Potential Factors Influencing the Effects of Anthocyanins on Blood Pressure Regulation in Humans: A Review.
Plain language summary
Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant compounds belonging to the flavonoid group of polyphenols and are naturally occurring in a number of foods. They are responsible for the red, blue and purple pigmentation within plant foods, such as blueberries and raspberries and are known to contain therapeutic compounds. Several studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and blood pressure modulation properties within ACNs, however, results for blood pressure modulation, unlike those for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties have been mixed and less consistent. This paper reviews 66 human intervention trials exploring the effects of various forms of ACNs, like whole berries, concentrates and freeze-dried powders in order to identify the singular variables related to blood pressure modulation in order to further investigate. Having looked at a number of variables within the trials, researchers concluded that ACNs do in fact contain blood pressure lowering properties, but further research into varying factors including dose effect, synergistic effects, absorption and metabolism and the functionality of the individuals gut microbiota is needed to clarify results further.
Dietary intake of anthocyanins (ACNs) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease. While the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering effects of ACN consumption have been consistently reported, their effect(s) on blood pressure regulation is less consistent and results from human studies are mixed. The objective of this review is attempting to identify potential patterns which may explain the variability in results related to blood pressure. To do so, we review 66 human intervention trials testing the effects on blood pressure of purified ACN or ACN-rich extracts, or whole berries, berry juices, powders, purees and whole phenolic extracts, from berries that are rich in ACN and have ACNs as predominant bioactives. Several factors appear to be involved on the mixed results reported. In particular, the baseline characteristics of the population in terms of blood pressure and total flavonoid intake, the dose and duration of the intervention, the differential effects of individual ACN and their synergistic effects with other phytochemicals, the ACN content and bioavailability from the food matrix, and individual differences in ACN absorption and metabolism related to genotype and microbiota enterotypes.
Spices and Atherosclerosis.
Plain language summary
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Atherosclerosis, characterised by the accumulation of fat and inflammation in blood vessels, is the main feature of CVD. Common spices such as pepper, ginger, garlic, onion, cinnamon and chilli may have effects on the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, the authors focused on the potential protective effects of spices, in atherosclerosis and CVD. Most studies to date have been carried out either in cell culture or in animals. These have revealed various potential mechanisms by which spices exert their beneficial effects, including anti-oxidant, anti-atherogenic, anti-coagulant, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering properties. There are some human studies evaluating the effects of spices on high blood pressure. Although saffron, turmeric, and chilli pepper had no effect on blood pressure, cinnamon demonstrated significant blood pressure lowering effects in patients with diabetes. Garlic has been shown to have the potential to reduce blood pressure in patients with high blood pressure. These studies provide information on the beneficial roles of spices in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. The types of spices consumed vary across cultures, and currently there are no available population studies showing that consumption of spices is associated with reduction of CVD nor any recommendations for the amounts of spices to be consumed. The authors conclude that the consumption of spices should be encouraged across countries to promote good health.
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Atherosclerosis, characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation in the vessel wall, is the main feature of cardiovascular disease. Although the amounts of fruits and vegetables present in the diets vary by country, diets, worldwide, contain large amounts of spices; this may have positive or negative effects on the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. In this review, we focused on the potential protective effects of specific nutrients from spices, such as pepper, ginger, garlic, onion, cinnamon and chili, in atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms, epidemiological analysis, and clinical studies focusing on a variety of spices are covered in this review. Based on the integrated information, we aimed to raise specific recommendations for people with different dietary styles for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through dietary habit adjustments.
Could gestational diabetes mellitus be managed through dietary bioactive compounds? Current knowledge and future perspectives.
The British journal of nutrition. 2016;115(7):1129-44
Plain language summary
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. Moreover, uncontrolled GDM is linked with a detrimental intra-uterine environment, which leads to foetal complications and an increased risk for the child of developing obesity and metabolic disorders. The aim of the review is to examine the current knowledge and issues about the impact of dietary polyphenols on the mechanisms and/or factors regulating glucose homeostasis, inflammation and adipose tissue function in metabolic alterations linked with GDM. Moreover, this study also reviews the role of Omega-3 fatty acids in pregnancy. The study is a descriptive review based on several studies. Literature data is mainly derived from in vitro and animal models. In vitro and animal studies show that almost all subclasses of flavonoids, stilbene RSV and some olive oil phenolic compounds, interact and modulate several molecular pathways regulating insulin. Obesity worsens GDM with increased risk of developing metabolic disorders in both mother and offspring later in life. The adoption of healthy lifestyle, with adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, has positive effects on the prevention and management of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious problem growing worldwide that needs to be addressed with urgency in consideration of the resulting severe complications for both mother and fetus. Growing evidence indicates that a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, nuts, extra-virgin olive oil and fish has beneficial effects in both the prevention and management of several human diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review, we discuss the latest data concerning the effects of dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and PUFA on the molecular mechanisms regulating glucose homoeostasis. Several studies, mostly based on in vitro and animal models, indicate that dietary polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, positively modulate the insulin signalling pathway by attenuating hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, reducing inflammatory adipokines, and modifying microRNA (miRNA) profiles. Very few data about the influence of dietary exposure on GDM outcomes are available, although this approach deserves careful consideration. Further investigation, which includes exploring the 'omics' world, is needed to better understand the complex interaction between dietary compounds and GDM.