The Current Landscape of Obesity Services: a Report from the All-Parliamentary Group on Obesity
This report from the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Obesity is part of an inquiry into the current landscape of obesity services. It is designed to highlight barriers and opportunities for government, commissioners and other stakeholders to improve equitable access to obesity prevention and treatment programmes.
Bariatric Surgery - NED Infobite
Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. This BANT Infobite highlights some of the latest research on the impacts of bariatric surgery on quality of life scores and the important role of diet pre and post surgery.
Thyroid-Gut-Axis: How Does the Microbiota Influence Thyroid Function?
Plain language summary
Thyroid and gut disease often coexist together. This literature review highlights the strong interplay between gut, microbiota and thyroid disease. In autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) gut bacteria imbalances, bacterial overgrowth, Coeliac's disease or non-coeliacs wheat sensitivity, increased gut permeability and resulting deficiency of thyroid nutrients are not uncommon. Inflammation and intestinal wall damage that lead to increased permeability are thought to be one of the driving factors for autoimmune activity. Allergens, certain drugs, impaired gut flora and nutrient deficiencies are some of the contributors to heightened intestinal permeability. Furthermore, the gut walls host deiodinase enzymes that convert thyroid hormone to its active form. The gut microbiota however influence thyroid function in their own rights. The bacteria are crucial for nutrient synthesis, absorption and availability, including those essential for thyroid health. Gut bacteria and their metabolites also play a significant role in the regulation, development and training of immune cells, relevant to AITD. After all, the gut also houses a large proportion of the immune system known as gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT). Besides, some bacteria species seem to be capable of balancing fluctuating thyroid hormone levels in the blood. The writings further elaborate on thyroid-essential nutrients and the gut such as iodine, iron, zinc, selenium and Vitamin D. And the impact of bariatric surgery on thyroid function and the presence of certain gut bacteria in thyroid cancers. In summary, the authors concluded that the thyroid-gut axis seems to exhibit a strong connection. Limited evidence from human studies showed promising results of probiotics and synbiotics on thyroid function and targeting the microbiota as a novel strategies for the management of thyroid disease is encouraged to be explored further. This article may be of interest to those looking for an informative summary on the many ways in which the gut influences thyroid function in health and disease.
A healthy gut microbiota not only has beneficial effects on the activity of the immune system, but also on thyroid function. Thyroid and intestinal diseases prevalently coexist-Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are the most common autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and often co-occur with Celiac Disease (CD) and Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS). This can be explained by the damaged intestinal barrier and the following increase of intestinal permeability, allowing antigens to pass more easily and activate the immune system or cross-react with extraintestinal tissues, respectively. Dysbiosis has not only been found in AITDs, but has also been reported in thyroid carcinoma, in which an increased number of carcinogenic and inflammatory bacterial strains were observed. Additionally, the composition of the gut microbiota has an influence on the availability of essential micronutrients for the thyroid gland. Iodine, iron, and copper are crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis, selenium and zinc are needed for converting T4 to T3, and vitamin D assists in regulating the immune response. Those micronutrients are often found to be deficient in AITDs, resulting in malfunctioning of the thyroid. Bariatric surgery can lead to an inadequate absorption of these nutrients and further implicates changes in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and T3 levels. Supplementation of probiotics showed beneficial effects on thyroid hormones and thyroid function in general. A literature research was performed to examine the interplay between gut microbiota and thyroid disorders that should be considered when treating patients suffering from thyroid diseases. Multifactorial therapeutic and preventive management strategies could be established and more specifically adjusted to patients, depending on their gut bacteria composition. Future well-powered human studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of alterations in gut microbiota on thyroid function and diseases.
An exercise-based educational and motivational intervention after surgery can improve behaviors, physical fitness and quality of life in bariatric patients.
PloS one. 2020;15(10):e0241336
Plain language summary
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective method of weight loss for individuals with obesity. However sustained weight loss after surgery can be hindered by unhealthy behaviours that have sustained since before the procedure. Motivational, educational, diet and exercise programmes have been shown to help sustain weight loss following surgery. This non-randomised control trial over 12 months, aimed to assess the effects of a motivational, educational diet and exercise programme on fitness and quality of life in 82 individuals following bariatric surgery. The results showed that a diet and exercise programme improved quality of life and fitness. There was an increased daily intake of fruits and vegetables, eating behaviours were improved and there was a greater weight loss in those following the programme. It was concluded that the diet and exercise programme was responsible for behavioural changes that ensured better quality of life and sustained weight loss following surgery. Health care professionals could use this study to understand the need to recommend motivational and educationally based diet and exercise programme to patients following bariatric surgery.
INTRODUCTION Unhealthy lifestyles may hinder bariatric surgery outcomes. This non-randomized controlled study aimed to evaluate the effects of an integrated post-operative exercise-based educational and motivational program in improving behaviors, quality of life, anthropometric features, cardiorespiratory and physical fitness in bariatric patients respect to the only surgical intervention. METHODS A group of adult sedentary bariatric patients chose to attend a 12-month exercise program integrated with diet education and motivational support, or to receive usual care. Dietary habits, binge eating disorder, physical activity, obesity-related quality of life, Body Mass Index, waist and hip circumference, VO2max, strength and flexibility were assessed at the start and at the end of the study in both groups. RESULTS On a total of 82 patients enrolled, follow-up measures were obtained from 28 (85.7% females, mean age 38.2±8.7) and 42 (71.4% females, mean age 40.2±9.5) patients included in the intervention and control group, respectively. All the behavioral and physical outcomes improved significantly in the participants to the intervention, while the control group showed lesser changes, especially regarding quality of life and physical fitness. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the self-selection, these results suggest that a timely postoperative behavioral multidisciplinary program for bariatric patients may be effective in establishing healthy behaviors which can lead to better surgery outcomes.
Bariatric and metabolic surgery during and after the COVID-19 pandemic: DSS recommendations for management of surgical candidates and postoperative patients and prioritisation of access to surgery.
The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. 2020;8(7):640-648
Plain language summary
Bariatric surgery has been proven for weight loss in people with severe obesity. However, during the covid-19 pandemic, surgery has been postponed for many individuals. Under normal conditions, patients who are awaiting bariatric surgery are prioritised based on weight, however this does not necessarily reflect severity of their condition. This review paper aimed to develop new criteria in order to help prioritise individuals who are awaiting bariatric surgery. The authors began by reviewing the reasons for delaying bariatric surgery and the need for beds, the risks of covid-19 transmission during the procedure and the severe covid-19 complications that individuals with obesity can experience were discussed. A recommendation was made that all patients having bariatric surgery be tested for Covid-19. Solutions were proposed for those awaiting surgery such as diets, exercise, optimal blood sugar control and the potential use of weight loss medications. Prioritisation of surgery should focus on clinical need; it should be accessible and minimise harm from delays. Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes should be prioritised based on those who have an increased risk of death, determined by whether the individual; has poor blood sugar control despite maximal use of medications to control it, uses insulin, has previous heart disease, has liver disease or if they have other risk factors. It was concluded that weight alone is inadequate to prioritise candidates for bariatric surgery. Disease severity should be at the centre of decisions, especially when access to surgery is reduced, as is during the Covid -19 pandemic. This paper could be used by healthcare professionals to understand how to prioritise their obese and type 2 diabetic patients who are awaiting bariatric surgery.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is wreaking havoc on society, especially health-care systems, including disrupting bariatric and metabolic surgery. The current limitations on accessibility to non-urgent care undermine postoperative monitoring of patients who have undergone such operations. Furthermore, like most elective surgery, new bariatric and metabolic procedures are being postponed worldwide during the pandemic. When the outbreak abates, a backlog of people seeking these operations will exist. Hence, surgical candidates face prolonged delays of beneficial treatment. Because of the progressive nature of obesity and diabetes, delaying surgery increases risks for morbidity and mortality, thus requiring strategies to mitigate harm. The risk of harm, however, varies among patients, depending on the type and severity of their comorbidities. A triaging strategy is therefore needed. The traditional weight-centric patient-selection criteria do not favour cases based on actual clinical needs. In this Personal View, experts from the Diabetes Surgery Summit consensus conference series provide guidance for the management of patients while surgery is delayed and for postoperative surveillance. We also offer a strategy to prioritise bariatric and metabolic surgery candidates on the basis of the diseases that are most likely to be ameliorated postoperatively. Although our system will be particularly germane in the immediate future, it also provides a framework for long-term clinically meaningful prioritisation.
Effect of Weight Loss after Bariatric Surgery on Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Euthyroid Patients with Morbid Obesity.
Plain language summary
Obesity is associated with many health issues, including thyroid problems. The aim of this observational study was to investigate the effect of weight loss surgery on thyroid hormones. 129 morbidly obese people with normal thyroid function were included in the study. 12 months after weight loss surgery, the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) had significantly decreased from 3.3 to 2.1 µU/mL. Levels of the thyroid hormone free thyroxine (T4) also significantly decreased from 1.47 to 1.12 ng/dL. Those that lost more weight following surgery tended to have a greater reduction in TSH. Fasting blood glucose also significantly improved after surgery. The authors concluded that obesity is associated with raised TSH levels, and this makes diagnosing thyroid problems in people with morbid obesity more complicated.
Obesity is associated with several endocrine abnormalities, including thyroid dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss after bariatric surgery on thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in euthyroid patients with morbid obesity. We performed an observational study, evaluating patients with morbid obesity submitted to bariatric surgery. We included 129 patients (92 women) and 31 controls (21 women). Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were evaluated. The primary endpoint was circulating TSH (µU/mL). Fasting TSH levels were higher in the obese group (3.3 ± 0.2) than in the control group (2.1 ± 0.2). The mean excessive body mass index (BMI) loss (EBMIL) 12 months after bariatric surgery was 72.7 ± 2.1%. TSH levels significantly decreased in the obese patients after surgery; 3.3 ± 0.2 vs. 2.1 ± 0.2 before and 12 months after surgery, respectively. Free thyroxine (T4) (ng/dL) levels significantly decreased in the obese patients after surgery; 1.47 ± 0.02 vs. 1.12 ± 0.02 before and 12 months after surgery, respectively. TSH decreased significantly over time, and the decrement was associated with the EBMIL. In euthyroid patients with morbid obesity, weight loss induced by bariatric surgery promotes a significant decline of the increased TSH levels. This decrement of TSH is progressive over time after surgery and significantly associated with excess BMI loss.
Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery.
Circulation research. 2016;118(11):1844-55
Plain language summary
Individuals with obesity who have been unable to lose weight through non-surgical means may be candidates for bariatric surgery. Criteria was established over 20 years ago and stated that individuals with a BMI >40 and individuals with a BMI >35-40 with other related conditions who have failed to achieve weight loss medically, are appropriate for surgery. However, individuals with less severe obesity who have type 2 diabetes have now been highlighted as possible candidates also, indicating that it is an evolving process. This review of 123 papers focused on the indications, safety and reasons for bariatric surgery and its role in the reduction of heart disease. The reason for bariatric surgery is to achieve weight loss and decrease an individual’s risk of death and conditions associated with obesity. Indications for surgery were discussed and the types of surgery that are available. Safety has improved due to a number of changes such as recognition of experience of surgeons and centres, the enactment of care protocols and a switch to minimally invasive procedures. However less invasive surgeries appear to accomplish considerably less weight loss. Benefits to body fat, blood fat levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, inflammation, the ability of the blood vessels to dilate and sleep apnoea were all discussed. These were all used as evidence to support the argument that surgery improves an individual’s chances of survival compared to lifestyle interventions, as sufficiently designed trials to support this have not been performed. It was concluded that bariatric surgery has greater improved heart disease and death compared to lifestyle interventions due to the significantly higher weight loss that results.
This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health, which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by nonsurgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the comorbidities, quality of life, and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea, and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors after weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality after weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed, and future research opportunities and summaries are stated.