An Isocaloric Nordic Diet Modulates RELA and TNFRSF1A Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome-A SYSDIET Sub-Study.
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) alongside other related risk factors has been implicated as increasing an individual’s risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. MetS is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and raised blood lipid levels, which have been shown to improve in individuals when put on a Nordic diet (ND). In this sub-study of the SYSDIET study, which was a 18-24 week randomised controlled multi centre study, the aim was to examine the effect of a ND compared to a control diet (CD) on genes that are involved in the production of inflammatory molecules and lipids. Blood samples of 88 obese participants from the SYSDIET study were analysed for various inflammatory molecule producing genes and lipid molecule producing genes. The results showed that compared to CD, ND increased the presence of the inflammatory gene RELA, but decreased the presence of inflammatory gene TNFRSF1A. No differences were observed in other inflammatory genes and no differences were observed in lipid producing genes. It was concluded that consuming a ND compared to a CD may affect the production of inflammatory genes; however further studies are required to determine if the ND improves the amount of blood lipids because of an altered presence of lipid producing genes. The implication of this for practitioners is that further research of the SYSDIET is needed. In addition, a Nordic diet may improve inflammation in obese individuals because of a reduction in the production of inflammatory genes.
A healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and reduced inflammation. To explore this at the molecular level, we investigated the effect of a Nordic diet (ND) on changes in the gene expression profiles of inflammatory and lipid-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals with MetS. We hypothesized that the intake of an ND compared to a control diet (CD) would alter the expression of inflammatory genes and genes involved in lipid metabolism. The individuals with MetS underwent an 18/24-week randomized intervention to compare a ND with a CD. Eighty-eight participants (66% women) were included in this sub-study of the larger SYSDIET study. Fasting PBMCs were collected before and after the intervention and changes in gene expression levels were measured using TaqMan Array Micro Fluidic Cards. Forty-eight pre-determined inflammatory and lipid related gene transcripts were analyzed. The expression level of the gene tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) was down-regulated (p = 0.004), whereas the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) subunit, RELA proto-oncogene, was up-regulated (p = 0.016) in the ND group compared to the CD group. In conclusion, intake of an ND in individuals with the MetS may affect immune function.
Vitamin D for the Immune System in Cystic Fibrosis (DISC): a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2019;109(3):544-553
Plain language summary
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a mutation in a particular gene which results in derangements in chloride transport across epithelial surfaces, leading to abnormally thickened mucus on the surfaces of the lung, pancreas, intestines, and other organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of high-dose vitamin D3 administered to adults with CF during and after an acute pulmonary exacerbation. The study is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects were randomly assigned and stratified to one of the two groups: vitamin D (5 capsules of vitamin D3 containing 50,000 IU) or placebo (5 capsules that were identical in size, shape, and colour to the vitamin D3 capsule). Results demonstrated that high-dose vitamin D3 administration to adults with CF initiated at the time of a pulmonary exacerbation did not improve time to next pulmonary exacerbation or 1 year survival. Authors conclude that a high-dose vitamin D3 bolus, combined with maintenance therapy given to adults with CF during acute pulmonary exacerbation of CF did not improve 1 year survival or recovery of lung function.
BACKGROUND Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have increased risk of vitamin D deficiency owing to fat malabsorption and other factors. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of pulmonary exacerbations of CF. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of a single high-dose bolus of vitamin D3 followed by maintenance treatment given to adults with CF during an acute pulmonary exacerbation on future recurrence of pulmonary exacerbations. METHODS This was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, intent-to-treat clinical trial. Subjects with CF were randomly assigned to oral vitamin D3 given as a single dose of 250,000 International Units (IU) or to placebo within 72 h of hospital admission for an acute pulmonary exacerbation, followed by 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 or an identically matched placebo pill taken orally every other week starting at 3 mo after random assignment. The primary outcome was the composite endpoint of the time to next pulmonary exacerbation or death within 1 y. The secondary outcomes included circulating concentrations of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and recovery of lung function as assessed by the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%). RESULTS A total of 91 subjects were enrolled in the study. There were no differences between the vitamin D3 and placebo groups in time to next pulmonary exacerbation or death at 1 y. In addition, there were no differences in serial recovery of lung function after pulmonary exacerbation by FEV1% or in serial concentrations of plasma cathelicidin. CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D3 initially given at the time of pulmonary exacerbation of CF did not alter the time to the next pulmonary exacerbation, 12-mo mortality, serial lung function, or serial plasma cathelicidin concentrations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01426256.
A Pilot Study To Investigate the Immune-Modulatory Effects of Fasting in Steroid-Naive Mild Asthmatics.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2018;201(5):1382-1388
Plain language summary
Previous studies have shown that caloric restriction and fasting may modulate immune function and have positive effects in asthmatics. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of fasting on specific inflammatory markers that might mediate such benefits. 18 mild asthmatics, 5 of whom were not on steroid inhalers, fasted for 24 hours. Lung function and immune parameters were evaluated at baseline and 2.5 hours after the first meal following the fast. There were significant differences between subjects who were and were not on steroid inhalers. Whilst one day of fasting did not affect lung function, a number of inflammatory parameters were improved by fasting in those not taking steroid inhalers, but not in those who were taking steroids. The authors conclude that caloric restriction might be considered as a strategy to improve systemic and pulmonary inflammation in asthma.
A fasting mimetic diet blunts inflammation, and intermittent fasting has shown ameliorative effects in obese asthmatics. To examine whether canonical inflammatory pathways linked with asthma are modulated by fasting, we designed a pilot study in mild asthmatic subjects to assess the effect of fasting on the NLRP3 inflammasome, Th2 cell activation, and airway epithelial cell cytokine production. Subjects with documented reversible airway obstruction and stable mild asthma were recruited into this study in which pulmonary function testing (PFT) and PBMCextraction was performed 24 h after fasting, with repeated PFT testing and blood draw 2.5 h after refeeding. PFTs were not changed by a prolonged fast. However, steroid-naive mild asthmatics showed fasting-dependent blunting of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, PBMCs from these fasted asthmatics cocultured with human epithelial cells resulted in blunting of house dust mite-induced epithelial cell cytokine production and reduced CD4+ T cell Th2 activation compared with refed samples. This pilot study shows that prolonged fasting blunts the NLRP3 inflammasome and Th2 cell activation in steroid-naive asthmatics as well as diminishes airway epithelial cell cytokine production. This identifies a potential role for nutrient level-dependent regulation of inflammation in asthma. Our findings support the evaluation of this concept in a larger study as well as the potential development of caloric restriction interventions for the treatment of asthma.
Longitudinal Study of the Psoriasis-Associated Skin Microbiome during Therapy with Ustekinumab in a Randomized Phase 3b Clinical Trial.
The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2018;138(9):1973-1981
Plain language summary
Chronic plaque psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease of the skin and joints. A growing appreciation of the role of the innate immune system in psoriasis pathogenesis stems from the prominent role of inflammatory cytokines and cells associated with innate immunity in the disease and associations observed between psoriasis and genetic variations involved in innate immunity. The aim of this study was to assess changes of the skin microbiome in the setting of a longitudinal phase 3b study of patients receiving up to 2 years of ustekinumab therapy. Results show that prior to treatment, there were minor, body-site specific differences in microbial diversity and composition when comparing lesional with non-lesional skin. Microbial heterogeneity was greater in lesional skin than non-lesional skin. During ustekinumab treatment, the composition of microbiota diverged further between lesional and non-lesional skin across body sites. The divergence observed between lesional and non-lesional skin during ustekinumab treatment varied by body site. Authors conclude that their findings may help inform future study design and it may also have medically relevant implications for diagnostics and therapeutics involving the skin microbiome.
Plaque psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the skin, is thought to have a multifactorial etiology, including innate immune system dysregulation, environmental triggers, and genetic susceptibility. We sought to further understand the role of skin microbiota in psoriasis pathogenesis, as well as their response to therapy. We systematically analyzed dynamic microbiota colonizing psoriasis lesions and adjacent nonlesional skin in 114 patients prior to and during ustekinumab treatment in a phase 3b clinical trial. By sequencing the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene from skin swab samples obtained at six anatomical sites, we identified minor, site-specific differences in microbial diversity and composition between pretreatment lesional and nonlesional skin. During therapy, microbial communities within lesional and nonlesional skin diverged, and body-site dispersion increased, reflecting microbial skin site-specificity. Microbiota demonstrated greater pretreatment heterogeneity in psoriatic lesions than in nonlesional skin, and variance increased as treatment progressed. Microbiota colonizing recurrent lesions did not overlap with pretreatment lesional microbiota, suggesting colonization patterns varied between initial and recurrent psoriatic lesions. While plaque psoriasis does not appear to be associated with specific microbes and/or microbial diversity, this large dataset provides insight into microbial variation associated with (i) disease in different body locations, (ii) initial versus recurrent lesions, and (iii) anti-IL12/23 therapy.