Brain-Behavior-Immune Interaction: Serum Cytokines and Growth Factors in Patients with Eating Disorders at Extremes of the Body Mass Index (BMI) Spectrum.
Plain language summary
Eating disorders such as anorexia, binge eating and night-time eating cause great fluctuations in body mass and have also been shown to alter the immune system, and more specifically markers of inflammation called cytokines. In this observational study of 90 patients with known eating disorders, the researchers tried to identify how much BMI, ‘underweightness’ and malnutrition influenced the body’s pro-inflammatory response and upset the normal immune response. They found that many inflammatory cytokines were elevated in the blood samples taken, a likely response to the conditions of stress in the body. These cytokines are known to interact with the nervous system and were also influenced by other common symptoms such as depression. They were able to group the differences in cytokines for anorexia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, post-dinner eating, night-eating, sweet-eating and fasting. These markers of dysfunctional eating behaviours may help form part of a therapeutic approach to treating eating disorders based on supporting the immune response and reducing inflammation to stabilise metabolic processes. Future studies in a larger population of patients is necessary to determine the relevance of these findings.
Alterations of the immune system are known in eating disorders (EDs), however the importance of cytokine balance in this context has not been clarified. We compared cytokines and growth factors at opposite ends of BMI ranges, in 90 patients classified in relation to BMI, depressive and EDs comorbidities. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were determined by a biochip analyzer (Randox Labs). Differences were calculated through ANOVA. Possible predictors of higher cytokine levels were evaluated through regression analysis. IL-1α, IL-10, EGF, and IFN-γ were altered individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Night-eating was associated with IL-8 and EGF levels, IL-10 concentrations with post-dinner eating and negatively with sweet-eating, long fasting with higher IFN-γ levels. IL-2 increase was not linked to EDs, but to the interaction of depression and BMI. Altogether, for the first time, IL-1α, IL-10, EGF, and IFN-γ were shown to differ between AN and HCs, and between AN and individuals with obesity with or without BED. Only IL-2 was influenced by depression. Dysfunctional eating behaviors predicted abnormal concentrations of IL-10, EGF, IL-8 and IFN-γ.
What is the effect of a Mediterranean compared with a Fast Food meal on the exercise induced adipokine changes? A randomized cross-over clinical trial.
PloS one. 2019;14(4):e0215475
Plain language summary
Unhealthy dietary intake and sedentary behaviour in a genetically susceptible individual have been associated with adipokine dysregulation (adipokines are small proteins secreted by the fat tissue) resulting both in adverse metabolic and immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a Mediterranean (MdM) compared with a Fast Food (FFM) iso-energy meal on the acute exercise-induced adipokine changes. The study is a double-blind randomised crossover clinical trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to the intervention order in a double-blinded fashion, stratified by asthma diagnosis. Outcomes were measured blinded to the participant’s allocation order. Results indicate that MdM may blunt the adipsin (an adipokine) immediate response and potentiate its exercise induced increase in comparison with a FFM. MdM slightly attenuated the exercise induced cortisol increase. Authors conclude that their findings highlight the importance of the pre-exercise dietary intake on both the immune and metabolic response to acute exercise.
BACKGROUND Adipose tissue-derived adipokines are pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in metabolic-related diseases and can be influenced by diet and exercise. We aimed to compare the effect of a Mediterranean (MdM) compared with Fast Food (FFM) meal on the exercise induced adipokines changes. METHODS In a double blinded cross over trial, 46 participants were randomly assigned to one of two standardized iso-energy pre-exercise meals: FFM or MdM-type. Three hours after each meal, participants completed a treadmill exercise test (EC). Serum adiponectin, resistin, PAI-1, lipocalin-2/NGAL and adipsin were determined by Luminex magnetic bead immunoassay. Wilcoxon signed rank test compared changes before/after meal and before/after EC and a linear mixed model evaluated the effect of meals on the adipokine response to exercise, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS Thirty-nine participants (mean age of 25, with a standard deviation of 5 years) completed the trial (56% females). For both interventions, a significant reduction of adipsin after each meal and a significant increase of lipocalin, PAI-1, adipsin and resistin, after exercise was observed. When exercise was preceded by a MdM meal a higher increase in adipsin levels was seen. CONCLUSION Acute exercise induced an increase of circulatory levels of adipsin, resistin, lipocalin and PAI-1, but not adiponectin. A pre-exercise Mediterranean meal potentiated the increase of adipsin after the exercise test, which possibly relates to the immune regulatory role of adipsin. These changes suggest a cross-talk between the immune and metabolic immediate response to exercise and its modulation by the pre-exercise diet composition.
Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial has a modest effect on gut microbiota and immune and inflammatory markers of healthy adults.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2017;105(3):635-650
Plain language summary
Increased whole grain consumption has been associated with reduced levels of inflammation. This randomised, controlled trial aimed to assess the effects of a whole grain diet in comparison with a refined grain diet on the immune system, levels of inflammation and gut bacteria. 81 men and women aged between 40 and 60 were randomly assigned to either a whole grain or a refined grain diet for a period of 6 weeks. All other dietary components were kept the same and calorie levels were controlled to maintain weight levels. The study findings showed a positive effect on stool frequency and stool weight with the whole grain diet in comparison to the refined grain diet. The whole grain diet also showed modest positive effects on gut bacteria profiles and aspects of immunity. The whole grain diet showed no effects on markers of inflammation.
Background: Observational studies suggest an inverse association between whole-grain (WG) consumption and inflammation. However, evidence from interventional studies is limited, and few studies have included measurements of cell-mediated immunity.Objective: We assessed the effects of diets rich in WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on immune and inflammatory responses, gut microbiota, and microbial products in healthy adults while maintaining subject body weights.Design: After a 2-wk provided-food run-in period of consuming a Western-style diet, 49 men and 32 postmenopausal women [age range: 40-65 y, body mass index (in kg/m2) <35] were assigned to consume 1 of 2 provided-food weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk.Results: Compared with the RG group, the WG group had increased plasma total alkyresorcinols (a measure of WG intake) (P < 0.0001), stool weight (P < 0.0001), stool frequency (P = 0.02), and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producer Lachnospira [false-discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P = 0.25] but decreased pro-inflammatory Enterobacteriaceae (FDR-corrected P = 0.25). Changes in stool acetate (P = 0.02) and total SCFAs (P = 0.05) were higher in the WG group than in the RG group. A positive association was shown between Lachnospira and acetate (FDR-corrected P = 0.002) or butyrate (FDR-corrected P = 0.005). We also showed that there was a higher percentage of terminal effector memory T cells (P = 0.03) and LPS-stimulated ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.04) in the WG group than in the RG group, which were positively associated with plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations.Conclusion: The short-term consumption of WGs in a weight-maintenance diet increases stool weight and frequency and has modest positive effects on gut microbiota, SCFAs, effector memory T cells, and the acute innate immune response and no effect on other markers of cell-mediated immunity or systemic and gut inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01902394.