Changes in objectively measured sleep after a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention in children with abdominal obesity: A randomized trial.
Sleep medicine. 2023;109:252-260
Plain language summary
The main factors that contribute to obesity are genetics, excessive energy intake, decreased physical activity, and sedentarism. Sleep duration, sleep timing and chronotype have also recently been recognised as possible risk factors for obesity in children. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention (usual care vs. intervention group) on sleep quality and its relationship with changes in biochemical and metabolic syndrome related anthropometric parameters. This study was a randomised controlled trial. The multidisciplinary intervention consisted of a two-year program that comprised a 2-month intensive phase with individual and group sessions and a follow-up period at 12 and 24 months. Subjects were randomly assigned to the usual care or intervention group at a ratio of 1:3. Results showed that a lifestyle intervention improved most sleep parameters in children and adolescents with abdominal obesity. In fact, the lifestyle intervention showed a reduction in anthropometric indexes and several biochemical parameters, and improved sleep quality at 2, 12, and 24 months of follow-up. Decreasing sleep latency, awakenings duration and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) also accompanied improved sleep efficiency. Authors conclude that their findings add to the growing body of research on the relationship between sleep and metabolic health outcomes in children, emphasizing the need to consider multiple dimensions of sleep beyond just sleep duration.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE childhood obesity and sleep disorders have a well-established cross-sectional association, but lifestyle interventions' effects on sleep quality remain under-researched. This study aimed to evaluate the sleep quality of 122 participants (7-16 years) with abdominal obesity after a 2-year necessary lifestyle intervention. PATIENTS/METHODS participants were assigned to either the intervention group (moderate hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet) or the usual care group (standard recommendations on a healthy diet). Sleep was objectively assessed using triaxial accelerometry, and sleep parameters analyzed included latency, efficiency, wake after sleep onset, total time in bed, total sleep time, number of awakenings, and awakening duration. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS the results showed that the intervention group significantly improved sleep latency at 12 and 24 months and improved sleep efficiency at 2 and 12 months, compared to the usual care group. Wake after sleep onset and the number of awakenings were significantly reduced at 24 months in the intervention group. Wake after sleep onset and leptin levels were positively associated in all participants. Total time in bed was inversely associated with triglycerides and metabolic score, and total sleep time was inversely associated with leptin, triglycerides, and metabolic score after the 2-month intervention. Triglyceride levels were inversely associated with total time in bed and total sleep time at one year, while the metabolic score was directly associated with wake after sleep onset and the number of awakenings and inversely associated with efficiency. In conclusion, the multidisciplinary intervention in children and adolescents with abdominal obesity reduced anthropometric parameters and improved sleep habits.
Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile and Blood Pressure in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 2023;12(4)
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of disorders that cause disturbed metabolism, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. People with MetS may have a higher risk of coronary heart disease and stroke than those without MetS. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and triglyceride-lowering properties, so they may help treat obesity and improve metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of n-3 PUFAs on lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with MetS. This study is a meta-analysis of eight studies. One of the studies was a crossover trial, whereas the remaining seven studies were parallel-controlled trials. The mean age of the participants was 45.54 years old. Results show that following supplementation with n-3 PUFAs in patients with metabolic syndrome: - there weren’t significant changes in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. - there was a significant reduction in serum triglycerides and blood pressure. Authors conclude that n-3 PUFA supplementation may serve as a potential dietary supplement for improving lipids and blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Conflicts of interest:
A: Meta-analyses, position-stands, randomized-controlled trials (RCTs)
B: Systematic reviews including RCTs of limited number
C: Non-randomized trials, observational studies, narrative reviews
D: Case-reports, evidence-based clinical findings
E: Opinion piece, other
This journal article presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on serum lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
This meta-analysis included 8 RCTs with 387 participants with metabolic syndrome. Participants in the intervention group took omega-3 fatty acid supplements and the outcomes included total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP).
- Based on a meta-analysis of data from the included trials, supplementation with omega 3- PUFAs led to no reduction in serum LDL-c level among patients with metabolic syndrome (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD) = 0.18; 95% CI: −0.18 ~ 0.53, I2 = 55%); did not increase serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (SMD = 0.02; 95% CI: −0.21 ~ 0.25, I2 = 0%); and had no reduction in serum total cholesterol level (SMD = −0.02; 95% CI: −0.22~0.18, I2 = 24%).
- On the other hand, in patients with metabolic syndrome, supplementation with omega 3- PUFAs may decrease serum triglyceride levels (SMD = −0.39; 95% CI: −0.59 ~ −0.18, I2 = 17.2%); systolic blood pressure (SMD = −0.54; 95% CI: −0.86 ~ −0.22, I2 = 48.6%); and diastolic blood pressure (SMD = −0.56; 95% CI: −0.79~ −0.33, I2 = 14.0%).
- Sensitivity analyses indicated that the pooled estimates wererobust for all outcomes.
- The following mechanisms may explain how PUFAs may reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. First, adequate intake of omega 3 PUFAs may reduce triglyceride and LDL synthesis in the liver. In addition, they may lower blood pressure by reducing angiotensin-converting enzyme levels in the aorta. Finally, PUFAs can increase insulin sensitivity and prevent hyperglycaemia.
This study presents some limitations: The literature search may have some omissions. The conclusions may be hindered by the risk of bias of the trials included. No bias test was performed due to the limited number of studies.
Clinical practice applications:
- Improved serum lipid profile: The findings from the paper indicate that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can have a positive impact on the serum lipid profile in patients with metabolic syndrome.
- Blood pressure management: omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may help reduce blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome.
- Nutritional therapists can use this information to consider omega-3 supplementation as part of nutritional therapy
- Complementary approach: Nutritional therapists can utilise the findings as supportive evidence for a holistic approach to managing metabolic syndrome. By incorporating omega-3 fatty acids into personalized nutrition plans, therapists may be able to offer additional dietary or supplemental interventions for individuals with metabolic syndrome, aiming to lower triglyceride levels and manage blood pressure, alongside other lifestyle modifications.
- Patient education: Nutritional therapists can educate their patients with metabolic syndrome about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids on lipid profile and blood pressure. By explaining the findings from the systematic review and meta-analysis, therapists can empower patients to make informed choices regarding their dietary habits and supplement use, promoting self-management and improved long-term outcomes.
Considerations for future research:
- Future research could focus on determining the optimum dosage of Omega-3 PUFAs for improving lipid profile and BP.
- More investigation is needed to analyse the long term effect of the supplements. The longest RCT was 90 days.
- Comparative studies comparing the effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation with other interventions commonly used in metabolic syndrome management, such as pharmacological approaches or diet, would provide a comprehensive understanding of their relative effectiveness.
- Future research could explore potential variations in the effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation based on different patient characteristics, such as age, gender, baseline lipid profile, and blood pressure levels.
- Conducting mechanistic studies could shed light on the underlying pathways through which omega-3 fatty acids exert their effects on serum lipid profile and blood pressure.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) supplementation on serum lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane library from database inception to 30 April 2022. This meta-analysis included eight trials with 387 participants. We found that supplementation of n-3 PUFAs has no significant reduction in TC level (SMD = -0.02; 95% CI: -0.22 ~ 0.18, I2 = 23.7%) and LDL-c level in serum (SMD = 0.18; 95% CI: -0.18 ~ 0.53, I2 = 54.9%) of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, we found no significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (SMD = 0.02; 95% CI: -0.21 ~ 0.25, I2 = 0%) in patients with metabolic syndrome after consuming n-3 PUFAs. In addition, we found that n-3 PUFAs can significantly decrease serum triglyceride levels (SMD= -0.39; 95% CI: -0.59 ~ -0.18, I2 = 17.2%), systolic blood pressure (SMD = -0.54; 95% CI: -0.86 ~ -0.22, I2 = 48.6%), and diastolic blood pressure (SMD = -0.56; 95% CI: -0.79 ~ 0.33, I2 = 14.0%) in patients with metabolic syndrome. The results from the sensitivity analysis confirmed that our results were robust. These findings suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation may serve as a potential dietary supplement for improving lipids and blood pressure in metabolic syndrome. Given the quality of the included studies, further studies are still needed to verify our findings.
Blueberries Improve Abdominal Symptoms, Well-Being and Functioning in Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders.
Plain language summary
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are the most common cause of recurring, chronic digestive upsets. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD), or persistent indigestion, are the most prevalent types of those disorders. Typical symptoms include pain or discomfort in the abdomen, changes in stool patterns or bloating and may also manifest in symptoms not directly relating to the digestive tract. It remains uncertain what the exact mechanisms of those disorders are. However, scientists identified various factors involved, including immune system activation, sensitisation of the nervous system, dysregulated permeability of the gut walls, and changes in the microbiota, their composition and metabolic activity. Polyphenols are natural compounds found abundantly in plants and are most known for their antioxidant qualities. One frequently studied and rich-source of phenols is Blueberries (Vaccinium spp). Blueberries have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, and are known to reverse the permeability of the gut membrane. Hence their use in the management of FGID appeared promising. This double-blind, randomized, cross-over study assessed the benefit of blueberries in 43 people with IBS or FD, between 18–60 years of age. The candidates were given 30g freeze-dried blueberries, the equivalent of 180g of fresh blueberries, or a sugar-based placebo of similar calorific value for 6-weeks each. When receiving the blueberries, greater symptom relief was observed when compared to the placebo group. Blueberry intake also positively reflected in experienced improvement in quality of life. No notable differences were observed between groups in stool patterns and fructose digestion. Blueberries and their beneficial compounds such as polyphenols and fiber appear to have a wide range of benefits that can help manage some of the FGID-associated symptoms. Further studies are needed to understand why, despite some notable benefits, some of the other GI markers remained unaffected. As blueberries are generally well tolerated, they can be a simple and helpful food intervention to complement other FGID management strategies.
Blueberries beneficially modulate physiologic mechanisms relevant to the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Forty-three patients with FGID received freeze-dried blueberries (equivalent to 180 g fresh blueberries) or sugar and energy-matched placebo in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. After 6 weeks of treatment, the differences in Gastrointestinal Clinical Rating Scale (GSRS) scores and abdominal symptom relief were compared as primary outcome measures. The quality of life and life functioning ratings (OQ45.2 questionnaire), Bristol stool scales, and fructose breath test results constituted secondary outcome measures. Blueberry treatment resulted in more patients with relevant abdominal symptom relief compared to placebo (53% vs. 30%, p = 0.03). Total and pain GSRS scores improved insignificantly (mean treatment differences [95% CI]: -3.4 [-7.4 to 0.6] (p = 0.09) and -1.0 [-2.2 to 0.1] (p = 0.08), respectively). OQ45.2 scores improved during blueberry treatment compared to placebo (treatment difference -3.2 [95% CI: -5.6 to -0], p = 0.01). Treatment effect differences for the further measures did not reach statistical significance. Blueberries relieved abdominal symptoms and improved general markers of well-being, quality of life, and life functioning more than placebo in patients with FGID. Consequently, the polyphenol and fiber components of blueberries exert broad beneficial effects separate from the sugars present in both treatments.
Dietary Strawberries Improve Serum Metabolites of Cardiometabolic Risks in Adults with Features of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial.
International journal of molecular sciences. 2023;24(3)
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome has been identified as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular complications. Several dietary strategies, especially the use of different forms of dietary supplements, continue to be investigated for the prevention and management of this condition. The aim of this study was to examine the serum metabolites (targeted and untargeted) that may be affected by strawberry supplementation. This study was a randomised, double-blind, controlled crossover trial which enrolled adult participants with one or more features of metabolic syndrome. Participants were assigned to one of the three arms for four weeks separated by a one-week washout period. Results show that several targeted and untargeted serum metabolites were modulated with strawberry supplementation. In fact, strawberry supplementation improved the serum metabolic profiles which are associated with decreased risks of insulin resistance and diabetes, as well as endothelial dysfunction in adults with features of metabolic syndrome. Authors conclude that adding whole strawberries to the habitual diet may be a beneficial and feasible strategy to improve the cardiometabolic health in adults.
Dietary strawberries have been shown to improve cardiometabolic risks in multiple clinical trials. However, no studies have reported effects on serum metabolomic profiles that may identify the target pathways affected by strawberries as underlying mechanisms. We conducted a 14-week randomized, controlled crossover study in which participants with features of metabolic syndrome were assigned to one of the three arms for four weeks separated by a one-week washout period: control powder, 1 serving (low dose: 13 g strawberry powder/day), or 2.5 servings (high dose: 32 g strawberry powder/day). Blood samples, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and dietary and physical activity data were collected at baseline and at the end of each four-week phase of intervention. Serum samples were analyzed for primary metabolites and complex lipids using different mass spectrometry methods. Mixed-model ANOVA was used to examine differences in the targeted metabolites between treatment phases, and LASSO logistic regression was used to examine differences in the untargeted metabolites at end of the strawberry intervention vs. the baseline. The findings revealed significant differences in the serum branched-chain amino acids valine and leucine following strawberry intervention (high dose) compared with the low-dose and control phases. Untargeted metabolomic profiles revealed several metabolites, including serum phosphate, benzoic acid, and hydroxyphenyl propionic acid, that represented improved energy-metabolism pathways, compliance measures, and microbial metabolism of strawberry polyphenols, respectively. Thus, dietary supplementation of strawberries significantly improves the serum metabolic profiles of cardiometabolic risks in adults.
Effects of a Dulaglutide plus Calorie-Restricted Diet versus a Calorie-Restricted Diet on Visceral Fat and Metabolic Profiles in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Plain language summary
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a unification of reproductive endocrine and metabolic disorders. Lifestyle and weight management, particularly dietary intake aimed at weight loss, are initial treatment strategies for PCOS. A calorie-restricted diet (CRD) seems to be the optimal dietary pattern for weight management in the PCOS population. The aim of this study was to evaluate modifications in fat distribution, the androgenic state, and metabolic profiles in the overweight and obese PCOS-affected population, who obtained modest and equivalent weight loss induced by a CRD regimen with or without Dulaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (RA). This study was a randomised controlled trial which enrolled 68 females diagnosed with PCOS. Participants were randomly assigned to receive to one of the two groups: a GLP-1 RA combined with CRD or CRD alone. Results showed that participants in the GLP-1 RA + CRD group took a shorter time to achieve a 7% weight loss goal than those in the CRD group. Furthermore, both interventions had similar positive effects in improving menstrual frequency and reducing levels of blood pressure, insulin, aminotransferases, lipids, total fat mass, total lean mass, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue mass after equivalent weight loss. Authors conclude that their findings support the importance of dietary intervention as a first-line treatment in women with PCOS, and that GLP-1 RA therapy offers an effective and generally tolerable adjunct therapy to aid in achieving weight targets based on dietary therapy in overweight and obese women with PCOS.
The effects of dulaglutide and a calorie-restricted diet (CRD) on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have not been extensively investigated. In this study, we investigated whether dulaglutide combined with CRD could further reduce VAT and promote clinical benefits as compared with a CRD regimen alone in overweight or obese PCOS-affected women. Between May 2021 and May 2022, this single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial was conducted. Overall, 243 participants with PCOS were screened, of which 68 overweight or obese individuals were randomly randomized to undergo dulaglutide combined with CRD treatment (n = 35) or CRD treatment alone (n = 33). The duration of intervention was set as the time taken to achieve a 7% weight loss goal from baseline body weight, which was restricted to 6 months. The primary endpoint was the difference in the change in VAT area reduction between the groups. The secondary endpoints contained changes in menstrual frequency, metabolic profiles, hormonal parameters, liver fat, and body composition. As compared with the CRD group, the dulaglutide + CRD group had a considerably shorter median time to achieve 7% weight loss. There was no significant between-group difference in area change of VAT reduction (-0.97 cm2, 95% confidence interval from -14.36 to 12.42, p = 0.884). As compared with CRD alone, dulaglutide + CRD had significant advantages in reducing glycated hemoglobin A1c and postprandial plasma glucose levels. The results of the analyses showed different changes in menstruation frequency, additional metabolic profiles, hormonal markers, liver fat, and body composition between the two groups did not differ significantly. Nausea, vomiting, constipation, and loss of appetite were the main adverse events of dulaglutide. These results emphasize the value of dietary intervention as the first line of treatment for PCOS-affected women, while glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist therapy provides an efficient and typically well tolerated adjuvant therapy to aid in reaching weight targets based on dietary therapy in the population of overweight/obese PCOS-affected women.
Randomized controlled trial demonstrates response to a probiotic intervention for metabolic syndrome that may correspond to diet.
Gut microbes. 2023;15(1):2178794
Plain language summary
Rates of metabolic syndrome are high throughout developed countries. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that occur together and increase your risk for heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Studies in animals and humans have shown that the composition of the gut microbiome may be linked to metabolic syndrome and that it is affected by diet. This randomised control trial of 39 individuals showed that the supplementation of a probiotic containing three different probiotic strains did not have a population wide effect but did influence a subset of individuals. These individuals had a different microbiome by the end of the trial and a decrease in blood pressure and blood lipids. Interestingly these individuals also had a higher dietary intake of sugar, yet a lower blood sugar level. It was concluded that the response to probiotic supplements may be dependent upon an individual’s diet. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand that diet may influence the success of probiotics, however more research is warranted before firm conclusions are made on the optimal diet during supplementation.
An individual's immune and metabolic status is coupled to their microbiome. Probiotics offer a promising, safe route to influence host health, possibly via the microbiome. Here, we report an 18-week, randomized prospective study that explores the effects of a probiotic vs. placebo supplement on 39 adults with elevated parameters of metabolic syndrome. We performed longitudinal sampling of stool and blood to profile the human microbiome and immune system. While we did not see changes in metabolic syndrome markers in response to the probiotic across the entire cohort, there were significant improvements in triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure in a subset of probiotic arm participants. Conversely, the non-responders had increased blood glucose and insulin levels over time. The responders had a distinct microbiome profile at the end of the intervention relative to the non-responders and placebo arm. Importantly, diet was a key differentiating factor between responders and non-responders. Our results show participant-specific effects of a probiotic supplement on improving parameters of metabolic syndrome and suggest that dietary factors may enhance stability and efficacy of the supplement.
Acute Insulin Secretory Effects of a Classic Ketogenic Meal in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Cross-Over Study.
Plain language summary
The ketogenic diet is a dietary regimen providing very low carbohydrate, high fat, and modest protein. Low carbohydrate and ketogenic diets have become increasingly popular in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The main aim of this study was to measure the insulin secretory response to a typical ketogenic meal providing ~40% of individual energy needs and to compare it to the response to an isocaloric Mediterranean meal in healthy subjects. This study is a randomised cross-over study which enrolled twelve healthy subjects (50/50 female/male), adults with an age range of 19–31 years, and with a normal weight. The participants received mixed standardised meals of different compositions on two different days spaced apart by a washout period of 7 days. Each subject consumed two meals of identical energy content but differing in macronutrient composition. Results show that a Mediterranean meal accounting for 40% of daily dietary intake, requires, for its metabolism, the production of 7.8 ± 0.8 times the amount of insulin compared to fasting values, temporarily spiking the insulin secretory rate to 8.9 ± 1.2-fold the basal values. Authors conclude that a ketogenic meal is disposed of with only a minimal insulin secretory response compared to a Mediterranean meal.
The classic ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that mimics a starvation state with sufficient caloric intake to sustain growth and development. KD is an established treatment for several diseases, and it is currently evaluated in the management of insulin-resistant states, although insulin secretion after a classic ketogenic meal has never been investigated. We measured the insulin secretion to a ketogenic meal in 12 healthy subjects (50% females, age range 19-31 years, BMI range 19.7-24.7 kg/m2) after cross-over administrations of a Mediterranean meal and a ketogenic meal both satisfying ~40% of an individual's total energy requirement, in random order and separated by a 7-day washout period. Venous blood was sampled at baseline and at 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min to measure glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations. Insulin secretion was calculated from C-peptide deconvolution and normalized to the estimated body surface area. Glucose, insulin concentrations, and insulin secretory rate were markedly reduced after the ketogenic meal with respect to the Mediterranean meal: glucose AUC in the first OGTT hour -643 mg × dL-1 × min-1, 95% CI -1134, -152, p = 0.015; total insulin concentration -44,943 pmol/L, 95% CI -59,181, -3706, p < 0.001; peak rate of insulin secretion -535 pmol × min-1 × m-2, 95% CI -763, -308, p < 0.001. We have shown that a ketogenic meal is disposed of with only a minimal insulin secretory response compared to a Mediterranean meal. This finding may be of interest to patients with insulin resistance and or insulin secretory defects.
Dietary polyphenols, metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors: An observational study based on the DCH-NG subcohort.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2023;33(6):1167-1178
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. Cardiometabolic risk factors include high waist circumference (WC), insulin resistance, hypertension, dysglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and altered inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between intakes of polyphenols (total polyphenols and their main classes) and the prevalence of MetS and cardiometabolic risk factors. This study is an observational sub-cohort study of 676 Danish participants of the MAX study from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations (DCH-NG) cohort. Results showed that individuals with higher total polyphenol and phenolic acid intakes, were less likely to have MetS. Furthermore, for cardiovascular risk factors, intakes of total polyphenols, flavonoids and phenolic acids were associated with a lower risk of higher systolic blood pressure and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Authors conclude by suggesting that intervention studies should be undertaken to establish whether a polyphenol-rich diet can improve some cardiometabolic risk factors and can reduce or delay the onset of cardiometabolic diseases in free-living populations.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Polyphenol-rich foods have beneficial properties that may lower cardiometabolic risk. We aimed to prospectively investigate the relationship between intakes of dietary polyphenols, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, in 676 Danish residents from the MAX study, a subcohort of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health-Next Generations (DCH-NG) cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS Dietary data were collected using web-based 24-h dietary recalls over one year (at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months). The Phenol-Explorer database was used to estimate dietary polyphenol intake. Clinical variables were also collected at the same time point. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate relationships between polyphenol intake and MetS. Participants had a mean age of 43.9y, a mean total polyphenol intake of 1368 mg/day, and 75 (11.6%) had MetS at baseline. Compared to individuals with MetS in Q1 and after adjusting for age, sex, lifestyle and dietary confounders, those in Q4 - for total polyphenols, flavonoids and phenolic acids-had a 50% [OR (95% CI): 0.50 (0.27, 0.91)], 51% [0.49 (0.26, 0.91)] and 45% [0.55 (0.30, 1.00)] lower odds of MetS, respectively. Higher total polyphenols, flavonoids and phenolic acids intakes as continuous variable were associated with lower risk for elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Total polyphenol, flavonoid and phenolic acid intakes were associated with lower odds of MetS. These intakes were also consistently and significantly associated with a lower risk for higher SBP and lower HDL-c concentrations.
The effects of time-restricted eating and weight loss on bone metabolism and health: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2023;31 Suppl 1:85-95
Plain language summary
Intermittent fasting (IF) involves an alternation of abstinence and consumption of food and caloric beverages over a cycle of hours to days. Time-restricted feeding (in animals) or eating (TRE in humans) is a form of IF that entails restricting eating within a window of 4 to 12 hours per 24-hour cycle and prolonging the time spent in the fasted state to realign eating-fasting patterns with circadian rhythms. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of a 6-month randomised controlled trial of TRE versus standard dietary advice (SDA, active control arm) on bone metabolism and health in a population with at least one component of the metabolic syndrome. This study is a secondary analysis of an open-label 6-month randomised controlled trial in which participants who ate within a time interval > 14 hours per 24-hour cycle (n=54) were randomised to TRE or SDA (active control) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. A total of 42 participants (76% women) with available bone turnover markers and/or bone mass measurements were included in this study. Results show that there weren’t any detrimental effects on bone health outcomes i.e. bone metabolism or bone loss after 6 months of TRE. Additionally, weight loss following a period of TRE might be associated with small bone-sparing effects compared with SDA. Authors conclude that future studies of longer duration (>6 months) assessing multiple bone phenotypes are required in order to confirm the study’s findings and explore the effects of various TRE regimens particularly among individuals at risk for bone fragility such as postmenopausal women and the elderly.
OBJECTIVE This study explored the impact of time-restricted eating (TRE) versus standard dietary advice (SDA) on bone health. METHODS Adults with ≥1 component of metabolic syndrome were randomized to TRE (ad libitum eating within 12 hours) or SDA (food pyramid brochure). Bone turnover markers and bone mineral content/density by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Statistical analyses were performed in the total population and by weight loss response. RESULTS In the total population (n = 42, 76% women, median age 47 years [IQR: 31-52]), there were no between-group differences (TRE vs. SDA) in any bone parameter. Among weight loss responders (≥0.6 kg weight loss), the bone resorption marker β-carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen tended to decrease after TRE but increase after SDA (between-group differences p = 0.041), whereas changes in the bone formation marker procollagen type I N-propeptide did not differ between groups. Total body bone mineral content decreased after SDA (p = 0.028) but remained unchanged after TRE (p = 0.31) in weight loss responders (between-group differences p = 0.028). Among nonresponders (<0.6 kg weight loss), there were no between-group differences in bone outcomes. CONCLUSIONS TRE had no detrimental impact on bone health, whereas, when weight loss occurred, it was associated with some bone-sparing effects compared with SDA.
Effects of Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 on Overweight and the Gut Microbiota in Humans: Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
Plain language summary
Probiotics are defined by the WHO as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Recent studies suggest that probiotics play a role as natural therapeutic supplements with the potential to improve lipid metabolism, and improve weight control through interventions that affect gut microbiome diversity. The aim of this study was to explore how Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 (HY7601) and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 (KY1032) supplementation alleviate obesity by modulating the human gut microbiome. This study was a 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on overweight and obese Koreans. Subjects (n =72) were randomly assigned to receive either probiotics or placebo. Results showed that probiotic supplementation with HY7601 and KY1032 decreased body weight, visceral fat mass, waist circumference, and increased adiponectin. Furthermore, these probiotics changed the bacterial gut microbiota characteristics associated with each obesity indicator. HY7601 and KY1032 exerted anti-obesity effects by regulating the gut microbiota composition. Authors conclude that HY7601 and KY1032 intake can alter the composition and diversity of the human gut microbiome, and thereby help prevent obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome.
Obesity and overweight are closely related to diet, and the gut microbiota play an important role in body weight and human health. The aim of this study was to explore how Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 supplementation alleviate obesity by modulating the human gut microbiome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 72 individuals with overweight. Over a 12-week period, probiotic groups consumed 1 × 1010 colony-forming units of HY7601 and KY1032, whereas the placebo group consumed the same product without probiotics. After treatment, the probiotic group displayed a reduction in body weight (p < 0.001), visceral fat mass (p < 0.025), and waist circumference (p < 0.007), and an increase in adiponectin (p < 0.046), compared with the placebo group. Additionally, HY7601 and KY1032 supplementation modulated bacterial gut microbiota characteristics and beta diversity by increasing Bifidobacteriaceae and Akkermansiaceae and decreasing Prevotellaceae and Selenomonadaceae. In summary, HY7601 and KY1032 probiotics exert anti-obesity effects by regulating the gut microbiota; hence, they have therapeutic potential for preventing or alleviating obesity and living with overweight.