Dietary fiber intake and glycemic control: coronary artery calcification in type 1 diabetes (CACTI) study.
Nutrition journal. 2019;18(1):23
Plain language summary
The incidence of type 1 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the major vascular complication of diabetes, have been increasing wordwide. The aim of the study is to identify the associations of dietary fibre with glycaemic control. The study is a cross-sectional longitudinal study which enrolled 1257 individuals in the cross-sectional analysis and a total of 990 participants were included in the longitudinal analysis. The participants had no known history of coronary heart disease. Results indicate an inverse association between total fibre intake and the average blood glucose levels for the last two to three months in both diabetic and nondiabetic participants. Authors conclude that their study provides some evidence on the role dietary fibre intake plays on glycaemic control, which is important in the management of type 1 diabetes in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
BACKGROUND Dietary fiber has been recommended for glucose control, and typically low intakes are observed in the general population. The role of fiber in glycemic control in reported literature is inconsistent and few reports are available in populations with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS Using data from the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study [n = 1257; T1D: n = 568; non-diabetic controls: n = 689] collected between March 2000 and April 2002, we examined cross-sectional (baseline) and longitudinal (six-year follow-up in 2006-2008) associations of dietary fiber and HbA1c. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, and a physical examination and fasting biochemical analyses (12 h fast) at baseline visit and at the year 6 visit. We used a linear regression model stratified by diabetes status, and adjusted for age, sex and total calories, and diabetes duration in the T1D group. We also examined correlations of dietary fiber with HbA1c. RESULTS Baseline dietary fiber intake and serum HbA1c in the T1D group were 16 g [median (IQ): 11-22 g) and 7.9 ± 1.3% mean (SD), respectively, and in the non-diabetic controls were 15 g [median (IQ): 11-21 g) and 5.4 ± 0.4%, respectively. Pearson partial correlation coefficients revealed a significant but weak inverse association of total dietary fiber with HbA1c when adjusted for age, sex, diabetes status and total calories (r = - 0.07, p = 0.01). In the adjusted linear regression model at baseline, total dietary fiber revealed a significant inverse association with HbA1c in the T1D group [β ± SE = - 0.32 ± 0.15, p = 0.034], as well as in the non-diabetic controls [- 0.10 ± 0.04, p = 0.009]. However, these results were attenuated after adjustment for dietary carbohydrates, fats and proteins, or for cholesterol and triglycerides. No such significance was observed at the year 6 follow-up, and with the HbA1c changes over 6 years. CONCLUSION Thus, at observed levels of intake, total dietary fiber reveals modest inverse associations with poor glycemic control. Future studies must further investigate the role of overall dietary quality adjusting for fiber-rich foods in T1D management.
High-intensity interval training improves metabolic syndrome and body composition in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation patients with myocardial infarction.
Cardiovascular diabetology. 2019;18(1):104
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an eightfold increase in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), and MI patients who have MetS have an increased risk of other cardiovascular events and recurrent MI. Exercise can improve MetS and is also recommended for patients after MI for rehabilitation. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the effect of supervised high intensity interval training (HIIT) on MetS and body composition in overweight patients with MI. Of 56 patients who took part in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program, 42 had engaged in HIIT and 14 in moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), both groups had 36 supervised sessions over 12 weeks. Compared to MICT, the HIIT group demonstrated greater reductions in MetS. Better improvements in the HIIT group were seen in waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, body fat and lean mass, compared to the MICT group. There were no significant differences between groups in changes in BMI, HDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. The authors concluded that their findings support the use of HIIT to improve MetS in MI patients
BACKGROUND To examine the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and body composition in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients with myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS We retrospectively screened 174 consecutive patients with MetS enrolled in CR following MI between 2015 and 2018. We included 56 patients who completed 36 CR sessions and pre-post dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Of these patients, 42 engaged in HIIT and 14 in moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). HIIT included 4-8 intervals of high-intensity (30-60 s at RPE 15-17 [Borg 6-20]) and low-intensity (1-5 min at RPE < 14), and MICT included 20-45 min of exercise at RPE 12-14. MetS and body composition variables were compared between MICT and HIIT groups. RESULTS Compared to MICT, HIIT demonstrated greater reductions in MetS (relative risk = 0.5, 95% CI 0.33-0.75, P < .001), MetS z-score (- 3.6 ± 2.9 vs. - 0.8 ± 3.8, P < .001) and improved MetS components: waist circumference (- 3 ± 5 vs. 1 ± 5 cm, P = .01), fasting blood glucose (- 25.8 ± 34.8 vs. - 3.9 ± 25.8 mg/dl, P < .001), triglycerides (- 67.8 ± 86.7 vs. - 10.4 ± 105.3 mg/dl, P < .001), and diastolic blood pressure (- 7 ± 11 vs. 0 ± 13 mmHg, P = .001). HIIT group demonstrated greater reductions in body fat mass (- 2.1 ± 2.1 vs. 0 ± 2.2 kg, P = .002), with increased body lean mass (0.9 ± 1.9 vs. - 0.9 ± 3.2 kg, P = .01) than the MICT. After matching for exercise energy expenditure, HIIT-induced improvements persisted for MetS z-score (P < .001), MetS components (P < .05), body fat mass (P = .002), body fat (P = .01), and lean mass (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that, compared to MICT, supervised HIIT results in greater improvements in MetS and body composition in MI patients with MetS undergoing CR.
A whole-grain diet reduces peripheral insulin resistance and improves glucose kinetics in obese adults: A randomized-controlled trial.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2018;82:111-117
Plain language summary
Literature shows that dietary whole-grain intake is associated with a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between a whole-grain diet and insulin resistance and glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial involving fourteen middle-aged, obese adults at risk for diabetes. Randomisation was carried out prior to metabolic testing. Results indicate that whole-grain intake as part of a mixed-meal diet significantly improved post-prandial (after a meal) glucose metabolism in middle-aged obese adults. Furthermore, both whole-grain and refined-grain interventions induced about 3–6% weight and fat loss. Authors conclude that whole-grain intake effectively promotes glycaemic control by improving insulin action.
BACKGROUND Whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes but the mechanisms are unclear. PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that a WG diet reduces insulin resistance and improves glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes compared with an isocaloric-matched refined-grain diet. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of 14 moderately obese adults (Age, 38 ± 2 y; BMI, 34.0 ± 1.1 kg/m2). Insulin resistance and glucose metabolism was assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test combined with isotopic tracers of [6,6-2H2]-glucose and [U-13C]-glucose, and indirect calorimetry. Peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance was assessed as 1/(rate of disposal/insulin), and endogenous glucose rates of appearance (Ra) iAUC60-240 × insulin iAUC60-240, respectively. Both diets met ADA nutritional guidelines and contained either whole-grain (50 g per 1000 kcal) or equivalent refined-grain. All food was provided for 8 wk. with an 8-10 wk. washout period between diets. RESULTS Post-prandial glucose tolerance, peripheral insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility (insulin-stimulated - fasting carbohydrate oxidation) improvements were greater after whole-grain compared to the refined-grain diet (P < 0.05). Compared to baseline, body fat (~2 kg) and hepatic Ra insulin resistance was reduced by both diets, while fasting glucose and exogenous glucose-meal were unchanged after both interventions. Changes in peripheral insulin resistance and metabolic flexibility correlated with improved glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Whole-grains reduced diabetes risk and the mechanisms appear to work through reduced post-prandial blood glucose and peripheral insulin resistance that were statistically linked to enhanced metabolic flexibility.
Changes in Gut Microbiota-Related Metabolites and Long-term Successful Weight Loss in Response to Weight-Loss Diets: The POUNDS Lost Trial.
Diabetes care. 2018;41(3):413-419
Plain language summary
Evidence has demonstrated that weight loss contributes to lowering the risk of developing type 2 diabetes among obese patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether diet-induced metabolites were associated with improvements in adiposity and metabolism during a weight-loss diet intervention in 510 overweight and obese individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four diets with varying macronutrient composition to adhere to for six months. Blood samples and anthropometric data were taken at baseline and 6 months to monitor changes. This study found that overweight and obese individuals with reduced choline or L-carnitine levels achieved greater improvements of adiposity and energy metabolism. Based on these results, the authors conclude that metabolites are predictive of patient responsiveness to dietary interventions, and suggest further studies evaluate these effects in the pre-diabetic obese population.
OBJECTIVE Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake. We examined associations of 6-month changes in blood metabolites (TMAO, choline, and l-carnitine) with improvements in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat composition, fat distribution, and resting energy expenditure (REE). RESULTS Individuals with a greater reduction of choline (P < 0.0001) and l-carnitine (P < 0.01) rather than TMAO showed significant losses of BW and WC at 6 months. The reduction of choline was significantly predictive of decreases in body fat composition, fat distribution, and REE. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the baseline diabetes risk status, such as the presence of hyperglycemia (31% of the total participants) and fasting glucose levels, did not modify the associations. Early changes in choline and l-carnitine were significantly predictive of weight loss over 2 years (P < 0.05 for all). Individuals with increases in choline or l-carnitine were 2.35-times (95% CI 1.38, 4.00) or 1.77-times (1.06, 2.95) more likely to fail to lose weight (-5% or more loss) at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS Overweight and obese individuals who showed decreases in circulating choline or l-carnitine levels achieved greater improvements of adiposity and energy metabolism by eating a low-calorie weight-loss diet, suggesting that such metabolites are predictive of individuals' response to the treatment. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our findings, particularly in a population with prediabetes that is more representative of the U.S. population with obesity.
Circulating bile acids in healthy adults respond differently to a dietary pattern characterized by whole grains, legumes and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars: A randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2018;83:197-204
Plain language summary
Bile acids are produced in the liver and are important for the absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed. Circulating plasma bile acids can affect glucose metabolism and inflammation, and are thought to play a role in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate how plasma bile acid levels are influenced by a diet rich in whole grains, legumes, fruit and vegetables (low glycaemic load, GL) compared to a diet high in refined grains and sugar (high GL). The study evaluated data from a previous double-blind randomised, cross over feeding trial. 80 healthy adults had the low or high GL diet for four weeks, and after a four-week washout period, received the other diet for four weeks. Three specific plasma bile acids, which are thought to have a positive impact on glucose metabolism, were higher in the low GL group compared to the high GL group. Some individual plasma bile acids were positively associated with HOMA-IR (a measure of glucose metabolism/insulin resistance). There was no significant association between bile acid concentrations and C-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation). The authors conclude that the increase in certain bile acids on the low GL diet may be beneficial and that this effect may be to some extent mediated by the impact of the higher fibre content of the low GL diet on the gut microbial metabolism, which affects plasma bile acid levels.
OBJECTIVE The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m2) and half overweight to obese (BMI 28.0-39.9 kg/m2). Participants consumed two four-week controlled diets in randomized order: 1) a whole grain diet (WG diet), designed to be low in glycemic load (GL), high in whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables, and 2) a refined grain diet (RG diet), designed to be high GL, high in refined grains and added sugars, separated by a four-week washout period. Quantitative targeted analysis of 55 bile acid species in fasting plasma was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, and CRP were measured in fasting serum. Linear mixed models were used to test the effects of diet on bile acid concentrations, and determine the association between plasma bile acid concentrations and HOMA-IR and CRP. Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 was used to control for multiple testing. RESULTS A total of 29 plasma bile acids were reliably detected and retained for analysis. Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) were statistically significantly higher after the WG compared to the RG diet (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant differences by BMI or sex. When evaluating the association of bile acids and HOMA-IR, GCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 5β‑cholanic acid‑3β,12α‑diol, 5‑cholanic acid‑3β‑ol, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were statistically significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR individually, and as a group, total, 12α‑hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acids were also significant (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by BMI, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid (CA), UDCA, 5β-cholanic acid-3β, deoxycholic acid, and total, 12α-hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acid groups were significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR among overweight to obese individuals (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by sex, GCA, CDCA, TCA, CA, UDCA, GDCA, glycolithocholic acid (GLCA), total, primary, 12α‑hydroxylated, and glycine-conjugated bile acids were significantly associated with HOMA-IR among women, and CDCA, GDCA, and GLCA were significantly associated among men (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant associations between bile acids and CRP. CONCLUSIONS Diets with comparable macronutrient and energy composition, but differing in carbohydrate source, affected fasting plasma bile acids differently. Specifically, a diet characterized by whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars led to modest increases in concentrations of TLCA, TCA and GCA, ligands for FXR and TGR5, which may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.
Fructose metabolism and metabolic disease.
The Journal of clinical investigation. 2018;128(2):545-555
Plain language summary
Sugar consumption is thought to be a contributing factor in the increase in diabetes and obesity and the associated risk of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Sucrose (table sugar) and high fructose corn syrup contain almost equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are commonly added to processed foods. Whilst long-term studies are lacking, some short-term intervention studies show that fructose can impair lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in humans. This article reviews the biochemistry and molecular genetics of fructose metabolism as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose consumption contributes to cardiometabolic disease. Fructose absorption in the human intestine is saturable, and there is a large range in capacity to absorb fructose between individuals, and unabsorbed fructose may contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms including pain and bloating. Fructose concentrations in the blood can increase 10-fold after consumption, but are rapidly cleared, mostly by the liver, where it provides substrate for metabolic processes, but may also be involved in signalling functions. Fructose may enhance glucose uptake by the liver and storage as glycogen and lipids. It may also increase production of uric acid which is implicated with gout. Excessive fructose consumption affects lipid metabolism and may contribute to fat accumulation in the liver and increase circulating triglycerides, a risk factor for heart disease. In animal models it also induces increased insulin levels. Fructose is one of the sweetest sugars which may affect appetite and overeating. It may also induce addiction-like behaviours such as binging and dependence in part by stimulating dopaminergic pathways. It also appears to induce leptin resistance which further increases food intake and obesity.
Increased sugar consumption is increasingly considered to be a contributor to the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes and their associated cardiometabolic risks. As a result of its unique metabolic properties, the fructose component of sugar may be particularly harmful. Diets high in fructose can rapidly produce all of the key features of the metabolic syndrome. Here we review the biology of fructose metabolism as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose consumption may contribute to cardiometabolic disease.