Amino Acids, B Vitamins, and Choline May Independently and Collaboratively Influence the Incidence and Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Plain language summary
Autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder can be categorized under autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD can result in restrictive, repetitive, and stereotypical behaviour patterns and cause impairments in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of nutritional status and supplementation on the incidence and or severity of ASD symptoms using currently available resources. This study is a literature review of fifteen studies. Results show that children with ASD have higher rates of abnormal amino acids and lower blood levels of choline, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate when compared to those without ASD. Furthermore, increasing dietary intake of choline could improve anxious behaviours, receptive language skills, social behaviour, sensory processing, and other symptoms which rely on ion transport in individuals with ASD. Authors conclude that altering nutritional status can be an affordable and effective way to prevent ASD and improve the quality of life for families and individuals impacted by ASD.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder of variable severity, characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and restricted or repetitive patterns of thought and behavior. In 2018, the incidence of ASD was 2.4 times higher than estimated in 2000. Behavior and brain development abnormalities are present in the complex disorder of ASD. Nutritional status plays a key role in the incidence and severity of the core symptoms of ASD. The aim of this study was to review the available peer-reviewed studies that evaluated the relationship between amino acids, choline, B vitamins, and ASD incidence and/or severity of symptoms. Through examining plasma profiles, urine samples, and dietary intake, researchers found that low choline, abnormal amino acid, and low B vitamin levels were present in children with ASD compared to those without ASD. The evidence supports the need for future research that implements simultaneous supplementation of all essential nutrients in individuals with ASD and among prenatal mothers. Future evidence could lead to scientific breakthroughs, ultimately reducing the rates of ASD incidence and severity of symptoms by applying nutritional interventions in at-risk populations.
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Fasting and Lifestyle Modification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: Effects on Patient-Reported Outcomes.
Plain language summary
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a condition characterized by the presence of at least three cardiovascular risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia. The aim of this study was to assess effects of fasting followed by the Mind-Body Medicine in Integrative and Complementary Medicine (MICOM) lifestyle modification intervention in patients with MetS on patient-reported outcomes, compared to a lifestyle modification intervention only. This study is a single-blind, bicentre, randomized controlled study. Patients (n=145) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio into one of the 2 groups: fasting and lifestyle modification or the lifestyle modification. They started with 2 vegan days (max. 1200 kcal/day), followed by 5 days of fasting (max. 350 kcal/day), and a stepwise reintroduction of food. Then they participated in the 10-week MICOM comprehensive multimodal lifestyle modification intervention with weekly 6-h sessions. Results show that after the multimodal lifestyle modification intervention, there were improvements for all outcome measures, namely quality of life, anxiety, depression, stress, mood as well as self-efficacy, mindfulness, and self-compassion, which persisted at the follow-up after 24 weeks. Authors conclude that their findings show beneficial and clinically relevant effects of fasting and intensified lifestyle modification on quality of life and psychological parameters.
Conflicts of interest:
A: Meta-analyses, position-stands, randomized-controlled trials (RCTs)
B: Systematic reviews including RCTs of limited number
C: Non-randomized trials, observational studies, narrative reviews
D: Case-reports, evidence-based clinical findings
E: Opinion piece, other
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a condition characterised by the presence of at least three cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.
The authors refer to epidemiological studies that have identified the role of psychological risk factors such as psychosocial stress, depression and anxiety in patients with MetS and cardiovascular disease.
This single-blind, bi-centre RCT assessed the effects of fasting followed by a comprehensive lifestyle modification program MICOM (Mind-Body Medicine in Integrative and Complementary Medicine) in 145 participants with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (62.8% women; 59.7 ± 9.3 years) randomised to:
1. 5-day fasting followed by 10 weeks of lifestyle modification (F + LM; modified DASH diet, exercise, mindfulness; n = 73) or
2. 10 weeks of lifestyle modification only (LM; n = 72)
The study duration was 24 weeks occurring from April 2014 to December 2014, with the last follow-up assessment in December 2015. 73 Participants were randomised into an F + LM group and 72 participants into an LM group between the ages of 59 and 60.
Outcomes were assessed at weeks 0, 1, 12, and 24, for quality of life (Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire, SF-36), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS), stress (Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, CPSS), mood (Profile of Mood States, POMS), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale, GSE), mindfulness (Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS), and self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale, SCS).
At week 1, POMS depression and fatigue scores were significantly lower in F + LM compared to LM. At week 12, most self-report outcomes improved in both groups—only POMS vigour was significantly higher in F + LM than in LM. Most of the beneficial effects within the groups persisted at week 24.
Clinical practice applications:
This randomised controlled trial highlights fasting-induced mood-modulating effects in the short term (<24 months).
LM induced several positive effects on quality of life and psychological parameters in participants with MetS.
The compliance rate for this study was good and there were no adverse effects reported suggesting a potentially effective lifestyle modification intervention for adults with metabolic syndrome.
The authors did note the extent to which participants adhered to the program by using stress reduction techniques at home was not assessed.
Considerations for future research:
MBM lifestyle modification intervention led to an improvement of self-efficacy, mindfulness, and self-compassion.
Further studies to explore explanatory models for the effects of MBM are needed.
Mediating variables on mindfulness, self-efficacy, and compassion, and the effects on physical and psychological parameters, need to be examined more closely.
Future studies could use condition-specific questionnaires in addition to generic ones, which have previously been used to facilitate the comparison of the study results with those in the population.
Lifestyle interventions can have a positive impact on quality of life and psychological parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this randomized controlled trial, 145 participants with MetS (62.8% women; 59.7 ± 9.3 years) were randomized to (1) 5-day fasting followed by 10 weeks of lifestyle modification (F + LM; modified DASH diet, exercise, mindfulness; n = 73) or (2) 10 weeks of lifestyle modification only (LM; n = 72). Outcomes were assessed at weeks 0, 1, 12, and 24, and included quality of life (Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire, SF-36), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS), stress (Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, CPSS), mood (Profile of Mood States, POMS), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale, GSE), mindfulness (Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS), and self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale, SCS). At week 1, POMS depression and fatigue scores were significantly lower in F + LM compared to LM. At week 12, most self-report outcomes improved in both groups-only POMS vigor was significantly higher in F + LM than in LM. Most of the beneficial effects within the groups persisted at week 24. Fasting can induce mood-modulating effects in the short term. LM induced several positive effects on quality of life and psychological parameters in patients with MetS.
Intermittent Fasting versus Continuous Calorie Restriction: Which Is Better for Weight Loss?
Plain language summary
Obesity increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and associated comorbidities. Intermittent fasting (IF) and continuous calorie restriction (CCR) are fasting regimens known to reduce weight, which is at the heart of strategy in reducing obesity. IF and CCR restricts energy intake; however, CCR is harder to follow than IF. IF focuses more on time-restricted eating. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of IF and CCR on body mass index (BMI), body weight, and metabolism in overweight and obese participants. This research showed that IF is significantly superior to CCR in weight loss in obese people. However, there was no difference in BMI between both regimens. There was a significant difference between IF and CCR for total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and waist circumference. Further larger long-term robust studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of different fasting regimens due to the high heterogeneity in this research. Healthcare professionals can use the results of this study to distinguish the weight loss effects between different fasting regimens.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and pilot trial studies to compare the effectiveness of intermittent fasting (IF) and continuous calorie restriction (CCR) in overweight and obese people. The parameters included body mass index (BMI), body weight, and other metabolism-related indicators. A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was conducted up to January 2022. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the effectiveness. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. The stability of the results was evaluated using sensitivity analyses. The significance of body weight change (SMD = -0.21, 95% CI (-0.40, -0.02) p = 0.028) was more significant after IF than CCR. There was no significant difference in BMI (SMD = 0.02, 95% CI (-0.16, 0.20) p = 0.848) between IF and CCR. These findings suggest that IF may be superior to CCR for weight loss in some respects.
Astaxanthin Influence on Health Outcomes of Adults at Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome is a term used to describe a combination of three or more health issues that can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by 70%. Risk factors include hypertension, hyperglycaemia, obesity, and dyslipidaemia. Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant that can potentially reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. This systematic review and meta-analysis included seven double-blinded randomised controlled trials that evaluated the beneficial effects of Astaxanthin in reducing the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. More than eight weeks of daily ≤6 mg Astaxanthin supplementation significantly reduced systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol. The therapeutic value of Astaxanthin supplementation requires long-term robust research since studies included in this study are highly heterogeneous in terms of the intervention period, the dosage of the supplements, participant health, and sample size. This study can assist healthcare professionals in understanding the beneficial effects of Astaxanthin supplements on people with metabolic syndrome.
The use of medication is effective in managing metabolic syndrome (MetS), but side effects have led to increased attention on using nutraceuticals and supplements. Astaxanthin shows positive effects in reducing the risk of MetS, but results from individual studies are inconclusive. This systematic review summarizes the latest evidence of astaxanthin in adults with risk factors of MetS. A systematic search of English and Chinese randomized controlled trials in 14 electronic databases from inception to 30 June 2021 was performed. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, and conducted full-text review, quality appraisal, and extraction of data. Risk of bias was assessed by PEDro. A total of 7 studies met the inclusion criteria with 321 participants. Six studies were rated to have excellent methodological quality, while the remaining one was rated at good. Results show marginal effects of astaxanthin on reduction in total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure, and a significant attenuating effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Further robust evidence is needed to examine the effects of astaxanthin in adults at risk of MetS.
Effects of the 5:2 intermittent fasting diet on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled trial.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;9:948655
Plain language summary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with modifiable risk factors such as obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The 5:2 diet is an intermittent fasting regimen in which you fast for two days and eat liberally for five days per week. Time-restricted eating or intermittent fasting is a great way to limit energy intake and manage metabolic markers, making fasting diets like the 5:2 a viable option for the treatment of NAFLD. In this study, fifty patients with NAFLD were randomly assigned to either the intermittent fasting (5:2) or the control group. In the 5:2 group, the intervention resulted in a modest reduction in calorie intake. Participants on the 5:2 diet showed significant improvements in biomarkers of NAFLD, inflammatory markers, and body composition after 12 weeks of intervention. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a 5:2 diet on improving lipid profiles and diabetes requires further robust research. This study provides healthcare professionals insight into the benefits of implementing intermittent fasting as a cost-effective and safe therapeutic method.
Background and aims: Dietary regimens are crucial in the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The effects of intermittent fasting (IF) have gained attention in this regard, but further research is warranted. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the overall effects of the 5:2 IF diet (5 days a week of normal food intake and 2 consecutive fasting days) in patients with NAFLD compared to a control group (usual diet). Methods and results: A 12-week randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate the effects of the 5:2 IF diet on anthropometric indices, body composition, liver indices, serum lipids, glucose metabolism, and inflammatory markers in patients with NAFLD. The IF group (n = 21) decreased body weight (86.65 ± 12.57-82.94 ± 11.60 kg), body mass index (30.42 ± 2.27-29.13 ± 1.95 kg/m2), waist circumference (103.52 ± 6.42-100.52 ± 5.64 cm), fat mass (26.64 ± 5.43-23.85 ± 5.85 kg), fibrosis (6.97 ± 1.94-5.58 ± 1.07 kPa), steatosis scores/CAP (313.09 ± 25.45-289.95 ± 22.36 dB/m), alanine aminotransferase (41.42 ± 20.98-28.38 ± 15.21 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (34.19 ± 10.88-25.95 ± 7.26 U/L), triglycerides (171.23 ± 39.88-128.04 ± 34.88 mg/dl), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (2.95 ± 0.62 -2.40 ± 0.64 mg/L), and cytokeratin-18 (1.32 ± 0.06-1.19 ± 0.05 ng/ml) values compared to the baseline and the end of the control group (n = 23)-p ≤ 0.05 were considered as significant. However, the intervention did not change the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, insulin, HOMA-IR, and total antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Adhering to the 5:2 IF diet can reduce weight loss and related parameters (fat mass and anthropometric indicators of obesity), as well as hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes, triglycerides, and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with NAFLD.
Linoleic Acid-Rich Oil Alters Circulating Cardiolipin Species and Fatty Acid Composition in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Molecular nutrition & food research. 2022;66(15):e2101132
Plain language summary
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake is associated with reduced cardiometabolic disease risk. In addition, higher linoleic acid (LA) biomarkers have been associated with a reduced risk for cardiometabolic diseases and conditions. The main aim of this study was to determine whether a modest addition of an oil rich in LA could change the LA content in plasma, erythrocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The secondary aim was to determine if the LA-rich oil could alter cardiolipin species in PBMCs. This study is a randomised double-masked placebo-controlled study of 84 participants who were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: either the high-oleate-cookie (n = 42) or LA-cookie groups (n = 42). Results show that dietary supplementation with less than one serving of LA-rich oil per day increases LA in PBMC cardiolipin as well as LA levels. Authors conclude that patients with obesity, cardiometabolic disease, and other conditions related to mitochondrial dysfunction could be a future cohort that should be studied.
SCOPE Higher circulating linoleic acid (LA) and muscle-derived tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin (LA4 CL) are each associated with decreased cardiometabolic disease risk. Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs with low LA4 CL. Whether LA-rich oil fortification can increase LA4 CL in humans is unknown. The aims of this study are to determine whether dietary fortification with LA-rich oil for 2 weeks increases: 1) LA in plasma, erythrocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and 2) LA4 CL in PBMC in adults. METHODS AND RESULTS In this randomized controlled trial, adults are instructed to consume one cookie per day delivering 10 g grapeseed (LA-cookie, N = 42) or high oleate (OA) safflower (OA-cookie, N = 42) oil. In the LA-cookie group, LA increases in plasma, erythrocyte, and PBMC by 6%, 7%, and 10% respectively. PBMC and erythrocyte OA increase by 7% and 4% in the OA-cookie group but is unchanged in the plasma. PBMC LA4 CL increases (5%) while LA3 OA1 CL decreases (7%) in the LA-cookie group but are unaltered in the OA-cookie group. CONCLUSIONS LA-rich oil fortification increases while OA-oil has no effect on LA4 CL in adults. Because LA-rich oil fortification reduces cardiometabolic disease risk and increases LA4 CL, determining whether mitochondrial dysfunction is repaired through dietary fortification is warranted.
Mediterranean Diet Combined With a Low-Carbohydrate Dietary Pattern in the Treatment of Overweight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;9:876620
Plain language summary
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common group of endocrine metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age, characterised by polycystic ovarian changes, sporadic ovulation and menstrual disorders. The aim of this study was to combine the Mediterranean diet (MED) model with a low-carbohydrates (LC) dietary model based on energy restriction, compared with a low-fat (LF) dietary model, in order to investigate whether this novel dietary model could provide significant improvements in reproductive endocrine and metabolic levels in overweight patients with PCOS. This study is an open-label, parallel-group randomised controlled trial design for a 12-week intervention with a 4-week follow-up. Seventy-two participants were enrolled for the study. Results showed that the LF and MED/LC dietary models were effective in modifying anthropometric parameters, reproductive endocrine levels, insulin resistance levels and lipid levels in patients with PCOS, with the MED/LC dietary model being more effective and the recovery of menstrual cycles being approximately the same in both groups. Authors conclude that the MED/LC diet model is recommended for the treatment of overweight patients with PCOS.
OBJECTIVES To determine the therapeutic effect of a Mediterranean diet (MED) combined with a low-carbohydrate (LC) dietary model in overweight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. METHODS In this 12-week randomized controlled clinical trial, 72 overweight patients with PCOS were randomly assigned to one of two energy-restricted dietary models: the MED/LC diet or the Low fat (LF) diet. After the intervention, the number of the two groups returned to normal menstruation was counted. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage (BF%), serum fasting insulin(FINS), fasting plasma glucose(FPG), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity index (QUIKI), total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin (PRL) were compared between 2 groups before and after intervention. RESULTS MED/LC group had more significant reduction trend in weight (-6.10 ± 1.52 kg vs -4.79 ± 0.97 kg, P < 0.05), BMI (-2.12 ± 0.57 kg/m2 vs -1.78 ± 0.36 kg/m2, P < 0.05), WC (-6.12 ± 5.95 cm vs -3.90 ± 1.58 cm, P < 0.05), WHR (-0.06 ± 0.02 vs -0.03 ± 0.02, P < 0.05), BF% (-2.97% ± 1.78% vs -1.19% ± 0.91%, P < 0.05), TT (-0.20 ± 0.24 ng/mL vs 0.08 ± 0.11 ng/Ml, P < 0.001), LH (-5.28 ± 3.31 mIU/mL vs -3.39 ± 3.64 mIU/mL, P < 0.05), and LH/FSH (-1.18 ± 0.75 vs -0.66 ± 1.05, P < 0.05) compared with the LF group. In addition, FPG (0.05 ± 0.38 mmol/mL vs -0.50 ± 1.01 mmol/mL, P < 0.001), FINS (-4.88 ± 6.11 μU/mL vs -8.53 ± 5.61 μU/mL, P < 0.01), HOMA-IR index (-1.11 ± 1.51 vs -2.23 ± 0.25, P < 0.05), and QUIKI index (0.014 ± 0.016 vs 0.028 ± 0.019, P < 0.05) decreased significantly in the MED/LC group compared with the LF group. Comparing the changes in lipid parameters between the two groups (LF vs MED/LC), significant differences in TG (-0.33 ± 0.32 mmol vs -0.76 ± 0.97 mmol, P < 0.05), TC (-0.40 ± 1.00 mmol vs -1.45 ± 2.00 mmol, P < 0.05), and LDL-C (-0.41 ± 1.05 mmol vs -0.73 ± 0.76 mmol, P < 0.05) were observed. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that the MED/LC diet model is a good treatment for overweight PCOS patients, significantly restoring their menstrual cycle, improving their anthropometric parameters and correcting their disturbed endocrine levels, and its overall effectiveness is significantly better than the LF diet model. Therefore, this study recommends that the MED/LC diet model can be used in the clinical treatment of patients with overweight PCOS.
Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Reproductive Hormone Levels in Females and Males: A Review of Human Trials.
Plain language summary
Intermittent fasting is a term for three different diet regimes. Alternate day fasting involves a feast day where individuals can eat what they want followed by a water only day. The 5:2 diet involves 5 feast days and 2 fast days per week. Time-restricted eating (TRE) involves a short eating window of a specific number of hours per day. Although these are all popular diet regimes for weight loss, animal studies have highlighted concerns with regards to reproductive health. This review paper aimed to summarise the human research on the effects of intermittent fasting on reproductive hormone levels in both men and women. It was found that overall, there were very few studies, however evidence was found on the effect of intermittent fasting on some of the sex hormones. For women, moving calorie intake to earlier in the day may be of benefit to oestrogen, sex hormone binding globulin, and androgen levels in those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, a fasting diet may be of benefit to androgen and SHBG levels in women with PCOS. However even though weight loss may be achieved with intermittent fasting, this is insufficient to improve the gonadotrophins. Intermittent fasting was found to be safe in women who were breastfeeding, with no significant change to milk production. In men, TRE was found to negatively affect testosterone levels, but had no effect on SHBG. The effect of intermittent fasting on sex hormones may involve changes in the gut microbiome and circadian rhythms as a direct result of intermittent fasting. It was concluded that the sex hormone levels of women with PCOS may benefit from intermittent fasting, however in men it may be detrimental to sex hormone production. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand that recommending an intermittent fasting diet may be of benefit to hormone levels and fertility in women with PCOS, however this may not be the case for men.
Intermittent fasting is a popular diet for weight loss, but concerns have been raised regarding the effects of fasting on the reproductive health of women and men. Accordingly, we conducted this literature review to clarify the effects of fasting on reproductive hormone levels in humans. Our results suggest that intermittent fasting decreases androgen markers (i.e., testosterone and the free androgen index (FAI)) while increasing sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in premenopausal females with obesity. This effect was more likely to occur when food consumption was confined to earlier in the day (eating all food before 4 pm). In contrast, fasting did not have any effect on estrogen, gonadotropins, or prolactin levels in women. As for men, intermittent fasting reduced testosterone levels in lean, physically active, young males, but it did not affect SHBG concentrations. Interestingly, muscle mass and muscular strength were not negatively affected by these reductions in testosterone. In interpreting these findings, it is important to note that very few studies have been conducted on this topic. Thus, it is difficult to draw solid conclusions at present. From the limited data presented here, it is possible that intermittent fasting may decrease androgen markers in both genders. If this is the case, these results would have varied health implications. On the one hand, fasting may prove to be a valuable tool for treating hyperandrogenism in females with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by improving menstruation and fertility. On the other hand, fasting may be shown to decrease androgens among males, which could negatively affect metabolic health and libido. More research is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.
Nutritional intervention for diabetes mellitus with Alzheimer's disease.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;9:1046726
Plain language summary
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects more than 463 million people worldwide. Similarly, the number of deaths related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has increased by 145%. There are several common risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes and AD, including obesity, insulin resistance, and ageing, as well as common pathological mechanisms, including altered insulin signalling, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, formation of glycated proteins and metabolic syndrome. This review aims to summarize the therapeutic effects of different nutritional therapy strategies on the reduction of DM and AD risk. Controlling blood sugar levels and reducing calorie intake is crucial to preventing diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. The low-carbohydrate, ketogenic, and Mediterranean diets have been found to improve glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). In addition, MIND (Mediterranean-DASH Diet Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay) and a ketogenic diet may improve cognition in AD patients. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium probiotics, and prebiotics, such as inulin, may inhibit the progression of T2D and AD diseases by suppressing inflammation and modulating gut microbes. In addition, vitamins A, C, D, E, B6, B12, folate, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, magnesium, and polyphenols may improve cognitive decline, homocysteine levels, and insulin resistance in AD and T2D patients. Healthcare professionals can use the results of this review to understand the beneficial effects of dietary strategies and multi-nutrient supplementation on DM and AD. However, further robust studies are required to investigate the risk factors and underlying mechanisms behind DM-combined AD progression.
The combined disease burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing, and the two diseases share some common pathological changes. However, the pharmacotherapeutic approach to this clinical complexity is limited to symptomatic rather than disease-arresting, with the possible exception of metformin. Whether nutritional intervention might extend or synergize with these effects of metformin is of interest. In particular, dietary patterns with an emphasis on dietary diversity shown to affect cognitive function are of growing interest in a range of food cultural settings. This paper presents the association between diabetes and AD. In addition, the cross-cultural nutritional intervention programs with the potential to mitigate both insulin resistance (IR) and hyperglycemia, together with cognitive impairment are also reviewed. Both dietary patterns and nutritional supplementation showed the effects of improving glycemic control and reducing cognitive decline in diabetes associated with AD, but the intervention specificity remained controversial. Multi-nutrient supplements combined with diverse diets may have preventive and therapeutic potential for DM combined with AD, at least as related to the B vitamin group and folate-dependent homocysteine (Hcy). The nutritional intervention has promise in the prevention and management of DM and AD comorbidities, and more clinical studies would be of nutritional scientific merit.
Metabolic impact of a nutrition education program for the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption with people with severe mental disorders (DIETMENT).
BMC research notes. 2022;15(1):122
Plain language summary
In patients with severe mental disorders, motivation to follow a healthy diet and lifestyle might be low. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables may improve metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular health and mental health. This randomised community-based clinical trial included seventy-four patients with severe mental disorders out of which 37.8% of the participants had schizophrenia or related disorders, 29.7% had bipolar disorder, 25.7% had depressive disorder, 4.1% had a personality disorder, and 2.7% had obsessive-compulsive disorder. The intervention group followed a four-week food education programme (DIETMENT) aimed at promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. A five-month post-intervention analysis showed no increase in participants diagnosed with metabolic syndrome in the intervention group, but an increase in participants diagnosed with metabolic syndrome in the control group. There was a significant reduction in the glomerular filtrate rate in the intervention group. In patients with severe mental disorders, more studies should be conducted to examine the health-promoting effects of adding more fruits and vegetables to the diet. Health professionals can use the results of this study to understand how fruits and vegetables contribute to reducing metabolic syndrome and heart disease risk.
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to determine the metabolic impact of a nutrition education program on metabolic parameters and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). RESULTS Seventy-four patients were included (mean age, 48.7 years [Standard deviation, SD: 10.8], 55.4% men). The diagnoses of SMD were 37.8% schizophrenia and related disorders; 29.7% bipolar disorder; 25.7% depressive disorder; 4.1% personality disorders; and 2.7% obsessive compulsive disorders. Thirty-seven individuals were distributed in both the intervention group (IG) and the control group (CG). In the IG the presence of MetS was 56.3% and in the CG 46.7%, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.309). At the end of the study, glomerular filtrate decreased in the IG, body mass index and abdominal perimeter increased in both groups, and there were no changes in metabolic parameters between the groups. Between the baseline and the end of the study, there was no increase in the number of patients diagnosed with MetS (14 at both points); and in the CG the increase was from 8 to 12 (p = 0.005). An intervention based on fruit and vegetable intake could prevent progression to MetS in individuals with SMD, decreasing the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Trial registration The trial was retrospectively registered on International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register on 11 March 2022 (ISRCTN12024347).