Efficacy and safety of the traditional herbal medication Chai-Ling-Tang (in China), Siryung-tang (in Republic of Korea) or Sairei-To (in Japan).
Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2024;(Pt 1):117127
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE The herbal medicine designated Chai-Ling-Tang in China, Siryung-tang in South Korea, and Sairei-To (or Tsumura Saireito extract granules, TJ-114) in Japan is a complex polyherbal formulations with 12 plant components. It is used historically to treat Shaoyang syndrome, recorded in an ancient Chinese medical text "Treatise on Cold Damage Disorder" (Shanghan Lun). Chai-Ling-Tang formula combines two traditional Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions: Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang and Wu-Ling-San (known as Sho-Saiko-To and Goreisan in Japan, and So Shi Ho Tang and Oreonsang in Korea, respectively). These traditional Chinese/Korean medicines and Kampo medicine have been used for more than 2000 years in East Asia, notably as regulators of body fluid homeostasis. AIM OF THE STUDY This study aims to evaluate clinical uses, pharmacological effects and unwanted effects of Sairei-To through a narrative literature survey. The main active phytoconstituents and their mechanism of actions are also collated based on the literature. METHODS Several databases including SciFinder and PubMed were searched in sourcing information using keywords corresponding to the medicinal treatment names and the corresponding plants and phytochemicals. Relevant textbooks, reviews, and digital documents (mostly in English) were consulted to collate all available scientific literature and to provide a complete science-based survey of the topic. RESULTS Sairei-To derives from ten plants and two fungi. The three major components are Bupleuri radix (Saiko), Pinelliae rhizoma (Hange), and Alismatis rhizoma (Takusha). The rest includes the species Scutellariae radix, Zizyphi fructus, Ginseng radix, Glycyrrhizae radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Cinnamomi cortex, Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria sclerotium, and Polyporus sclerotium. The therapeutic uses of Sairei-To are very diversified, ranging from the treatment of autoimmune diseases, intestinal inflammatory disorders, edema, intestinal and kidney diseases, cancers, inflammatory skin pathologies, and other conditions such as reproductive failure. Sairei-To is considered as a safe and efficient medication, with potential rare unwanted side effects, notably lung injuries (pneumonitis essentially). Marked anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects of Sairei-To have been reported, generally associated to the action of saponins (saikosaponins, glycyrrhizin), terpenoids (alisols) and flavonoids (baicalin, oroxylin A). CONCLUSION Sairei-To is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases and appears efficient to decrease the side effects of corticosteroids. Its immune-regulatory action is well recognized and exploited to treat certain skin lesions and chemotherapy-related toxic effects. The activity of the Sairei-To product relies on the synergistic action of its individual ingredients. Further studies are warranted to quantify the synergy of action inherent to this interesting botanical medication.
Manganese molybdate nanodots with dual amplification of STING activation for "cycle" treatment of metalloimmunotherapy.
Bioactive materials. 2024;:53-62
Certain types of cationic metal ions, such as Mn2+ are able to activate immune functions via the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway, showing potential applications in eliciting antitumor immunity. How anionic ions interact with immune cells remains largely unknown. Herein, selecting from a range of cationic and anionic ions, we were excited to discover that MoO42- could act as a cGAS-STING agonist and further confirmed the capability of Mn2+ to activate the cGAS-STING pathway. Inspired by such findings, we synthesized manganese molybdate nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol modification (MMP NDs) for cancer metalloimmunotherapy. Meanwhile, MMP NDs could consume glutathione (GSH) over-expressed in tumors and induce ferroptosis owing to high-valence Mo and Mn to elicit tumor-specific immune responses, which was further amplified by MMP-triggered the cGAS-STING activation. In turn, activated CD8+ T cells to secrete high levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and reduced GPX4 expression in tumor cells to trigger ferroptosis-specific lipid peroxidation, which constituted a "cycle" of therapy. As a result, the metalloimmunotherapy with systemic administration of MMP NDs offered a remarkable tumor inhibition effect for a variety of tumor models. Our work for the first time discovered the ability of anionic metal ions to activate the immune system and rationally designed bimetallic oxide nanostructures as a multifunctional therapeutic nanoplatform for tumor immunotherapy.
Roles of zinc in cancers: From altered metabolism to therapeutic applications.
International journal of cancer. 2024;(1):7-20
Zinc (Zn) is a crucial trace element involved in various cellular processes, including oxidative stress, apoptosis and immune response, contributing to cellular homeostasis. Dysregulation of Zn homeostasis occurs in certain cancers. This review discusses the role of Zn in cancer and its associated components, such as Zn-related proteins, their potential as biomarkers and the use of Zn-based strategies for tumor treatment. ZIP and ZnT proteins regulate Zn metabolism under normal conditions, but their expression is aberrant in cancer. These Zn proteins can serve as prognostic or diagnostic biomarkers, aiding in early cancer detection and disease monitoring. Moreover, targeting Zn and its pathways offers potential therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment. Modulating Zn biodistribution within cells using metal-binding agents allows for the control of downstream signaling pathways. Direct utilization of zinc as a therapeutic agent, including Zn supplementation or Zn oxide nanoparticle administration, holds promise for improving the prognosis of cancer patients.
Therapeutic potential of traditional Chinese medicine for interstitial lung disease.
Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2024;(Pt A):116952
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a chronic lung dysfunction disease with a poor prognosis and poor recovery. The clinically used therapeutic drugs, such as glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants, have no significant therapeutic effect and are accompanied with severe side effects. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in exploring and applying natural herb components for treating ILD. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) possesses innate, non-toxic characteristics and offers advantages in preventing and treating pulmonary ailments. However, a comprehensive study of TCM on ILD therapy has not yet been reviewed. AIM OF THE REVIEW This review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of the monomer components, total extracts, and prescriptions of TCM for ILD therapy, elucidating their molecular mechanisms to serve as a reference in treating ILD. MATERIALS AND METHODS The literature information was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science databases. The search keywords included 'interstitial lung disease', 'lung fibrosis' or 'pulmonary fibrosis', and 'traditional Chinese medicine', 'traditional herbal medicine', or 'herb medicine'. RESULTS The active components of single herbs, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, and quinones, have potential therapeutic effects on ILD. The active extracts and prescriptions were also summarized and analyzed. The herbs, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (Gancao), Astragalus membranaceus Fisch. Bunge. (Huangqi) and Angelicasinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Danggui), play significant roles in the treatment of ILD. The mechanisms involve the inhibition of inflammatory factor release, anti-oxidative injury, and interference with collagen production, etc. CONCLUSION This review examines the therapeutic potential of TCM for ILD and elucidates its molecular mechanisms, demonstrating that mitigating inflammation and oxidative stress, modulating the immune system, and promoting tissue repair are efficacious strategies for ILD therapy. The depth research will yield both theoretical and practical implications.
Phenotypes of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Differential Diagnosis.
Clinics in liver disease. 2024;(1):143-155
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a heterogenous immune-mediated disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and stricturing of the bile ducts. Though the driving pathophysiologic mechanisms remain elusive, there are several observed clinical phenotypes of the disease. The distribution of bile duct involvement, presence of concomitant inflammatory bowel disease, significant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and overlapping features with other autoimmune disease has significant implications for prognosis and treatment. As there remains no pathognomonic finding for primary sclerosing cholangitis, a broad differential diagnosis and extensive evaluation of other underlying causes is critical to appropriate management.
Climate Change, Exposome Change, and Allergy: A Review.
Immunology and allergy clinics of North America. 2024;(1):1-13
Climate change is a major threat to human respiratory health and associated allergic disorders given its broad impact on the exposome. Climate change can affect exposure to allergens, such as pollen, dust mites, molds, as well as other factors such as temperature, air pollution, and nutritional factors, which synergistically impact the immune response to these allergens. Exposome change can differentially exacerbate allergic reactions across subgroups of populations, especially those who are more vulnerable to environmental stressors. Understanding links between climate change and health impacts can help inform how to protect individuals and vulnerable populations from adverse health effects.
Dual-directional regulation of spinal cord injury and the gut microbiota.
Neural regeneration research. 2024;(3):548-556
There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota affects the incidence and progression of central nervous system diseases via the brain-gut axis. The spinal cord is a vital important part of the central nervous system; however, the underlying association between spinal cord injury and gut interactions remains unknown. Recent studies suggest that patients with spinal cord injury frequently experience intestinal dysfunction and gut dysbiosis. Alterations in the gut microbiota can cause disruption in the intestinal barrier and trigger neurogenic inflammatory responses which may impede recovery after spinal cord injury. This review summarizes existing clinical and basic research on the relationship between the gut microbiota and spinal cord injury. Our research identified three key points. First, the gut microbiota in patients with spinal cord injury presents a key characteristic and gut dysbiosis may profoundly influence multiple organs and systems in patients with spinal cord injury. Second, following spinal cord injury, weakened intestinal peristalsis, prolonged intestinal transport time, and immune dysfunction of the intestine caused by abnormal autonomic nerve function, as well as frequent antibiotic treatment, may induce gut dysbiosis. Third, the gut microbiota and associated metabolites may act on central neurons and affect recovery after spinal cord injury; cytokines and the Toll-like receptor ligand pathways have been identified as crucial mechanisms in the communication between the gut microbiota and central nervous system. Fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, dietary interventions, and other therapies have been shown to serve a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury by modulating the gut microbiota. Therapies targeting the gut microbiota or associated metabolites are a promising approach to promote functional recovery and improve the complications of spinal cord injury.
The roles of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in retinal diseases.
Neural regeneration research. 2024;(2):309-315
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a multifunctional cytokine, is secreted by various cells and participates in inflammatory reactions, including innate and adaptive immunity. There are some evidences that MIF is involved in many vitreoretinal diseases. For example, MIF can exacerbate many types of uveitis; measurements of MIF levels can be used to monitor the effectiveness of uveitis treatment. MIF also alleviates trauma-induced and glaucoma-induced optic nerve damage. Furthermore, MIF is critical for retinal/choroidal neovascularization, especially complex neovascularization. MIF exacerbates retinal degeneration; thus, anti-MIF therapy may help to mitigate retinal degeneration. MIF protects uveal melanoma from attacks by natural killer cells. The mechanism underlying the effects of MIF in these diseases has been demonstrated: it binds to cluster of differentiation 74, inhibits the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway, and triggers mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway. MIF also upregulates Toll-like receptor 4 and activates the nuclear factor kappa-B signaling pathway. This review focuses on the structure and function of MIF and its receptors, including the effects of MIF on uveal inflammation, retinal degeneration, optic neuropathy, retinal/choroidal neovascularization, and uveal melanoma.
Exploring the diverse applications of Carbohydrate macromolecules in food, pharmaceutical, and environmental technologies.
Environmental research. 2024;(Pt 2):117521
Carbohydrates are a class of macromolecules that has significant potential across several domains, including the organisation of genetic material, provision of structural support, and facilitation of defence mechanisms against invasion. Their molecular diversity enables a vast array of essential functions, such as energy storage, immunological signalling, and the modification of food texture and consistency. Due to their rheological characteristics, solubility, sweetness, hygroscopicity, ability to prevent crystallization, flavour encapsulation, and coating capabilities, carbohydrates are useful in food products. Carbohydrates hold potential for the future of therapeutic development due to their important role in sustained drug release, drug targeting, immune antigens, and adjuvants. Bio-based packaging provides an emerging phase of materials that offer biodegradability and biocompatibility, serving as a substitute for traditional non-biodegradable polymers used as coatings on paper. Blending polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) with carbohydrate biopolymers, such as starch, cellulose, polylactic acid, etc., reduces the undesirable qualities of PHA, such as crystallinity and brittleness, and enhances the PHA's properties in addition to minimizing manufacturing costs. Carbohydrate-based biopolymeric nanoparticles are a viable and cost-effective way to boost agricultural yields, which is crucial for the increasing global population. The use of biopolymeric nanoparticles derived from carbohydrates is a potential and economically viable approach to enhance the quality and quantity of agricultural harvests, which is of utmost importance given the developing global population. The carbohydrate biopolymers may play in plant protection against pathogenic fungi by inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth, may act as effective elicitors inducing the plant immune system to cope with pathogens. Furthermore, they can be utilised as carriers in controlled-release formulations of agrochemicals or other active ingredients, offering an alternative approach to conventional fungicides. It is expected that this review provides an extensive summary of the application of carbohydrates in the realms of food, pharmaceuticals, and environment.
From genes to systems: The role of food supplementation in the regulation of sepsis-induced inflammation.
Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease. 2024;(1):166909
Systemic inflammation includes a widespread immune response to a harmful stimulus that results in extensive systemic damage. One common example of systemic inflammation is sepsis, which is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Under the pro-inflammatory environment of sepsis, oxidative stress contributes to tissue damage due to dysfunctional microcirculation that progressively causes the failure of multiple organs that ultimately triggers death. To address the underlying inflammatory condition in critically ill patients, progress has been made to assess the beneficial effects of dietary supplements, which include polyphenols, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals that are recognized for their immuno-modulating, anticoagulating, and analgesic properties. Therefore, we aimed to review and discuss the contribution of food-derived supplementation in the regulation of inflammation from gene expression to physiological responses and summarize the precedented potential of current therapeutic approaches during systemic inflammation.