Association of Major Food Sources of Fructose-Containing Sugars With Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
JAMA network open. 2020;3(7):e209993
Plain language summary
Fructose is a type of sugar that has been implicated as a contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a condition where large waist circumference, high blood pressure and elevated blood lipid levels may all coexist. However, it remains unclear as to the role of fructose containing foods in the development of MetS. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies aimed to determine the association of several fructose containing foods and drinks with MetS. The results showed that sugary drinks containing fructose increased the risk of MetS, whereas no associations were found with mixed fruit juice, 100% fruit juice, honey, ice cream or confectionary. Interestingly fruit and yoghurt containing fructose decreased the risk of developing MetS. It was concluded that fructose containing food and drinks are not all equal in their biological effects. Sugary drinks increased the risk of developing MetS but yoghurt and fruit had a protective effect against development. Reasons for this could be due to a generally unhealthier lifestyle in those who consume sugary drinks or may be due to the increased protective effects associated with the vitamins and minerals in fruit and yoghurt. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to recommend a diet eliminating sugary drinks and containing regular fruit and yoghurt intake.
Importance: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the role of other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars in the development of MetS remains unclear. Objective: To examine the association of major food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident MetS. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to March 24, 2020, in addition to manual searches of reference lists from included studies using the following search terms: sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit drink, yogurt, metabolic syndrome, and prospective study. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included prospective cohort studies of 1 year or longer that investigated the association of important food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident MetS in participants free of MetS at the start of the study. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Extreme quantile risk estimates for each food source with MetS incidence were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Dose-response analyses were performed using a 1-stage linear mixed-effects model. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). Results were reported according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled risk ratio (RR) of incident MetS (pairwise and dose response). Results: Thirteen prospective cohort studies (49 591 participants [median age, 51 years; range, 6-90 years]; 14 205 with MetS) that assessed 8 fructose-containing foods and MetS were included. An adverse linear dose-response association for SSBs (RR for 355 mL/d, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) and an L-shaped protective dose-response association for yogurt (RR for 85 g/d, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.76) and fruit (RR for 80 g/d, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.86) was found. Fruit juices (mixed and 100%) had a U-shaped dose-response association with protection at moderate doses (mixed fruit juice: RR for 125 mL/d, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79; 100% fruit juice: RR for 125 mL/d, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97). Honey, ice cream, and confectionary had no association with MetS incidence. The certainty of the evidence was moderate for SSBs, yogurt, fruit, mixed fruit juice, and 100% fruit juice and very low for all other food sources. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that the adverse association of SSBs with MetS does not extend to other food sources of fructose-containing sugars, with a protective association for yogurt and fruit throughout the dose range and for 100% fruit juice and mixed fruit juices at moderate doses. Therefore, current policies and guidelines on the need to limit sources of free sugars may need to be reexamined.
Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes by Lifestyle Changes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Plain language summary
With Type 2 Diabetes growing globally this paper analyses whether T2D is preventable with lifestyle measures including diet. Seven RCTs were included for review with a total of 4090 participants, and 2466 incidents of T2D, and were chosen on the basis that the lifestyle interventions included both physical exercise and diet (typically Mediterranean Diet). They found that diet and lifestyle intervention reduced the risk of T2D by 47%. Sustained risk reduction was also found in follow-up studies up to 10 years later with participants maintaining improved blood glucose control. Lifestyle interventions may also reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Weight reduction was considered a cornerstone of preventing T2D and adherence to lifestyle changes a key element in long term prevention. Dietary foods reviewed include processed meats, white rice and sugars which correlated highly with T2D whilst leafy greens, berries, wholegrains, legumes, dietary fibre and yoghurt correlate with a lower risk of T2D. Dietary patterns of skipping breakfast and snacking correlate higher with T2D. Different criteria for evaluating physical activity estimate that it reduces risk factors by 50%. In conclusion there is high evidence that lifestyle factors which optimise diet, increase physical activity and promote weight reduction are preventative factors for T2D and can be sustained long term.
Prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a great challenge worldwide. The aim of this evidence synthesis was to summarize the available evidence in order to update the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy. We conducted a systematic review and, where appropriate, meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) carried out in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (six studies) or dysmetabolism (one study) to answer the following questions: What is the evidence that T2D is preventable by lifestyle changes? What is the optimal diet (with a particular focus on diet quality) for prevention, and does the prevention of T2D result in a lower risk of late complications of T2D? The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was applied to assess the certainty of the trial evidence. Altogether seven RCTs (N = 4090) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The diagnosis of incident diabetes was based on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The overall risk reduction of T2D by the lifestyle interventions was 0.53 (95% CI 0.41; 0.67). Most of the trials aimed to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and apply a diet relatively low in saturated fat and high in fiber. The PREDIMED trial that did not meet eligibility criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis was used in the final assessment of diet quality. We conclude that T2D is preventable by changing lifestyle and the risk reduction is sustained for many years after the active intervention (high certainty of evidence). Healthy dietary changes based on the current recommendations and the Mediterranean dietary pattern can be recommended for the long-term prevention of diabetes. There is limited or insufficient data to show that prevention of T2D by lifestyle changes results in a lower risk of cardiovascular and microvascular complications.
Metabolic syndrome and liver-related events: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMC endocrine disorders. 2019;19(1):40
Plain language summary
Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and chronic liver disease a major cause of death in the US. Viral hepatitis and excessive alcohol intake are important risk factors, but do not explain many cases. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and several metabolic abnormalities, suggesting a link between metabolic factors and cancer of the liver. This review and meta-analysis pooled data from 19 epidemiological studies, involving 1,561,457 participants, to evaluate the risk of metabolic syndrome for liver related events (LREs). 16 of the 19 studies showed an increased risk of LREs for people with metabolic syndrome, whilst 3 found a negative association. The meta-analysis found that people with metabolic syndrome had increased risks of 76% for liver cancer and of 421% for death from liver related causes. The risk of any LRE was increased by 49%. The risks were higher for people with hepatitis B infection and lower for people living in Asia. The authors state that the mechanisms are not fully understood and hypothesise that people with metabolic syndrome likely share risk factors for cancer, such as low physical activity, oxidative stress and dietary factors such as high caloric food, high fat and low fibre intake. The authors conclude that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for liver disease.
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its component conditions are linked to the development of many benign or malignant diseases. Some studies have described relationships among metabolic syndrome or diabetes and liver cancer, but not many articles described the relationships between MetS and cirrhosis, acute hepatic failure, end-stage liver disease, and even death. However, liver cancers, cirrhosis, acute hepatic failure, end-stage liver disease, and liver-related mortality-collectively described as liver-related events (LREs)-may have different relationships with MetS. We undertook this meta-analysis to examine the association between MetS and LREs, and to determine whether geographic region or hepatitis B virus (HBV) positivity might influence the association. METHODS Relevant studies were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database. Two reviewers independently searched records from January 1980 to December 2017. The search terms included 'metabolic syndrome', 'diabetes mellitus', 'insulin resistance syndrome', and 'metabolic abnormalities', combined with 'cirrhosis', 'hepatic fibrosis ', 'hepatocellular carcinoma', 'complication', 'LRE', 'HCC', 'liver-related events', and 'liver cancer'. No language restriction was applied to the search. We chose the studies reporting an association between MetS and LREs. We used Begg's and Egger's tests and visually examined a funnel plot to assess publication bias. All analyses were conducted in Stata 14.0 software. RESULTS There were 19 studies (18 cohort and 1 case-control) included in the analysis, with a total of 1,561,457 participants. The subjects' ages ranged from 18 to 84 years. The combined analysis showed an overall 86% increase risk of LREs in cases with MetS (RR: 1.86,95% CI: 1.56-2.23). The funnel plot was asymmetrical, and the Egger's test p values showed a publication bias in this meta analysis. However, through the trim and fill method, we obtained a new RR value for LREs with MetS of 1.49 (95% CI: 1.40-1.58, p = 0.000). There was no obvious difference with the two answers, so we concluded that the results were robust. For hepatitis B positive patients, the RR for MetS and LREs was 2.15 (95% CI:1.02-4.53, p = 0.038), but for the hepatitis B negative patients, the RR was 1.85 (95% CI:1.53-2.24, p = 0.000). And for non-Asians, the RR for MetS and LREs was 2.21 (95% CI: 1.66-2.69, p = 0.000), while for Asians, the RR was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.35-2.22, p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis showed that MetS is associated with a moderately increased risk of LREs prevalence. Patients with MetS together with hepatitis B are more likely to develop hepatic events. For non-Asians, MetS is more likely to increase the incidence of LREs.