The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Depression: The Potential Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Microbiota Combined Antidepression Effect.
Depression is a kind of worldwide mental illness with the highest morbidity and disability rate, which is often accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms. Experiments have demonstrated that the disorder of the intestinal microbial system structure plays a crucial role in depression. The gut-brain axis manifests a potential linkage between the digestion system and the central nervous system (CNS). Nowadays, it has become an emerging trend to treat diseases by targeting intestinal microorganisms (e.g., probiotics) and combining the gut-brain axis mechanism. Combined with the research, we found that the incidence of depression is closely linked to the gut microbiota. Moreover, the transformation of the gut microbiota system structure is considered to have both positive and negative regulatory effects on the development of depression. This article reviewed the mechanism of bidirectional interaction in the gut-brain axis and existing symptom-relieving measures and antidepression treatments related to the gut microbiome.
The effect of periodic ketogenic diet on newly diagnosed overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
BMC endocrine disorders. 2022;22(1):34
Plain language summary
Currently, the ketogenic diet is gaining popularity in managing Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Ketogenic diets replace carbohydrates with fat and include limited carbohydrates and adequate protein. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effects of the 12-week ketogenic diet on sixty overweight or obese T2D patients. Both the ketogenic and control diabetes diet groups achieved significant reductions in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and HbA1c. However, the ketogenic group showed significantly greater reductions in body mass, blood lipids, and blood glucose than the control group. In the ketogenic diet group, serum uric acid levels were higher than those in the control diet group. It was found that the control diet group adhered to the diet for a longer period than the ketogenic diet group, whose willingness to adhere to the diet long-term was weaker. More robust long-term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet. In this study, more patients who followed the ketogenic diet experienced hypoglycaemic events during the first four weeks. Healthcare providers should exercise caution when recommending a short term therapeutic ketogenic diet.
BACKGROUND The ketogenic diet (KD) is characterized by fat as a substitute of carbohydrates for the primary energy source. There is a large number of overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while this study aims to observe periodic ketogenic diet for effect on overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM. METHODS A total of 60 overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM were randomized into two groups: KD group, which was given ketogenic diet, and control group, which was given routine diet for diabetes, 30 cases in each group. Both dietary patterns lasted 12 weeks, and during the period, the blood glucose, blood lipid, body weight, insulin, and uric acid before and after intervention, as well as the significance for relevant changes, were observed. RESULTS For both groups, the weight, BMI(body mass index), Waist, TG (triglyceride), TC(cholesterol), LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), FBG (fasting glucose), FINS (fasting insulin), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) were decreased after intervention (P < 0.05), while the decrease rates in the KD group was more significant than the control group. However, UA(serum uric acid) in the KD group showed an upward trend, while in the control group was not changed significantly (P > 0.05).The willingness to adhere to the ketogenic diet over the long term was weaker than to the routine diet for diabetes. CONCLUSION Among the overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus, periodic ketogenic diet can not only control the body weight, but also control blood glucose and lipid, but long-term persistence is difficult.
A comparison of foot posture and walking performance in patients with mild, moderate, and severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
PloS one. 2021;(5):e0251592
BACKGROUND Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of scoliosis. However, the underlying mechanisms linking spinal curvature in AIS to foot characteristics and walking performance remain unclear. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to compare walking performance between adolescents with mild, moderate, and severe scoliosis and matched healthy peers with foot posture as covariates. METHODS This cross-sectional study of 96 adolescents was conducted between April 2020 to October 2020 in China, with 32 healthy peers in the control group and 64 patients in the AIS group. Foot posture and morphology, plantar pressure distribution, and gait characteristics were analyzed. One-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction and a post hoc comparison of the mean differences between the different groups was performed. Multiple analyses of covariance adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, foot posture index (FPI), arch index (AI), and walking speed were performed. RESULTS Of the 64 adolescents with scoliosis, 18 had mild AIS, 32 had moderate AIS, and 14 had severe AIS. The AI and FPI were much higher in the moderate and severe AIS groups (p = 0.018) and the severe AIS group (p<0.001), respectively, than in the control group. The severe AIS group had advanced and longer midstance (p = 0.014) and delayed propulsion phase (p = 0.013) than the control group. Patients with moderate and severe AIS had asymmetrical gait periods in the left and right limbs (p<0.05). Significant differences in the center-of-pressure excursion index (CPEI) were found between the moderate and severe AIS and control groups (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION Moderate and severe AIS significantly influenced walking performance; however, no significant differences were observed between adolescents with mild AIS and healthy controls. Thus, early intervention could target the prevention of specific functional deficits and prevent it from progressing to a severe state.
Structure and Function of Pancreatic Lipase-Related Protein 2 and Its Relationship With Pathological States.
Frontiers in genetics. 2021;:693538
Pancreatic lipase is critical for the digestion and absorption of dietary fats. The most abundant lipolytic enzymes secreted by the pancreas are pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL or PNLIP) and its family members, pancreatic lipase-related protein 1 (PNLIPRP1or PLRP1) and pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PNLIPRP2 or PLRP2). Unlike the family's other members, PNLIPRP2 plays an elemental role in lipid digestion, especially for newborns. Therefore, if genetic factors cause gene mutation, or other factors lead to non-expression, it may have an effect on fat digestion and absorption, on the susceptibility to pancreas and intestinal pathogens. In this review, we will summarize what is known about the structure and function of PNLIPRP2 and the levels of PNLIPRP2 and associated various pathological states.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen clamp associated factor, a potential proto-oncogene with increased expression in malignant gastrointestinal tumors.
World journal of gastrointestinal oncology. 2021;(10):1425-1439
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, including malignancies in the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs of digestion, represent the leading cause of death worldwide due to the poor prognosis of most GI cancers. An investigation into the potential molecular targets of prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy in GI cancers is urgently required. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp associated factor (PCLAF), which plays an essential role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation by binding to PCNA, is a potential molecular target of GI cancers as it contributes to a series of malignant properties, including tumorigenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, PCLAF is an underlying plasma prediction target in colorectal cancer and liver cancer. In addition to GI cancers, PCLAF is also involved in other types of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Several pivotal pathways, including the Rb/E2F pathway, NF-κB pathway, and p53-p21 cascade, are implicated in PCLAF-mediated diseases. PCLAF also contributes to some diseases through dysregulation of the p53 pathway, WNT signal pathway, MEK/ERK pathway, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal cascade. This review mainly describes in detail the role of PCLAF in physiological status and GI cancers. The signaling pathways involved in PCLAF are also summarized. Suppression of the interaction of PCLAF/PCNA or the expression of PCLAF might be potential biological therapeutic strategies for GI cancers.
Yoga compared to non-exercise or physical therapy exercise on pain, disability, and quality of life for patients with chronic low back pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
PloS one. 2020;(9):e0238544
BACKGROUND Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common and often disabling musculoskeletal condition. Yoga has been proven to be an effective therapy for chronic low back pain. However, there are still controversies about the effects of yoga at different follow-up periods and compared with other physical therapy exercises. OBJECTIVE To critically compare the effects of yoga for patients with chronic low back pain on pain, disability, quality of life with non-exercise (e.g. usual care, education), physical therapy exercise. METHODS This study was registered in PROSPERO, and the registration number was CRD42020159865. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of online databases included PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase which evaluated effects of yoga for patients with chronic low back pain on pain, disability, and quality of life were searched from inception time to November 1, 2019. Studies were eligible if they assessed at least one important outcome, namely pain, back-specific disability, quality of life. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included randomized controlled trials. The continuous outcomes were analyzed by calculating the mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to whether combining outcomes measured on different scales or not. RESULTS A total of 18 randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis. Yoga could significantly reduce pain at 4 to 8 weeks (MD = -0.83, 95% CI = -1.19 to -0.48, p<0.00001, I2 = 0%), 3 months (MD = -0.43, 95% CI = -0.64 to -0.23, p<0.0001, I2 = 0%), 6 to 7 months (MD = -0.56, 95% CI = -1.02 to -0.11, p = 0.02, I2 = 50%), and was not significant in 12 months (MD = -0.52, 95% CI = -1.64 to 0.59, p = 0.36, I2 = 87%) compared with non-exercise. Yoga was better than non-exercise on disability at 4 to 8 weeks (SMD = -0.30, 95% CI = -0.51 to -0.10, p = 0.003, I2 = 0%), 3 months (SMD = -0.31, 95% CI = -0.45 to -0.18, p<0.00001, I2 = 30%), 6 months (SMD = -0.38, 95% CI = -0.53 to -0.23, p<0.00001, I2 = 0%), 12 months (SMD = -0.33, 95% CI = -0.54 to -0.12, p = 0.002, I2 = 9%). There was no significant difference on pain, disability compared with physical therapy exercise group. Furthermore, it suggested that there was a non-significant difference on physical and mental quality of life between yoga and any other interventions. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis provided evidence from very low to moderate investigating the effectiveness of yoga for chronic low back pain patients at different time points. Yoga might decrease pain from short term to intermediate term and improve functional disability status from short term to long term compared with non-exercise (e.g. usual care, education). Yoga had the same effect on pain and disability as any other exercise or physical therapy. Yoga might not improve the physical and mental quality of life based on the result of a merging.
Combining robotic exoskeleton and body weight unweighing technology to promote walking activity in tetraplegia following SCI: A case study.
The journal of spinal cord medicine. 2020;(1):126-129
Context: To investigate the feasibility of combining the lower-limb exoskeleton and body weight unweighing technology for assisted walking in tetraplegia following spinal cord injury (SCI).Findings: A 66-year-old participant with a complete SCI at the C7 level, graded on the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) as AIS A, participated in nine sessions of overground walking with the assistance from exoskeleton and body weight unweighing system. The participant could tolerate the intensity and ambulate with exoskeleton assistance for a short distance with acceptable and appropriate gait kinematics after training.Conclusion: This report showed that using technology can assist non-ambulatory individuals following SCI to stand and ambulate with assistance which may promote general physical and psychological health if used in the long term.
Interactions between cell wall polysaccharides and polyphenols.
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2018;(11):1808-1831
In plant-based food systems such as fruits, vegetables, and cereals, cell wall polysaccharides and polyphenols co-exist and commonly interact during processing and digestion. The noncovalent interactions between cell wall polysaccharides and polyphenols may greatly influence the physicochemical and nutritional properties of foods. The affinity of cell wall polysaccharides with polyphenols depends on both endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous factors include the structures, compositions, and concentrations of both polysaccharides and polyphenols, and the exogenous factors are the environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, and the presence of other components (e.g., protein). Diverse methods used to directly characterize the interactions include NMR spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, confocal microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulation, and so on. The un-bound polyphenols are quantified by liquid chromatography or spectrophotometry after dialysis or centrifugation. The adsorption of polyphenols by polysaccharides is mostly driven by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, and can be described by various isothermal models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Quality attributes of various food and beverage products (e.g., wine) can be significantly affected by polysaccharide-polyphenol interactions. Nutritionally, the interactions play an important role in the digestive tract of humans for the metabolism of both polyphenols and polysaccharides.
Quinoa starch: Structure, properties, and applications.
Carbohydrate polymers. 2018;:851-861
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has gained popularity worldwide largely due to the attractive nutritional profile. It also has much potential for food security due to the great genetic diversity. Starch is the main component of quinoa grain and makes up to 70% of the dry matter. The starch plays a crucial role in functional properties of quinoa and related food products. The starch granules are rather small (∼1-3μm) with relatively low amylose contents as compared with most of the other starches. Quinoa amylopectin has significant amounts of short chains and super-long chains. These unique features have generated research interest in using the starch for food and other applications such as creating Pickering emulsions. This review summarizes the present knowledge of the isolation, composition, granular and molecular structures, physicochemical properties, modifications, and applications of quinoa starch. It becomes obvious that this starch has great potential for food and nonfood applications.
Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.
Food chemistry. 2017;:542-552
Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications.