Effect of a Nutritional and Behavioral Intervention on Energy-Reduced Mediterranean Diet Adherence Among Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: Interim Analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus Randomized Clinical Trial.
Plain language summary
Excess caloric intake and poor nutritional quality are associated with overweight and obesity. A traditional Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce all-cause mortality, and in particular to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and overweight. The aim of this randomised, prospective, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive lifestyle intervention programme in 6874 overweight or obese men and women with metabolic syndrome in Spain. The intervention group was advised on an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and exercise and received behavioural support, with initial group sessions and interviews, and monthly follow-up phone calls for one year. The control group received advice on a Mediterranean diet and usual care, with 6 monthly follow-ups. After 12 months, the more intensively counselled patients showed a significantly better adherence to an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet than the control group. They had greater reductions in refined grains, pastries, red and processed meats and greater increases in vegetable, fruit and nut consumption than the control group. The intervention group had also better improvements in cardiovascular risk factors.
Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.
Effect of intermittent vs. daily calorie restriction on changes in weight and patient-reported outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis.
Multiple sclerosis and related disorders. 2018;23:33-39
Plain language summary
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system. Dietary modification is emerging as a safe intervention to potentially modify disease course. The main aim of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of an intermittent fasting diet in people with MS. Secondary outcomes explored the effects of calorie restriction (CR) diets on body weight and anthropometric characteristics as well as on patient-reported outcomes including fatigue, sleep and mood. The study is a pilot randomised controlled feeding study of three different types of diets. Each participant (n=36) was randomized to 1 of 3 diets: a control diet (placebo), a daily CR diet and intermittent CR diet. Results indicate that daily CR diet was associated with marginally greater weight loss than the intermittent CR diet. Both CR diets were associated with trends toward improvements in cardiometabolic outcomes. Furthermore, CR diets were associated with in improvements in emotional well-being. Authors conclude that CR and weight loss represent interventions for clinically relevant symptoms due to MS, such as emotional well-being, without adding meaningful risks or adverse outcomes.
An intermittent fasting or calorie restriction diet has favorable effects in the mouse forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and may provide additional anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective advantages beyond benefits obtained from weight loss alone. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled feeding study in 36 people with MS to assess safety and feasibility of different types of calorie restriction (CR) diets and assess their effects on weight and patient reported outcomes in people with MS. Patients were randomized to receive 1 of 3 diets for 8 weeks: daily CR diet (22% daily reduction in energy needs), intermittent CR diet (75% reduction in energy needs, 2 days/week; 0% reduction, 5 days/week), or a weight-stable diet (0% reduction in energy needs, 7 days/week). Of the 36 patients enrolled, 31 (86%) completed the trial; no significant adverse events occurred. Participants randomized to CR diets lost a median 3.4 kg (interquartile range [IQR]: -2.4, -4.0). Changes in weight did not differ significantly by type of CR diet, although participants randomized to daily CR tended to have greater weight loss (daily CR: -3.6 kg [IQR: -3.0, -4.1] vs. intermittent CR: -3.0 kg [IQR: -1.95, -4.1]; P = 0.15). Adherence to study diets differed significantly between intermittent CR vs. daily CR, with lesser adherence observed for intermittent CR (P = 0.002). Randomization to either CR diet was associated with significant improvements in emotional well-being/depression scores relative to control, with an average 8-week increase of 1.69 points (95% CI: 0.72, 2.66). CR diets are a safe/feasible way to achieve weight loss in people with MS and may be associated with improved emotional health.
Comparison of low calorie high protein and low calorie standard protein diet on waist circumference of adults with visceral obesity and weight cycling.
BMC research notes. 2018;11(1):674
Plain language summary
Obesity has become one of the world’s biggest health problem. Obese individuals with a history of repeated weight loss and regain (called weight cycling) have a higher risk of developing chronic disease and increased fat mass in every cycle. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a low calorie high protein diet compared to a low calorie standard protein diet on waist circumference in adults with visceral obesity. The open, randomised clinical trial recruited 61 obese subjects who are older than 20 years of age and had a history of weight cycling. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two diet groups; high protein or standard protein. Results showed that following a low-calorie diet resulted in waist circumference reduction thus reducing visceral fat. However, protein composition in the diet plan did not affect waist circumference reduction. Authors conclude that calorie restricted diets could be suggested in the treatment of visceral obesity. Macronutrient composition can be adjusted to meet the patient’s individual needs.
OBJECTIVES Many individuals with visceral obesity who previously had succeeded in reducing body weight regain and this loss-gain cycle repeats several times which is called as weight cycling. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a low calorie high protein diet (HP) compared to a low calorie standard protein diet (SP) on waist circumference of visceral obese adults with history of weight cycling. RESULTS In this open-randomized clinical trial, participants were asked to follow dietary plan with reduction in daily caloric intake ranging from 500 to 1000 kcal from usual daily amount with minimum daily amount of 1000 kcal for 8 weeks and were divided in two groups: HP group with protein as 22-30% total calorie intake; and SP group with protein as 12-20% total calorie intake. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) between waist circumference before and after the dietary intervention among both groups. Meanwhile, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean reduction of waist circumference between HP and SP groups (P = 0.073). Taken together, the protein proportion does not significantly affected waist circumference. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03374150, 11 December 2017.
Role of whole grains versus fruits and vegetables in reducing subclinical inflammation and promoting gastrointestinal health in individuals affected by overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):72
Plain language summary
Poor diet is the leading risk factor for premature death and disability in the United States. Poor diets lead to metabolic syndrome and its associated diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of wholegrains or fruit and vegetables against a typical Western diet on inflammatory makers and gut microbiota composition. The study was a randomized, parallel arm feeding trial which enrolled fifty-two participants. The subjects were randomized into three groups (control, wholegrains, and fruit and vegetables). Results indicate that the wholegrain and fruit and vegetable diets had significant positive impacts on inflammatory markers. Interestingly, while both treatment groups decreased inflammatory markers, each decreased a different biomarker. The treatments induced individualised changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified. Authors conclude that wholegrain and fruit and vegetable diets have a positive impact on metabolic health in individuals affected by overweight or obesity.
BACKGROUND Whole grains (WG) and fruits and vegetables (FV) have been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic disease, possibly via modulation of the gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of either WG or FV on inflammatory markers and gut microbiota composition. METHODS A randomized parallel arm feeding trial was completed on forty-nine subjects with overweight or obesity and low intakes of FV and WG. Individuals were randomized into three groups (3 servings/d provided): WG, FV, and a control (refined grains). Stool and blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were measured. Stool sample analysis included short/branched chain fatty acids (S/BCFA) and microbiota composition. RESULTS There was a significant decrease in LBP for participants on the WG (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.02) and FV (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.005) diets, with no change in those on the control diet (0.1 μg/mL, p = 0.08). The FV diet induced a significant change in IL-6 (- 1.5 pg/mL, p = 0.006), but no significant change was observed for the other treatments (control, - 0.009 pg/mL, p = 0.99; WG, - 0.29, p = 0.68). The WG diet resulted in a significant decrease in TNF-α (- 3.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001), whereas no significant effects were found for those on the other diets (control, - 0.6 pg/mL, p = 0.6; FV, - 1.4 pg/mL, p = 0.2). The treatments induced individualized changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified, except for a significant increase in α-diversity in the FV group. The proportions of Clostridiales (Firmicutes phylum) at baseline were correlated with the magnitude of change in LBP during the study. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that WG and FV intake can have positive effects on metabolic health; however, different markers of inflammation were reduced on each diet suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects were facilitated via different mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory effects were not related to changes in gut microbiota composition during the intervention, but were correlated with microbiota composition at baseline. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02602496 , Nov 4, 2017.