Effects of Mobile Text Messaging on Glycemic Control in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes. 2019;(9):e005805
BACKGROUND Mobile health interventions may support risk factor management and are readily scalable in healthcare systems. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of a text messaging-based intervention to improve glycemic control in patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus in China. METHODS AND RESULTS The CHAT-DM study (Cardiovascular Health and Texting-Diabetes Mellitus) was a parallel-group, single-blind, randomized clinical trial that included 502 patients with both coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus from 34 hospitals in China. The intervention group (n=251) received 6 text messages per week for 6 months in addition to usual care. Messages were theory driven and culturally tailored to provide educational and motivational information on glucose monitoring, blood pressure control, medication adherence, physical activity, and lifestyle. The control group (n=251) received usual care and 2 thank you messages per month. The primary outcome was change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C [hemoglobin A1C]) from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes were change in proportion of patients achieving HbA1C <7%, fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, body mass index, and physical activity from baseline to 6 months. The end points were assessed using analyses of covariance. The follow-up rate was 99%. When compared with control group at 6 months, the intervention group had a greater reduction in HbA1C (-0.2% versus 0.1%; P=0.003) and a greater proportion of participants who achieved HbA1C <7% (69.3% versus 52.6%; P=0.004). Change in fasting blood glucose was larger in the intervention group (between-group difference: -0.6 mmol/L; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.2; P=0.011), but no other outcome differences were observed. Nearly all participants reported that messages were easy to understand (97.1%) and useful (94.1%). CONCLUSIONS A text message intervention resulted in better glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. While the mechanism of this benefit remains to be determined, the results suggest that a simple, culturally sensitive mobile text messaging program may provide an effective and feasible way to improve disease self-management. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02883842.
Long-term outcomes of per-oral endoscopic myotomy in a patient with distal esophageal spasm followed up for 2.5 years: two sides of the same coin - A Case Report and Literature Review.
Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie. 2019;(12):1481-1486
INTRODUCTION Distal esophageal spasm (DES), a relatively rare condition, is characterized by simultaneous contractions of the distal esophagus and manifested by dysphagia and chest pain. Several treatment options are recommended, such as pharmacological therapy, endoscopic interventions, and surgical myotomy. Recently, per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been adopted as an effective and less-invasive treatment due to its excellent short-term clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, few reports describe its long-term effects. CASE PRESENTATION A 65-year-old woman complained of chest pain accompanied with dysphagia and weight loss for 4 months. A series of examinations suggested that she was suffering from DES and then POEM was performed. During the 2.5-year follow-up, we observed an exciting long-term outcome. Interestingly, hematoxylin and eosin staining verified a large number of eosinophils in the muscularis externa, which was absent in the mucosa of the esophagus of the patient. CONCLUSIONS We herein report a case of DES who underwent POEM to eliminate persistent esophageal contractions. Eckardt score, esophageal emptying test, and high-resolution manometry were assumed to monitor the efficacy of POEM. During treatment and 2.5 years after operation, esophageal muscle biopsies and/or mucosal tissues were obtained. This case has been presented to describe that POEM could be a strategy for DES with a long-term curative effect and that eosinophils in the muscle layer of the esophagus might be involved in the pathogenesis of DES. What is more, we reviewed literature to find similar cases reported in the past.
Acute Effects of Three Cooked Non-Cereal Starchy Foods on Postprandial Glycemic Responses and in Vitro Carbohydrate Digestion in Comparison with Whole Grains: A Randomized Trial.
Plain language summary
The consumption of reﬁned rice is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is prone to cause hyperglycaemia after meals, even in healthy adults. Whereas whole grains and pulses were reported to reduce the risk of T2D and relatively mild postprandial (after a meal) glycaemic responses. The main aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of integrating the three non-cereal starchy food i.e. the lotus seed, adlay, and dried lily bulb into a glycaemic management diet, and compare their glycaemic characteristics with millet, waxy black rice and adzuki bean. The study is single-blind randomised crossover design study which recruited ten young women aged between 18 and 26 years. Sequentially numbered containers were used to implement the random allocation sequence. Results indicate that out of the 3 starchy foods tested in the study, only the lotus seed meals could be regarded as low-glycaemic index food compared to the adzuki bean meals. Furthermore, the cooked dried lily bulb, adlay, black rice and millet resulted as high-glycaemic index, regardless of the cooking duration. Authors conclude that careful choice of whole grain materials, minimized pre-soaking, and moderate cooking may be critical factors for successful glycaemic management for people of impaired glucose management.
Plant origin, processing, and domestic preparation may affect the postprandial glycemic response (PGR) of starchy foods. The objective of this study was to examine the possibility of integrating domestically cooked non-cereal starchy foods commonly consumed in Northeast Asia into glycemic management diet, and compare their glycemic characteristics with those of waxy and non-waxy whole grains and starchy beans. In a randomized crossover trial, ten healthy subjects consumed dried lily bulb (LB), lotus seed (LS), adlay (AD), waxy black rice (BR), millet (MI), and adzuki bean (AB), pre-soaked and each cooked for two time durations. Acute PGR tests and in vitro carbohydrate digestion were carried out for each test food. Both the LS and AB meals achieved low glycemic index (GI 21⁻51), while the other starchy foods failed to show significant difference with rice (GI 83⁻109). The hydrolysis indexes of LS and AB were 37.7%⁻61.1%, significantly lower than other test foods. The in vitro tests indicated that pre-soaking resulted in high rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and low resistant starch (RS). Careful choice of whole grain materials, minimized pre-soaking, and moderate cooking may be critical factors for successful postprandial glycemic management for diabetic and pre-diabetic.
Whole-exome sequencing reveals a novel mutation of MT-ND5 gene in a mitochondrial cardiomyopathy pedigree: Patients who show biventricular hypertrophy, hyperlactacidemia, pulmonary hypertension, and decreased exercise tolerance.
Anatolian journal of cardiology. 2019;(1):18-24
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to determine whether pathogenic mutations were present in families with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that presented during adolescence. METHODS The proband was a 21-year-old man who presented clinically with palpitations, chest tightness, pulmonary hypertension, and limited exercise tolerance. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies showed biventricular cardiac hypertrophy. We determine whether pathogenic mutations were present by whole-exome sequencing (WES) in families. RESULTS Screening of the family using tandem mass spectrometry showed elevated lactic acid levels, glutaric aciduria, a mildly increased glutarylcarnitine-to-octanoylcarnitine ratio, and normal blood α-glucosidase, which was consistent with a respiratory chain complex 1 metabolic disorder. We identified a novel mutation of MT-ND5, c.1315A>G (p.Thr439Ala). Skeletal muscle biopsy histology showed predominantly ragged red fibers and few ragged blue fibers, which was consistent with mitochondrial myopathy. CONCLUSION In the present study, we identified a novel mutation of MT-ND5, c.1315A>G (p.Thr439Ala), in a family pedigree using WES.
Two-year-supervised resistance training prevented diabetes incidence in people with prediabetes: A randomised control trial.
Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. 2019;(5):e3143
AIM: The purpose of this study is to explore the long-term effects of aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT), and combined training (AT + RT) on the prevention of T2D incidence in patients with prediabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this randomised controlled trial, people with prediabetes (fasting glucose ≥5.6 and <7.0 mmol/L and/or 2-h glucose ≥7.8 and <11.1 mmol/L on the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and/or haemoglobin A1c ≥5.7% and <6.4%) were randomly assigned to the control group, AT group, RT group, or AT + RT group. Supervised exercise programmes, including AT, RT, and AT + RT, were completed for 60 minutes per day, three non-consecutive days per week for 24 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of T2D; secondary outcomes were blood glucose and lipid levels, including total cholesterol (TC) and standard 2-hour oral glucose tolerance (2hPG). RESULTS A total of 137 (80%) subjects with a mean age of 59 years (45 men, 92 women) entered the final analysis. After 24 months of intervention, the incidences of T2D adjusted by sex and age were significantly decreased by 74% (95% CI, 38-89), 65% (95% CI, 21-85), and 72% (95% CI, 36-87) in the AT + RT, RT, and AT groups compared with the control group (HR: AT + RT 0.26 [95% CI, 0.11-0.62], RT 0.35 [95% CI, 0.15-0.79], and AT 0.28 [95% CI, 0.13-0.64]). The cumulative T2D incidences were significantly lower in the AT + RT, RT, and AT groups than in the control group (21%, 26%, and 22% vs 69%). The blood glucose and lipid profiles improved more in the AT, RT, and AT + RT groups than in the control group. CONCLUSION RT and RT plus AT were as effective as isolated AT in preventing progression to T2D.
Effect of Pro-kin visual feedback balance training system on gait stability in patients with cerebral small vessel disease.
Due to the indistinct nature of symptoms for Cerebral Small Vessel Disease (CSVD), diagnosis is often missed. With significant deterioration of movement disorder, risk of falls increases dramatically.Comparison study was conducted to explore the association between balance function and gait instability, and the treatment effectiveness of visual feedback balance training on the gait disorder in CSVD patients.Fifty-six patients with CSVD were studied. They were randomly divided into observation and control groups, and were given conventional gait rehabilitation training, including single-leg weight, shift of the center of gravity, step and hip extension training, stepping up and down on stairs with the affected leg, standing up with hip extension and support of the leg, lateral walking, and in situ walking. Training was performed twice a day for 20 minutes each for 4 consecutive weeks. In addition, the observation group received balance training using Pro-Kin visual feedback balance training system. Both groups were evaluated prior and post-treatment using the Tinetti Scale and the Pro-Kin Visual Feedback Balance Training System. For the Tinetti Scale, lower score indicates more serious gait balance dysfunction. For the Pro-Kin, greater length means poorer balance function. Larger area means poorer balance function. Smaller value of the 2 parameters indicates better balance function.After training, the trajectory lengths and areas of orbital motions were significantly decreased (P < .05). However greater decrease was seen in the observation group (P < .01). The trajectory length and area for both groups were less when the eyes open than closed (P < .01). The Tinetti scores for balance and gait functions of both groups improved significantly (P < .05). However, the observation group showed even greater results than the control group (P < .01). Results from Person test showed there was a significant correlation between balance and gait functions.Combination of visual feedback balance training with conventional rehabilitation treatment could gain a greater result than conventional rehabilitation alone. It indicates that balance training may serve as an additional method for gait stability training for CSVD patients.
Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Intensity for Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes.
International journal of sports medicine. 2018;(5):374-381
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Exercise group (n=16) walked at individualized FATmax intensities for 1 h/day for 3 days/week over 12 weeks. No dietary intervention was introduced during the experimental period. Maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.37±0.10 g/min, and occurred at 37.3±7.3% of the estimated VO2max. Within the exercise group, significant improvements were observed for most of the measured variables compared to non-exercising controls; in particular, the FATmax program reduced body fat% (p<0.001), visceral fat% (p<0.001), and insulin resistance (p<0.001). There was no significant change in daily energy intake for all participants during the intervention period. These results suggest that individualized FATmax training is an effective exercise training intensity for managing type 2 diabetes in older women.
Dorzagliatin monotherapy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a dose-ranging, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study.
The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. 2018;(8):627-636
BACKGROUND Glucokinase acts as a glucose sensor in the pancreas and a glucose processor in the liver, and has a central role in glucose homoeostasis. Dorzagliatin is a new, dual-acting, allosteric glucokinase activator that targets both pancreatic and hepatic glucokinases. Dorzagliatin has good pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties in humans, and provides effective 24-h glycaemic control and improves glucose sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of dorzagliatin monotherapy at different doses in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study, we randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) patients to receive oral placebo or one of four doses of oral dorzagliatin (75 mg once a day, 100 mg once a day, 50 mg twice a day, or 75 mg twice a day) using permuted-block randomisation, with a block size of ten and without stratification. Eligible patients were men or non-fertile women (aged 40-75 years) with type 2 diabetes who had a BMI of 19·0-30·0 kg/m2, were on a diet and exercise regimen, and were previously untreated or treated with metformin or α-glucosidase inhibitor monotherapy. The study started with a 4-week placebo run-in period followed by a 12-week treatment period. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c from baseline to week 12, which was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had both baseline and at least one post-baseline HbA1c value. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02561338. FINDINGS Between Sept 29, 2015, and Aug 17, 2016, we randomly assigned 258 patients to one of the five study groups. At the end of 12 weeks, the least squares mean change in HbA1c from baseline was -0·35% (95% CI -0·60 to -0·10) in the placebo group, -0·39% (-0·64 to -0·14) in the 75 mg once daily group, -0·65% (-0·92 to -0·38) in the 100 mg once daily group, -0·79% (-1·06 to -0·52) in the 50 mg twice daily group, and -1·12% (-1·39 to -0·86) in the 75 mg twice daily group. Compared with the placebo group, the change in HbA1c between baseline and 12 weeks was significant in the 50 mg twice daily (p=0·0104) and the 75 mg twice daily (p<0·0001) groups. The number of adverse events was similar between the treatment groups and the placebo group. There were no reports of drug-related serious adverse events or severe hypoglycaemia. INTERPRETATION Dorzagliatin had a beneficial effect on glycaemic control and was safe and well tolerated over 12 weeks in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING Hua Medicine, National Major Scientific and Technological Special Project for Significant New Drugs Development, Shanghai Science and Technology Innovation Action Project, Shanghai Pudong District Science and Technology Innovation Action Project, and Shanghai Municipal Commission of Economy and Informatisation Innovation Action Project.
Extra Dose of Vitamin C Based on a Daily Supplementation Shortens the Common Cold: A Meta-Analysis of 9 Randomized Controlled Trials.
BioMed research international. 2018;2018:1837634
Plain language summary
The common cold poses a heavy burden worldwide, in terms of human health and economic losses. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether vitamin C could be used for relieving symptoms, shortening the duration, or reducing the incidence of the common cold. Nine randomised controlled trials conducted between 1950 and 2001 were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant effects were found when vitamin C was only started at the onset of symptoms, but regular supplementation with therapeutic doses of vitamin C at the onset of illness shortened the duration of the common cold and the time confined indoors, and relieved the symptoms, including chest pain, fever and chills. Based on this meta-analysis the authors recommend a small daily dose of vitamin C (no more than 1.0g/day) to support immunity and a larger dose of vitamin C during the common cold (a larger dose than before, usually 3.0 g/day to 4.0 g/day) to better recover health.
Aim: To investigate whether vitamin C is effective in the treatment of the common cold. Method: After systematically searching the National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Cochrane Library, Elsevier, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP databases, and WANFANG databases, 9 randomized placebo-controlled trials were included in our meta-analysis in RevMan 5.3 software, all of which were in English. Results: In the evaluation of vitamin C, administration of extra therapeutic doses at the onset of cold despite routine supplementation was found to help reduce its duration (mean difference (MD) = -0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-1.03, -0.10], and P = 0.02), shorten the time of confinement indoors (MD = -0.41, 95% CI [-0.62, -0.19], and P = 0.0002), and relieve the symptoms associated with it, including chest pain (MD = -0.40, 95% CI [-0.77, -0.03], and P = 0.03), fever (MD = -0.45, 95% CI [-0.78, -0.11], and P = 0.009), and chills (MD = -0.36, 95% CI [-0.65, -0.07], and P = 0.01). Conclusions: Extra doses of vitamin C could benefit some patients who contract the common cold despite taking daily vitamin C supplements.
Effect of Mini-Trampoline Physical Activity on Executive Functions in Preschool Children.
BioMed research international. 2018;:2712803
The study investigated the effect of mini-trampoline physical activity on the development of executive functions (EF) in Chinese preschool children. Fifty-seven children aged 3-5 were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 29) and a control group (n = 28). The children in the intervention and control group had the same classes and care service in the preschool, but children in the intervention group had an extra 20 min of trampoline training after school for 5 school days per week in the 10-week intervention. Spatial conflict arrow (SCA), animal Go/NoGo (GNG), working memory span (WMS), and flexible item selection (FIS) were used to assess children's EF before and after the intervention. Results revealed that no significant differences emerged in the SCA, GNG, WMS, and FIS tests between two groups postintervention. Findings indicated that a 10-week trampoline PA training may not be sufficient to trigger the improvement of preschool children's EF. Future research with larger representative samples is warranted to discern the dose-response evidence in enhancing young children's EF through physical activity.