Dietary fat intake and metabolic syndrome in adults: A systematic review.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2019;29(9):887-905
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of coexisting cardiovascular risk factors. The role of specific dietary fats was reemphasized by dietary recommendations. This systematic review aims to assess evidence for the effect of dietary fat intake on MetS occurrence and reversion in adults. METHODS AND RESULTS The MEDLINE database was used to search the existing literature. We included observational studies that analyzed dietary fat intake in adults with MetS and clinical trials that compared the effects of different dietary fat diets on MetS and/or its components. Thirty articles were selected (14 observational and 16 clinical trials), and we included information of dietary fat and fatty acids as well as MetS, body mass index, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes in adults. SFA intake was found to be positively associated with MetS components. Most of the observational reviewed studies found beneficial associations between MUFA and PUFA (including n-3 and n-6 subtypes) intake and MetS components. Clinical trials also supported the benefits of MUFA- or PUFA-enriched diets (including low-fat diets) in reducing MetS. CONCLUSIONS The effects of dietary SFAs on MetS will be influenced by other specific nutrients. Replacement of SFA by MUFA and PUFA has been associated with a decrease in MetS. Dietary recommendations should emphasize on different qualities of fat intake, not only to reduce total fat intake, to obtain health benefits in adults.
Impact of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome-A Systematic Review.
Plain language summary
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a relatively new field of scientific exploration where patients receive faeces from a healthy donor to help repopulate their intestinal tract with healthful bacteria. The gut microbiome is an ecosystem of an estimated 10~100 trillion microorganisms and there is increasing research on the important role these bacteria play in supporting our health and weight. This study reviews all trials involving faecal transports in patients with either clinical obesity or Metabolic syndrome to see if it helped improve weight, bmi or other metabolic parameters. Three studies with 76 male patients were included in this review and the results showed that FMT recipients had improved insulin sensitivity and reduced HbA1c glucose levels after 6 weeks, but these improvements were short-term only. There were no differences in bmi, cholesterol, markers and fasting glucose levels. The conclusion is that whilst FMT may confer benefits there is still much to understand about the fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery, as well as the host patient’s response.
undefined: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a gut microbial-modulation strategy that has been investigated for the treatment of a variety of human diseases, including obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study appraises current literature and provides an overview of the effectiveness and limitations of FMT as a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Five electronic databases and two gray literature sources were searched up to 10 December 2018. All interventional and observational studies that contained information on the relevant population (adult patients with obesity and MS), intervention (receiving allogeneic FMT) and outcomes (metabolic parameters) were eligible. From 1096 unique citations, three randomized placebo-controlled studies (76 patients with obesity and MS, body mass index = 34.8 ± 4.1 kg/m , fasting plasma glucose = 5.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) were included for review. Studies reported mixed results with regards to improvement in metabolic parameters. Two studies reported improved peripheral insulin sensitivity (rate of glucose disappearance, RD) at 6 weeks in patients receiving donor FMT versus patients receiving the placebo control. In addition, one study observed lower HbA1c levels in FMT patients at 6 weeks. No differences in fasting plasma glucose, hepatic insulin sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), or cholesterol markers were observed between two groups across all included studies. While promising, the influence of FMT on long-term clinical endpoints needs to be further explored. Future studies are also required to better understand the mechanisms through which changes in gut microbial ecology and engraftment of microbiota affect metabolic outcomes for patients with obesity and MS. In addition, further research is needed to better define the optimal fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery.
Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review.
Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2019;38(2):603-614
BACKGROUND & AIMS Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. METHODS Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. A systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (n. 42016046321). Two reviewers independently screened 2957 abstracts. Six studies were included to perform data extraction with standardized spreadsheets. The risk of bias was assessed by using specific tools according to the design of the relevant studies. An assessment was carried out based on the appropriateness of the study reports accordingly to STROBE and the CONSORT-based checklist for each study design. RESULTS Three studies found no association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome; two of them found an inverse association; and one study found a direct association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. One study also showed an inverse association between Selenium intake and the prevalence of high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia in women. CONCLUSIONS Overall, based on the argumentation and results of this study, it is possible to conclude that Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome are not clearly associated in adults and elderly.
Association between sleep quality and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Psychiatry research. 2019;274:66-74
undefined: Sleep quality has been suggested to play an important role in development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the results have been inconsistent. A systematic review of observational studies aimed to evaluate the association between sleep quality and MetS. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. The pooled odd ratios (ORs) were calculated using random effects models. The construction of funnel plot was used to explore publication bias, with further application of Egger's test. 22 studies were included. The pooled finding showed that overall sleep quality had a significant positive association with MetS (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.64), with substantial heterogeneity (I = 62.4%, P < 0.1). Similarly, the complaints of sleep, including difficulty in falling sleep (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.33), difficulty in maintaining sleep (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.30) and sleep inefficiency (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.89) were proved to be associated with the risk of MetS. Our results indicated the overall sleep quality as well as sleep complaints have significant positive associations with MetS. Further studies based on a longitudinal design using validated tools that measure both objective and subjective components of sleep quality are needed to explore the causal relationship between sleep quality and MetS.
New Insights about How to Make an Intervention in Children and Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome: Diet, Exercise vs. Changes in Body Composition. A Systematic Review of RCT.
Plain language summary
Metabolic Syndrome is the term used to group a cluster of health concerns including overweight, obesity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, blood glucose intolerance and insulin resistance which together can contribute to the development of Type II Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. Diagnosis is usually given if a patient has three or more of these conditions however the diagnosis in children and adolescents is often inconsistent, and so guidelines for therapeutic strategies for metabolic syndrome also vary greatly. This review looked at 9 studies of children aged up to 19 years old, all diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, and given dietary, physical, psychological, and pharmacological interventions, to try and understand what the best clinical approach might be. It was found that a balanced diet combined with aerobic and resistance exercise helped to significantly reduce body mass, more so than the trials which included treatment with Metformin. A balance diet included calorie restriction and carbohydrate reduction, carefully planned around the daily exercise program of 2-3 resistance sessions each week and frequent cardio sessions of differing intensity and duration. They concluded that a minimum of 6 months was needed to reach optimal weight loss and body fat loss. Overall, the findings of this study support diet and physical exercise as beneficial clinical interventions, whilst the use of medication is still unclear.
OBJECTIVE To record which interventions produce the greatest variations in body composition in patients ≤19 years old with metabolic syndrome (MS). METHOD search dates between 2005 and 2017 in peer reviewed journals, following the PRISMA method (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). The selection criteria were: diagnostic for MS or at least a criterion for diagnosis; randomized clinical trials, ≤19 years of age; intervention programs that use diet and/or exercise as a tool (interventions showing an interest in body composition). RESULTS 1781 clinical trials were identified under these criteria but only 0.51% were included. The most frequent characteristics of the selected clinical trials were that they used multidisciplinary interventions and were carried out in America. The most utilized parameters were BMI (body mass index) in kg/m² and BW (body weight) in kg. CONCLUSIONS Most of the clinical trials included had been diagnosed through at least 2 diagnostic criteria for MS. Multidisciplinary interventions obtained greater changes in body composition in patients with MS. This change was especially prevalent in the combinations of dietary interventions and physical exercise. It is proposed to follow the guidelines proposed for patients who are overweight, obese, or have diabetes type 2, and extrapolate these strategies as recommendations for future clinical trials designed for patients with MS.
Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.
CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. 2017;189(28):E929-E939
Plain language summary
Obesity is a major public health challenge that contributes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence that sugar consumption is fuelling this epidemic has stimulated the increasing popularity of non-nutritive sweeteners including aspartame, sucralose and stevioside. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence of whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners by adults and adolescents is associated with adverse long-term cardiometabolic effects. This study is a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. It includes 37 studies involving a total of 406910 individuals. The study shows that small RCTs with short follow-up (median 6 months) suggest that consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is not consistently associated with decreases in body weight, BMI or waist circumference. However, in larger prospective cohort studies with longer follow-up periods (median 10 years), intake of non-nutritive sweeteners is significantly associated with modest long-term increases in each of these measures. Authors conclude that caution in the use of non-nutritive sweeteners is warranted until the long-term risks and benefits of these products are fully characterised.
BACKGROUND Nonnutritive sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevioside, are widely consumed, yet their long-term health impact is uncertain. We synthesized evidence from prospective studies to determine whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with long-term adverse cardiometabolic effects. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library (inception to January 2016) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated interventions for nonnutritive sweeteners and prospective cohort studies that reported on consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners among adults and adolescents. The primary outcome was body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcomes included weight, obesity and other cardiometabolic end points. RESULTS From 11 774 citations, we included 7 trials (1003 participants; median follow-up 6 mo) and 30 cohort studies (405 907 participants; median follow-up 10 yr). In the included RCTs, nonnutritive sweeteners had no significant effect on BMI (mean difference -0.37 kg/m ; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.10 to 0.36; 9%; 242 participants). In the included cohort studies, consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners was associated with a modest increase in BMI (mean correlation 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.06; 0%; 21 256 participants). Data from RCTs showed no consistent effects of nonnutritive sweeteners on other measures of body composition and reported no further secondary outcomes. In the cohort studies, consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners was associated with increases in weight and waist circumference, and higher incidence of obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. Publication bias was indicated for studies with diabetes as an outcome. INTERPRETATION Evidence from RCTs does not clearly support the intended benefits of nonnutritive sweeteners for weight management, and observational data suggest that routine intake of nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with increased BMI and cardiometabolic risk. Further research is needed to fully characterize the long-term risks and benefits of nonnutritive sweeteners. PROSPERO-CRD42015019749.
Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2015;102(4):922-32
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of 5 risk factors, including waist circumference, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the fasting condition. These often occur in concert and predispose people to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether current evidence supports the idea that Paleolithic nutrition improves risk factors for chronic disease more than do other dietary interventions in people with one or more components of the metabolic syndrome. The study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials that compared Paleolithic nutrition with any other dietary intervention in participants with one or more of the 5 components of the metabolic syndrome. Results indicate that Paleolithic nutrition resulted in greater short-term pooled improvements on each of the 5 components of metabolic syndrome than did currently recommended guideline-based control diets. However, the greater pooled improvements did not reach signiﬁcance for 2 of the 5 components (i.e., HDL cholesterol and fasting blood sugar). Authors conclude that the available data warrant additional evaluations of the health beneﬁts of Paleolithic nutrition.
BACKGROUND Paleolithic nutrition, which has attracted substantial public attention lately because of its putative health benefits, differs radically from dietary patterns currently recommended in guidelines, particularly in terms of its recommendation to exclude grains, dairy, and nutritional products of industry. OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a Paleolithic nutritional pattern improves risk factors for chronic disease more than do other dietary interventions. DESIGN We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the Paleolithic nutritional pattern with any other dietary pattern in participants with one or more of the 5 components of metabolic syndrome. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Outcome data were extracted from the first measurement time point (≤6 mo). A random-effects model was used to estimate the average intervention effect. The quality of the evidence was rated with the use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS Four RCTs that involved 159 participants were included. The 4 control diets were based on distinct national nutrition guidelines but were broadly similar. Paleolithic nutrition resulted in greater short-term improvements than did the control diets (random-effects model) for waist circumference (mean difference: -2.38 cm; 95% CI: -4.73, -0.04 cm), triglycerides (-0.40 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.76, -0.04 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (-3.64 mm Hg; 95% CI: -7.36, 0.08 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (-2.48 mm Hg; 95% CI: -4.98, 0.02 mm Hg), HDL cholesterol (0.12 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.28 mmol/L), and fasting blood sugar (-0.16 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.44, 0.11 mmol/L). The quality of the evidence for each of the 5 metabolic components was moderate. The home-delivery (n = 1) and dietary recommendation (n = 3) RCTs showed similar effects with the exception of greater improvements in triglycerides relative to the control with the home delivery. None of the RCTs evaluated an improvement in quality of life. CONCLUSIONS The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater short-term improvements in metabolic syndrome components than did guideline-based control diets. The available data warrant additional evaluations of the health benefits of Paleolithic nutrition. This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO) as CRD42014015119.