile health (mHealth) intervention on pregnancy weight management, blood glucose control and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS A total of 124 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were selected. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The 60 patients in the control group received standard outpatient treatment, while the remaining 64 patients received a nurse's online guidance both through a mobile medical App installed on their phone and through regular offline clinical treatment in the mHealth group. Patients were treated for an average of 13 weeks and general conditions, compliance, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, weight gain, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes were monitored in both groups longitudinally. RESULTS The mHealth group demonstrated higher levels of compliance (83.3 ± 12.5% vs. 70.4 ± 10.1%, t = - 6.293, df = 122, p < 0.001), lower frequency of outpatient service (8.1 ± 1.3 vs. 11.2 ± 1.1, t = 14.285, df = 122, p < 0.001), lower hemoglobin A1C before delivery (4.7 ± 0.2 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3, t = 13.216, df = 122, p < 0.001) as well as the rates of off-target measurements both fasting (4.6 ± 0.4% vs. 8.3 ± 0.6%, t = 40.659, df = 122, p < 0.001) and 2 h post-prandial (7.9 ± 0.7% vs. 14.7 ± 0.8%, t = 50.746, df = 122, p < 0.001). Weight gain in the mHealth group was less than control group (3.2 ± 0.8 vs. 4.8 ± 0.7, t = 11.851, df = 122 p < 0.001). CONCLUSION Mobile health intervention management of gestational diabetes mellitus improves patients' compliance and blood glucose control, and reduces weight gain, thereby reducing the rates of complications in both pregnant women and fetuses during delivery during pregnancy.
Can men with atrial fibrillation really rest easy with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0?
BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2019;(1):178
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) significantly increases the risk of ischemic stroke depending on various risk factors. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is used widely to improve stratification of AF-related stroke to identify for whom anticoagulation could be safely withheld. As upstream therapy, the management of lifestyle for AF and related stroke prevention has been ongoing for past decades. CASE PRESENTATION A 56-year-old male was taken to our hospital because of acute ischemic stroke. Without intracranial vascular malformation and angiostenosis, two small emboli were successfully taken out from the left middle cerebral artery by mechanical thrombectomy. During the hospitalisation, no apparent abnormalities were found in various laboratory tests, echocardiogram or the coronary computed tomography angiography. However, asymptomatic paroxysmal AF was first diagnosed and was presumed to be responsible for his stroke. Noticeable, he was always in good fitness benefiting from the formed good habits of no smoking and drinking. With a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0, he had no history of any known diseases or risk factors associated with AF and related stroke. Instead of lacking exercise, he persisted in playing table tennis faithfully 3-4 times a week and 2-3 h each time over the past 30 years, and, in fact, has won several amateur table tennis championships. CONCLUSION In view of the possible pathophysiological mechanisms resulting from the long-term vigorous endurance exercise, it may be a potential risk factor for developing AF and even for subsequent stroke. Not merely should strengthen the screening for AF in specific individuals as sports enthusiasts, but the necessity of oral anticoagulant for those with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 might deserve the further investigation.
Four-year pain relief after coblation combined with active exercise for cervical discogenic pain: Case report.
RATIONALE Coblation of intervertebral disc is an effective and safe minimally invasive technology for treating discogenic pain. The inactivation of neural ingrowth around annulus and tissue ablation and coagulation are currently considered to be the major causes for success of this treatment. However, it has been found by clinical researchers that its long-term clinical outcome is not optimistic. This report has given us favorable information that this situation can be improved with multimodal therapy. PATIENT CONCERNS A 61-year-old man presented with right severe neck and shoulder pain in 2014 which could not be relieved by medications. DIAGNOSES According to his symptoms and signs, this patient was diagnosed with cervical discogenic pain. And discography confirmed the diagnosis. INTERVENTIONS The patient underwent coblation of cervical intervertebral disc 4-5 (C4-5) and got apparently pain relief after surgery. After 1 month, he began to perform active exercise at least 30 min every day. OUTCOMES The right neck and shoulder pain completely relieved for 4 years. The cervical lordosis of this patient was restored in 2018 which was confirmed by MRI compared in 2014 and NDI (neck disability index) decreased from 58 to 10%. LESSONS This report demonstrated that it was important and essential for clinicians to educate patients with discogenic pain to perform active exercise after minimally invasive surgery.
Advances in targeted therapy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
Heart failure reviews. 2019;(6):949-965
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by unresolved thrombi in the pulmonary arteries and microvasculopathy in nonoccluded areas. If left untreated, progressive pulmonary hypertension will induce right heart failure and, finally, death. Currently, pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) remains the only method that has the potential to cure CTEPH. Unfortunately, up to 40% of patients are ineligible for this procedure for various reasons. In recent years, refined balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) has become an alternative option for inoperable CTEPH patients, and it may be another curative treatment in the future, particularly in combination with prior PEA. Nevertheless, 23% of patients still suffer from persistent PH after BPA. Given that CTEPH shares many similarities with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), targeted drugs developed for PAH are also attractive options for CTEPH, especially for inoperable or persistent/recurrent CTEPH patients. To date, riociguat, macitentan, and subcutaneous treprostinil are the only drugs proven by randomized control trials to be capable of improving the exercise capacity (6-min walking distance) of CTEPH patients. In this review, we summarize the achievements and unresolved problems of PAH-targeted therapy for CTEPH over the last decade.
Combination of Rotarex Thrombectomy and Drug-Coated Balloon for the Treatment of Femoropopliteal Artery In-Stent Restenosis.
Annals of vascular surgery. 2019;:301-307
BACKGROUND The optimal treatment method for femoropopliteal (FP) artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains controversial. We assess the efficacy and safety of combination of Rotarex thrombectomy and drug-coated balloon (DCB) for the treatment of FP ISR. METHODS From June 2016 to July 2017, 32 patients with FP ISR who underwent combination of Rotarex thrombectomy and DCB angioplasty were included in a prospective registry. The primary end point was primary patency of the target lesion defined as a peak systolic velocity ratio <2.4 documented by duplex ultrasound at 12 months without clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR). The secondary outcome measure was the rate of major adverse limb events. The primary functional end point was assessed using the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). RESULTS Twenty-nine (90.6%) patients completed 12-month follow-up. Mean ankle-brachial index was 0.45 ± 0.14 at baseline and 0.84 ± 0.12 at 12 months (P < 0.05). The WIQ score was 30.45 ± 21.14 at baseline and 52.68 ± 29.75 at 12 months (P < 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the primary patency rate at 12 months was 86.2% (25/29), and freedom from CD-TLR rate at 12 months was 89.7% (26/29). CONCLUSIONS The data suggest that combination of Rotarex thrombectomy and DCB for treatment of FP ISR is safe and effective with satisfying primary patency rate and freedom from CD-TLR rate at 12-month follow-up.
Late-onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD): case reports and epidemiology of ETFDH gene mutations.
BMC neurology. 2019;(1):330
BACKGROUND Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a riboflavin-responsive lipid-storage myopathy caused by mutations in the EFTA, EFTB or ETFDH genes. We report a Chinese family of Southern Min origin with two affected siblings with late-onset riboflavin-responsive MADD due to a homozygous c.250G > A EFTDH mutation and review the genetic epidemiology of the c.250G > A mutation. CASE PRESENTATION Both siblings presented with exercise-induced myalgia, progressive proximal muscle weakness and high levels of serum muscle enzymes and were initially diagnosed as polymyositis after a muscle biopsy. A repeat biopsy in one sibling subsequently showed features of lipid storage myopathy and genetic analysis identified a homozygous mutation (c.250G > A) in the ETFDH gene in both siblings and carriage of the same mutation by both parents. Glucocorticoid therapy led to improvement in muscle enzyme levels, but little change in muscle symptoms, and only after treatment with riboflavin was there marked improvement in exercise tolerance and muscle strength. The frequency and geographic distribution of the c.250G > A mutation were determined from a literature search for all previously reported cases of MADD with documented mutations. Our study found the c.250G > A mutation is the most common EFTDH mutation in riboflavin-responsive MADD (RR-MADD) and is most prevalent in China and South-East Asia where its epidemiology correlates with the distribution and migration patterns of the southern Min population in Southern China and neighbouring countries. CONCLUSIONS Mutations in ETFDH should be screened for in individuals with lipid-storage myopathy to identify patients who are responsive to riboflavin. The c.250G > A mutation should be suspected particularly in individuals of southern Min Chinese background.
Efficacy and safety of oral Guanxinshutong capsules in patients with stable angina pectoris in China: a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.
BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2019;(1):363
BACKGROUND To assess the efficacy and safety of oral Guanxinshutong (GXST) capsules in Chinese patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) in a prospective, multicenter, double-Blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02280850). METHODS Eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to the GXST or placebo group. Current standard antianginal treatment except for nitrate drugs was continued in both groups, who received an additional 4-week treatment of GXST capsule or placebo. Primary endpoint was the change from baseline in angina attack frequency after the 4-week treatment. Secondary endpoints included the reduction of nitroglycerin dose, score of Seatntle Agina Questionnaire, exercise tolerance test defined as time to onset of chest pain and ST-segment depression at least 1 mm greater than the resting one. RESULTS A total of 300 SAP patients from 12 centers in China were enrolled between January 2013 and October 2015, and they were randomly divided into the GXST group and the placebo group (150 patients in each group). Of whom, 287 patients completed the study (143 patients in the GXST group, 144 patients in the placebo group). The baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. After 4-week treatment with GXST capsules, the number of angina attacks and the consumption of short-acting nitrates were significantly reduced. In addition, the quality of life of patients were also substantially improved in the GXST group. No significant differences in the time of onset of angina and 1-mm ST segment depression were noted between the two groups. 7 patients (4.1%) in the GXST group and 3 patients (2.1%) in the placebo group reported at least one adverse event, respectively. CONCLUSIONS GXST capsules are beneficial for the treatment of SAP patients.
The effects of licogliflozin, a dual SGLT1/2 inhibitor, on body weight in obese patients with or without diabetes.
Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. 2019;(6):1311-1321
BACKGROUND There is an unmet need for a safer and more effective treatment for obesity. This study assessed the effects of licogliflozin, a dual inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 1/2, on body weight, metabolic parameters and incretin hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or obesity. METHODS Patients with obesity (BMI, 35-50 kg/m2 ) were enrolled into a 12-week study (N = 88; licogliflozin 150 mg q.d.). Patients with T2DM were enrolled into a second, two-part study, comprising a single-dose cross-over study (N = 12; 2.5 - 300 mg) and a 14-day dosing study (N = 30; 15 mg q.d). Primary endpoints included effects on body weight, effects on glucose, safety and tolerability. Secondary endpoints included urinary glucose excretion (UGE24 ) and pharmacokinetics, while exploratory endpoints assessed the effects on incretin hormones (total GLP-1, PYY3-36 , and GIP), insulin and glucagon. RESULTS Treatment with licogliflozin 150 mg q.d. for 12 weeks in patients with obesity significantly reduced body weight by 5.7% vs placebo (P < 0.001) and improved metabolic parameters such as significantly reduced postprandial glucose excursion (21%; P < 0.001), reduced insulin levels (80%; P < 0.001) and increased glucagon (59%; P < 0.001). In patients with T2DM, a single dose of licogliflozin 300 mg in the morning prior to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) remarkably reduced glucose excursion by 93% (P < 0.001; incremental AUC0-4h ) and suppressed insulin by 90% (P < 0.01; incremental AUC0-4h ). Treatment with licogliflozin 15 mg q.d. for 14 days reduced 24-hour average glucose levels by 26% (41 mg/dL; P < 0.001) and increased UGE24 to 100 g (P < 0.001) in patients with T2DM. In addition, this treatment regimen significantly increased total GLP-1 by 54% (P < 0.001) and PYY3-36 by 67% (P < 0.05) post OGTT vs placebo, while significantly reducing GIP levels by 53% (P < 0.001). Treatment with licogliflozin was generally safe and well tolerated. Diarrhea (increased numbers of loose stool) was the most common adverse event in all studies (90% with licogliflozin vs 25% with placebo in the 12-week study), while a lower incidence of flatulence, abdominal pain and abdominal distension (25%-43% with licogliflozin vs 9%-11% with placebo in the 12-week study) were among the other gastrointestinal events reported. CONCLUSION Licogliflozin treatment (1-84 days) leads to significant weight loss and favourable changes in a variety of metabolic parameters and incretin hormones. Dual inhibition of SGLT1/2 with licogliflozin in the gut and kidneys is an attractive strategy for treating obesity and diabetes.