Effects of a web-based expert support self-management program (WEST) for women with breast cancer: A randomized controlled trial.
Journal of telemedicine and telecare. 2020;(7-8):433-442
INTRODUCTION This study was a randomized controlled trial that examined the effects of a web-based expert support self-management program (WEST) on metabolic syndrome risk factors and self-efficacy among Korean women with breast cancer. METHODS Participants were 60 women with breast cancer (30 participants each in both the experimental and control groups) who also had metabolic risk factors. WEST is based on the self-efficacy theory and is a self-health management program consisting of a web-based program, DIETEX (which entails keeping a health diary, identifying a lifestyle type, inputting personal health information), and expert support. WEST was provided to the experimental group once a week for 24 weeks. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and self-efficacy of the experimental and control groups were examined pre-intervention and at 12 and 24 weeks after intervention. RESULTS The decreases in body fat, body fat percentage, and waist circumference were greater in the experimental group than in the control group at 24 weeks (p = 0.019, p = 0.025, and p = 0.038, respectively). DISCUSSION The present study can provide basic data for the development and application of interventions for women with breast cancer in the future. Additionally, we propose that WEST be included in the treatment process to complement the intervention of medical personnel for improving metabolic risk factors in women with breast cancer.
Low-Frequency HIIT Improves Body Composition and Aerobic Capacity in Overweight Men.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2020;(1):56-66
BACKGROUND The relationship between the frequency of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and the resultant adaptations is largely unclear. PURPOSE This study compared the effects of different frequencies of HIIT with those of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on body composition in overweight or obese adults. METHODS Fifty-six overweight or obese (body mass index = 26.4 ± 2.9) men between 18 and 30 yr old (age = 22.8 ± 3.1 yr) were randomly assigned to the following groups: no-intervention control (CON; n = 14), MICT performed thrice weekly (MICT×3/wk; n = 9), HIIT performed thrice weekly (HIIT×3/wk; n = 14), HIIT performed twice weekly (HIIT×2/wk; n = 10), and HIIT performed once weekly (HIIT×1/wk; n = 9). Each HIIT session consisted of 12 × 1-min bouts at 90% heart rate reserve, interspersed with 11 × 1-min bouts at 70% heart rate reserve. Aerobic capacity, body composition, resting heart rate, vascular function, insulin resistance, and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome risk factor were examined at baseline, after 4 wk, and after 8 wk of intervention. RESULTS Aerobic capacity and percent fat-free mass significantly increased in all exercise groups compared with those in the CON group (CON vs all exercise groups, P < 0.05), whereas body fat mass and systolic blood pressure significantly decreased after 8 wk of intervention in all exercise groups compared with those in the CON group (CON vs all exercise groups, P < 0.05). Body fat mass significantly decreased after 4 wk in all HIIT groups compared with those in the CON group (CON vs all HIIT groups, P < 0.05) but not in the MICT×3/wk group. CONCLUSION These novel results demonstrated that performing HIIT once weekly, even with a lower weekly volume of exercise, improved cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and blood pressure in overweight/obese adults. Low-frequency HIIT might be a feasible and effective strategy for the prescription of an initial exercise program for inactive, overweight, or obese young men.
How to Treat Osteoarthritis in Obese Patients?
Current rheumatology reviews. 2020;(2):99-104
The close association between osteoarthritis (OA) and obesity is well established. Mechanisms linking obesity and OA involve multifactorial phenomena such as systemic factors (i.e. adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines), hormonal disturbances (hyperinsulinemia) and muscule changes (i.e. sarcopenia and lower muscular tone). The concomitant increasing prevalence of the two diseases have major health, social and economic consequences. However, to date no specific recommendation for the medical management of obese patients with OA have been published. Current recommendations only specify that obese patients must lose weight and practice regular physical activity in addition to the usual care. Weight loss improves not only OA symptoms but also metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors commonly altered in subjects with obesity. OA symptoms' improvement has been shown to become clinically relevant from a weight loss > 5% of the body weight. In case of morbid obesity, bariatric surgery may be the only alternative for pain relief. After bariatric surgery, an appropriate calcium and vitamin D intake is recommended, since it has been shown that bariatric surgery was associated with a reduction in the bone mineral density and increased risk of fractures. An exercise program is essential for preserving healthy muscles during weight loss. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids must be avoided, especially in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. In such patients symptomatic slow acting drugs for OA (i.e. glucosamine, chondroitin) and some anti-oxidant drugs (i.e. curcumin, ginger extracts, copper) may be helpful thanks to their excellent benefit/risk ratio and their mode of action which may have a positive impact on both OA and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Recent research focuses on the development of molecules aimed for promoting the production of heme oxygenase (HO-1). HO-1 decreases the production of oxygen free radicals and protects tissues from oxidative stress in the insulin resistance syndrome. Intra-articular (IA) injections of hyaluronic acid and corticosteroid have few adverse events. However, physicians must inform patients that IA treatments have a lower success rate in obese patients than in those with normal body mass index. Spa therapy contributes to relief pain, favour weight-loss and reduces metabolic abnormalities with a favourable risk/benefit balance.
Late-Onset Bartter Syndrome Type II Due to a Homozygous Mutation in KCNJ1 Gene: A Case Report and Literature Review.
The American journal of case reports. 2020;:e924527
BACKGROUND Bartter syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. Five different subtypes have been described based on the genetic defect identified. Bartter syndrome type II is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the KCNJ1 gene encoding ROMK. This subtype is typically described as a severe antenatal form of the disease, often presenting with polyhydramnios before childbirth. CASE REPORT Here, we describe the case of a 26-year-old man who presented with generalized body weakness and hypokalemia and was ultimately diagnosed with Bartter syndrome type II based on his clinical features coupled with the identification of a homozygous missense mutation in KCNJ1. CONCLUSIONS To the best of our knowledge, this is the fifth case of late-onset Bartter syndrome type II. Interestingly, the mutation identified in our patient has been previously described in patients with antenatal Bartter's Syndrome. The late presentation in our patient suggests a surprising degree of phenotypic variability, even in patients carrying the identical disease-causing mutation.
Does intestinal dysbiosis contribute to an aberrant inflammatory response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in frail patients?
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2020;:110996
In a few months, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become the main health problem worldwide. Epidemiologic studies revealed that populations have different vulnerabilities to SARS-CoV-2. Severe outcomes of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with an increased risk of death are observed in patients with metabolic syndrome, as well as diabetic and heart conditions (frail population). Excessive proinflammatory cytokine storm could be the main cause of increased vulnerability in this frail population. In patients with diabetes and/or heart disease, a low inflammatory state is often associated with gut dysbiosis. The increase amount of microbial metabolites (i.e., trimethylamine N-oxide and lipopolysaccharide), which generate an inflammatory microenvironment, is probably associated with an improved risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Nutritional interventions aimed at restoring the gut microbial balance could represent preventive strategies to protect the frail population from COVID-19. This narrative review presents the possible molecular mechanisms by which intestinal dysbiosis that enhances the inflammatory state could promote the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Some nutritional strategies to counteract inflammation in frail patients are also analyzed.
Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating two different refeeding formulations to improve safety and efficacy of hospital management of adolescent and young adults admitted with anorexia nervosa.
BMJ open. 2020;(10):e038242
INTRODUCTION Providing effective nutritional rehabilitation to patients hospitalised with anorexia nervosa (AN) is challenging, partly due to conservative recommendations that advocate feeding patients at low energy intakes. An 'underfeeding syndrome' can develop when patients are not provided with adequate nutrition during treatment, whereby malnourished patients fail to restore weight in a timely matter, and even lose weight. Of particular concern, the reintroduction of carbohydrate in a starved patient can increase the risk of developing electrolyte, metabolic and organ dysfunction. The proposed trial assesses the efficacy and safety of a lower carbohydrate enteral formula (28% carbohydrate) against a standard enteral formula (54% carbohydrate), in adolescent and young adult patients (aged 15-25 years), hospitalised with AN. METHODS AND ANALYSIS The study employs a double-blind randomised controlled trial design. At admission to hospital, malnourished adolescent and young adults with AN will be randomly allocated to commence feeding on a standard enteral feeding formula (1.5 kcal/mL, 54% carbohydrate) or a lower carbohydrate isocaloric enteral feeding formula (1.5 kcal/mL, 28% carbohydrate). Assessments of nutritional intake, weight and biochemistry (phosphate, magnesium, potassium) will be conducted at baseline and during the first 3 weeks of hospital admission. The primary outcome measure will be incidence of hypophosphatemia. Secondary outcomes include weight gain, oedema, other electrolyte distortion, length of hospital admission, admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and number of days to reach medical stability, using defined parameters. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION The protocol was approved by the Western Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee and institutional research governance approvals were granted. Written informed consent will be sought prior to study enrolment. Study findings will be widely disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12617000342314); Pre-results.
Effects of Plant-Based Diets on Weight Status: A Systematic Review.
Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy. 2020;13:3433-3448
Plain language summary
Being overweight or obese is a huge risk factor for many detrimental conditions. It is estimated that around one-third of the world’s population will be overweight or obese by 2025. Hence there is a need to look at dietary strategies in the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. Plant-based diets have always existed, however interest in the topic has increased recently and more research is being done on the health-related effects of different plant-based diets. There are many reasons why someone might convert to a plant-based diet, possible health benefits such as weight management are among the most common. The purpose of this review was to evaluate intervention studies assessing the effects of different plant-based diets on body mass index and weight. The results suggest that plant-based diets may improve weight status in some patient groups. It should be noted that only one study out of the 19 included in the review had normal weight, clinically healthy participants. The study populations for the rest were overweight, obese or had type 2 diabetes. Future research should aim to include a representative study population and apply study diets without dietary restrictions.
There is an increasing number of people who convert to a plant-based diet. The desire for health benefits, including weight management, is often a contributing factor behind this dietary choice. The purpose of this review was to evaluate intervention studies assessing the effects of different plant-based diets on body mass index and weight. A literature search was conducted in PubMed until December 2019. Twenty-two publications from 19 studies were included. The majority of them were randomized controlled trials comparing a low-fat vegan diet to an omnivore diet in participants with overweight, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or cardiovascular disease. All studies reported weight reductions, of which seven revealed significant differences, and four revealed non-significant differences between the intervention and the control groups. The results suggest that plant-based diets may improve weight status in some patient groups. Due to restrictions in fat intake in many studies, followed by reduced energy intake, the effects of the different interventions differ depending on the specific plant-based diets investigated. Future research should aim to include a representative study population and apply study diets without dietary restrictions.
The relationship between circulating vitamin D3 and subclinical atherosclerosis in an elderly Asian population.
Scientific reports. 2020;(1):18704
The current evidence regarding the association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular diseases/metabolic disorders is contradictory and inconclusive. In this large-scale observational study, we investigated the relationship between the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D] concentration and subclinical atherosclerosis in an elderly Asian population. In the I-Lan longitudinal study (ILAS), 1798 elderly, aged 50 and older, were enrolled. For each subject, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D] concentration and demographic data were recorded. The participants were divided into two groups according to their serum 25(OH)D level (sufficient, > 20 ng/mL and deficient, ≤ 20 ng/mL). Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured at bilateral common carotid arteries. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a mean cIMT > 0.81 mm. The mean subject age was 64 ± 9 years old, and 604 (33.6%) were identified as having serum 25(OH)D level ≤ 20 ng/mL. Subjects with serum 25(OH)D level ≤ 20 ng/mL were younger, more likely to be female and smoker, and had a higher incidence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, compared to those with serum 25(OH)D level > 20 ng/mL. Additionally, patients with serum 25(OH)D level ≤ 20 ng/mL were associated with a lower risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (crude OR: 0.63, 95% CI 0.50-0.81, p < 0.001), according to univariate analysis. However, after adjusting for gender and age, serum 25(OH)D level ≤ 20 ng/mL was not a significant risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis. Serum 25(OH)D level ≤ 20 ng/mL was not an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis in this large elderly Asian population. Association observed in the univariate analysis may be confounded by gender or comorbidities.
Reduced Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity in Blood and Platelets Is Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Clinical and translational gastroenterology. 2020;(2):e00116
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether blood total lysosomal acid lipase activity (BT-LAL) levels are uniquely associated with the noncirrhotic and cirrhotic stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and with protection from NAFLD in metabolically/genetically predisposed subjects and a normal liver. To clarify which enzyme-carrying circulating cells are involved in reduced BT-LAL of NAFLD. METHODS In a cross-sectional study, BT-LAL was measured by a fluorigenic method in patients with NAFLD (n = 118), alcoholic (n = 116), and hepatitis C virus-related disease (n = 49), in 103 controls with normal liver and in 58 liver transplant recipients. Intracellular platelet and leukocyte LAL was measured in 14 controls and 28 patients with NAFLD. RESULTS Compared with controls, (i) BT-LAL and LAL in platelets, but not in leukocytes, were progressively reduced in noncirrhotic NAFLD and in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related cirrhosis; (ii) platelet and leukocyte counts did not differ in patients with noncirrhotic NAFLD; and (iii) BT-LAL did not differ in alcoholic and hepatitis C virus noncirrhotic patients. BT-LAL progressively increased in controls with metabolic syndrome features according to their PNPLA3 rs738409 steatosis-associated variant status (II vs IM vs MM), and their BT-LAL was higher than that of noncirrhotic NAFLD, only when carriers of the PNPLA3 unfavorable alleles were considered. Liver transplant recipients with de novo NAFLD compared with those without de novo NAFLD had lower BT-LAL. DISCUSSION LAL in blood and platelets is progressively and uniquely reduced in NAFLD according to disease severity. High BT-LAL is associated with protection from NAFLD occurrence in subjects with metabolic and genetic predisposition. Low LAL in platelets and blood could play a pathogenetic role in NAFLD.
Electrolyte Disorders Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs.
Frontiers in oncology. 2020;:779
The use of antineoplastic drugs has a central role in treatment of patients affected by cancer but is often associated with numerous electrolyte derangements which, in many cases, could represent life-threatening conditions. In fact, while several anti-cancer agents can interfere with kidney function leading to acute kidney injury, proteinuria, and hypertension, in many cases alterations of electrolyte tubular handling and water balance occur. This review summarizes the mechanisms underlying the disturbances of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphate metabolism during anti-cancer treatment. Platinum compounds are associated with sodium, potassium, and magnesium derangements while alkylating agents and Vinca alkaloids with hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Novel anti-neoplastic agents, such as targeted therapies (monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, immunomodulators, mammalian target of rapamycin), can induce SIADH-related hyponatremia and, less frequently, urinary sodium loss. The blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by anti-EGFR antibodies can result in clinically significant magnesium and potassium losses. Finally, the tumor lysis syndrome is associated with hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia, all of which represent serious complications of chemotherapy. Thus, clinicians should be aware of these side effects of antineoplastic drugs, in order to set out preventive measures and start appropriate treatments.