Effectiveness of Multi Interventional Package on Selected Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome among Women: A Pilot Study.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2020;(4):523-532
PURPOSE The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of multi interventional package (MIP) and lifestyle interventions (LI) on physiological parameters of women with metabolic syndrome, to compare the effectiveness of MIP and LI on biochemical parameters of women with metabolic syndrome and to compare the effectiveness of MIP and LI on socio-psychological parameters of women with metabolic syndrome. METHODS A quasi experimental nonequivalent control group design with two experimental groups and one control group was used to collect data from 60 self-help group women. Samples were selected by multistage sampling. Reflexology foot massage, dietary modification, moderate intensity exercise and structured education were given to MIP group and dietary modification, moderate intensity exercise and structured education were given to LI group for 12 weeks. Control group received routine care. Demographic and clinical data sheets were used to collect basic information. Knowledge was assessed by a knowledge questionnaire. Physiological (weight, body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure) and biochemical parameters (HDL, triglycerides and FBS) were assessed before and after the intervention. RESULTS The study found significant change in the physiological and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome as well as knowledge among the MIP group and LI group compared to the control group (p < .001). CONCLUSION MIP and LI are effective in controlling the parameters of metabolic syndrome. Hence the guidance may be provided to women with metabolic syndrome for adopting necessary lifestyle changes as well as reflexology foot massage to control the physiological and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome.
p38 MAPK in Glucose Metabolism of Skeletal Muscle: Beneficial or Harmful?
International journal of molecular sciences. 2020;(18)
Skeletal muscles respond to environmental and physiological changes by varying their size, fiber type, and metabolic properties. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is one of several signaling pathways that drive the metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise. p38 MAPK also participates in the development of pathological traits resulting from excessive caloric intake and obesity that cause metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whereas p38 MAPK increases insulin-independent glucose uptake and oxidative metabolism in muscles during exercise, it contrastingly mediates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance during metabolic syndrome development. This article provides an overview of the apparent contradicting roles of p38 MAPK in the adaptation of skeletal muscles to exercise and to pathological conditions leading to glucose intolerance and T2D. Here, we focus on the involvement of p38 MAPK in glucose metabolism of skeletal muscle, and discuss the possibility of targeting this pathway to prevent the development of T2D.
High Molecular Weight ACTH-Precursor Presence in a Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Causing Severe Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome: A Case Report.
Frontiers in endocrinology. 2020;:557
Ectopic ACTH-secretion causing Cushing's syndrome is unusual and its diagnosis is frequently challenging. The presence of high-molecular-weight precursors throughout pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) translation by these tumors is often not reported. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a 3-month history of proximal muscular weakness, skin pigmentation, and weight loss. Upon initial evaluation, she had a full moon face, hirsutism, and a buffalo hump. Laboratory workup showed hyperglycemia, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. ACTH, plasma cortisol, and urinary free cortisol levels were quite elevated. Serum cortisol levels were not suppressed on dexamethasone suppression testing. An octreo-SPECT scan showed enhanced nucleotide uptake in the liver and pancreas. Transendoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a pancreatic ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Surgical excision of both pancreatic and liver lesions was carried out. Western blot analysis of the tumor and metastases revealed the presence of a high-molecular-weight precursor possibly POMC (at 30 kDa) but not ACTH (normally 4.5 kDa). ACTH-precursor secretion is more frequent in ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors compared with other causes of Cushing's syndrome. Hence, the measurement of such ACTH precursors warrants further evaluation, especially in the context of ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism.
Current Perspectives on the Impact of the National Diabetes Prevention Program: Building on Successes and Overcoming Challenges.
Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy. 2020;:2949-2957
To address the public health and economic burden of type 2 diabetes, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began dissemination of the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) in the United States in 2010. Based on the intensive lifestyle intervention from a large efficacy trial, the NDPP aims to reduce incidence through lifestyle change and weight loss. This narrative review summarizes evidence on reach, effectiveness, and sustainability of the NDPP, while highlighting opportunities to overcome challenges in these areas. Major successes include reaching hundreds of thousands of at-risk individuals across the nation, with notable effectiveness upon full participation and widespread insurance coverage. Yet, more work is needed to ensure greater public health impact, particularly among priority populations at heightened risk who also experience disparities in program outcomes. Preliminary evidence suggests a number of strategies may improve reach and effectiveness of the NDPP, often with more rigorous study needed prior to widespread uptake. Updating the NDPP to better match the current evidence-base may also be important, such as directly targeting glycemia with a patient-centered approach and promoting metformin as an adjunct or second-line treatment. Finally, revisiting pay-for-performance reimbursement models may be critical to sustainability by ensuring adequate availability of suppliers and ultimately reducing diabetes prevalence.
The Effects of Exercise Training on the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of the Randomized Controlled Trials.
Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders. 2020;(1):633-643
PURPOSE Glucose dysregulation is one of the distinctive features of type 2 diabetes that is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. The low concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reported in people with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. BDNF can be increased by an adjustment in lifestyle including caloric restriction and exercise training. Studies have reported controversial findings about physical activity and its association with BDNF, but there is no comprehensive conclusions on this issue. The aim of this study was to systematically review the effects of exercise training on BDNF levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS The electronic databases of Embase, Pedro, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, as well as the Google Scholar search engine were used to obtain the related data about the role of exercise training on BDNF levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. The search period was set from inception to August 2019. Keywords of "exercise", "training", "physical activity", "brain-derived neurotrophic factor", "type 2 diabetes", and "randomized clinical trials", were used in persian and English. The PEDro scale was used to evaluate the quality of the included articles. Results. Finally, 11 articles (four human and seven animal articles) with medium to high quality were included in the study which 5 articles reported elevation (one human and four animal articles), 4 articles reported a reduction (one human and three animal articles), and 2 articles reported no changes (both of them in human articles) in BDNF level following the exercise training. CONCLUSION Decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure through exercise training may modulate BDNF levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Vitamin D supplementation after the menopause.
Therapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism. 2020;:2042018820931291
The purpose of this review was to assess recent evidence regarding the effects of low vitamin D levels on some highly prevalent clinical conditions of postmenopausal women. We reviewed and selected recent literature regarding menopause-related conditions associated with vitamin D deficiency and interventions to manage them. Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels related to menopause are linked to diet, lifestyle, changes in body composition, insulin sensitivity, and reduced physical activity. Vitamin D supplementation increases serum 25(OH)D levels while normalizing parathyroid hormone and bone markers, and in women with serum 25(OH)D levels below 10 ng/ml supplementation may improve bone mineral density. Low vitamin D status has been associated with the metabolic syndrome, high triglyceride levels, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. When compared with placebo, vitamin D supplementation may lower the risk of the metabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia. There is an inverse relationship between fat mass and serum 25(OH)D levels and, therefore, the dosage of supplementation should be adjusted according to the body mass index. Although vitamin D supplementation may improve glucose metabolism in prediabetic subjects, data regarding muscle strength are conflictive. There is evidence that vitamin D over-treatment, to reach extremely high circulating 25(OH)D levels, does not result in better clinical outcomes. The identification and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women may improve their general health and health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation should preferably be based on the use of either cholecalciferol or calcifediol.
Perioperative Exercise Therapy in Bariatric Surgery: Improving Patient Outcomes.
Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy. 2020;:1813-1823
Nowadays, obesity and related comorbidities like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome are considered one of the medical challenges of the 21st century. Even with the rise of bariatric and metabolic surgery, obesity and metabolic syndrome are reaching endemic proportions. Even in 2020, obesity is still a growing problem. There is increasing evidence that next to bariatric surgery, exercise interventions in the perioperative period could give extra beneficial effects. In this regard, effects on anthropometrics, cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness. The aim of this review is to summarise effects of preoperative and postoperative exercise, tools for screening and directions for future research and implementations.
Vitamin D and microbiota: Two sides of the same coin in the immunomodulatory aspects.
International immunopharmacology. 2020;:106112
The gut microbiota is crucial for host immune response, vitamin synthesis, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, intestinal permeability, nutrient digestion energy metabolism and protection from pathogens. Therefore, gut microbiota guarantees the host's predisposition to gastrointestinal diseases. Intestinal microbiota may be damaged by environmental components with negative health conditions. Dysbiosis consisting in alteration in the gut microbiota has been involved in several disorders including inflammation, allergic reactions, autoimmune diseases, heart diseases, obesity, and metabolic syndrome and even in the state of malignant carcinogenesis existing in humans. Several epidemiological studies have shown that inadequate solar exposure results in vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency which has a strong impact on different immune responses and the occurrence of a wide range of pathological conditions. Additionally, new evidence indicates that the vitamin D pathway plays a key role in gut homeostasis. Due to the strong connection between vitamin D and microbiota, herein we focus on the new findings about intestinal bacteria-immune crosstalk and the impact of vitamin D in gut microbiota regulation, in order to offer new clarifications on their interaction. Understanding the mechanism by which vitamin D can affect the gut microbiota composition and its dynamic activities, as well as the innate and adaptive state of the immune system, is not only a fundamental research but also an opportunity to improve health status.
Medical and Surgical Treatment of Reproductive Outcomes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.
International journal of fertility & sterility. 2020;(4):257-270
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex condition that affects up to 18% of reproductiveaged women, causing reproductive, metabolic and psychological dysfunctions. We performed an overview and appraisal of methodological quality of systematic reviews that assessed medical and surgical treatments for reproductive outcomes in women with PCOS. Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL PLUS and PROSPERO) were searched on the 15th of September 2017. We included any systematic review that assessed the effect of medical or surgical management of PCOS on reproductive, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Eligibility assessment, data extraction and quality assessment by the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool were performed in duplicate. We identified 53 reviews comprising 44 reviews included in this overview; the majority were moderate to high quality. In unselected women with PCOS, letrozole was associated with a higher live birth rate than clomiphene citrate (CC), while CC was better than metformin or placebo. In women with CC-resistant PCOS, gonadotrophins were associated with a higher live birth rate than CC plus metformin, which was better than laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD). LOD was associated with lower multiple pregnancy rates than other medical treatments. In women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), the addition of metformin to gonadotrophins resulted in less ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), and higher pregnancy and live birth rates than gonadotrophins alone. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist was associated with less OHSS, gonadotrophin units and shorter stimulation length than GnRH agonist. Letrozole appears to be a good first line treatment and gonadotrophins, as a second line treatment, for anovulatory women with PCOS. LOD results in lower multiple pregnancy rates. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of the included populations of women with PCOS, further larger scale trials are needed with more precise assessment of treatments according to heterogeneous variants of PCOS.
Associations between accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary time and the metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis of more than 6000 children and adolescents.
Pediatric obesity. 2020;(1):e12578
BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome is increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. To prevent an early onset, knowledge about its association with modifiable lifestyle factors is needed. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and examine its cross-sectional associations with physical activity and sedentary time. METHODS Participants were 6009 children and adolescents from 8 studies of the International Children's Accelerometry Database. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometer. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation criteria. Logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age and monitor wear time were used to examine the associations between physical activity, sedentary time and the metabolic syndrome in each study and effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 2.9%. In crude models, a 10 min increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and vigorous-intensity physical activity were inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome [OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.94, OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.92]. One hour increase in sedentary time was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome [OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.13-1.45]. After adjustment for sedentary time, the association between moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity and the metabolic syndrome remained significant [OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99]. Sedentary time was not associated with the metabolic syndrome after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity [OR 1.14 95% CI 0.96-1.36]. CONCLUSIONS Physical activity of at least moderate intensity but not sedentary time is independently associated with the metabolic syndrome.