Ultra-processed food consumption and adult obesity risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2023;(2):249-260
We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate observational studies assessing the association between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and the risk of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the general population. We searched the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and ISI Web of Science from inception until December 2020. Data were extracted from 12 studies (nine cross-sectional and three cohort studies). Odds ratio (OR) were pooled using a random-effects model. UPF consumption was associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.36, 1.77; I2 = 55%), overweight (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.63; I2 = 73%), and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.68; I2 = 62%). Furthermore, every 10% increase of UPF consumption in daily calorie intake was associated with a 7%, a 6%, and a 5% higher risk of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, respectively. Dose-response meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed a positive linear association between UPF consumption and abdominal obesity. There was also a positive linear association between UPF consumption and risk of overweight/obesity in the analysis of cross-sectional studies and a positive monotonic association in the analysis of cohort studies. Our study suggests that UPF consumption is associated with an increased risk of excess weight or abdominal obesity.
Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone orthopedic implants in musculoskeletal and spinal tumors: imaging and clinical features.
Skeletal radiology. 2023;(3):393-404
Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) orthopedic implants are gaining popularity in oncologic applications as they offer many potential advantages over traditional metallic implants. From an imaging perspective, this instrumentation allows for improved evaluation of adjacent anatomic structures during radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This results in improved postoperative surveillance imaging quality as well as easier visualization of anatomy for potential image-guided percutaneous interventions (e.g., pain palliation injections, or ablative procedures for local disease control). CFR-PEEK devices are also advantageous in radiation oncology treatment due to their decreased imaging artifact during treatment planning imaging and decreased dose perturbation during radiotherapy delivery. As manufacturing processes for CFR-PEEK materials continue to evolve and improve, potential orthopedic applications in the spine and appendicular skeleton increase. An understanding of the unique properties of CFR-PEEK devices and their impact on imaging is valuable to radiologists delivering care to orthopedic oncology patients in both the diagnostic and interventional settings. This multidisciplinary review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the radiologic, surgical, and radiation oncology impact of these innovative devices.
New Directions in Phosphorus Management in Dialysis.
Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation. 2023;(1):12-16
Current phosphate management strategies in end-stage renal disease (dietary phosphate restriction, dialysis, and phosphate binders) are inadequate to maintain target phosphate levels in most patients. Dietary phosphate restriction is challenging due to "hidden phosphates" in processed foods, and dialysis and phosphate binders are insufficient to match average dietary phosphate intake. As phosphate binders must be taken with each meal, patients need to ingest many, large pills several times a day, negatively impacting quality of life. Recent advances in our understanding of phosphate absorption pathways have led to the development of new nonbinder therapies that block phosphate absorption. This review describes the limitations of current phosphate management strategies and discusses new therapies in development that inhibit phosphate absorption pathways. These new therapies present an opportunity to rethink phosphate management, potentially by prescribing phosphate absorption inhibitors as a primary therapy and adding phosphate binders if needed.
Mechanistic insights into dietary (poly)phenols and vascular dysfunction-related diseases using multi-omics and integrative approaches: Machine learning as a next challenge in nutrition research.
Molecular aspects of medicine. 2023;:101101
Dietary (poly)phenols have been extensively studied for their vasculoprotective effects and consequently their role in preventing or delaying onsets of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Even though early studies have ascribed the vasculoprotective properties of (poly)phenols primarily on their putative free radical scavenging properties, recent data indicate that in biological systems, (poly)phenols act primarily through genomic and epigenomic mechanisms. The molecular mechanisms underlying their health properties are still not well identified, mainly due to the use of physiologically non-relevant conditions (native molecules or extracts at high concentrations, rather than circulating metabolites), but also due to the use of targeted genomic approaches aiming to evaluate the effect only on few specific genes, thus preventing to decipher detailed molecular mechanisms involved. The use of state-of-the-art untargeted analytical methods represents a significant breakthrough in nutrigenomics, as these methods enable detailed insights into the effects at each specific omics level. Moreover, the implementation of multi-omics approaches allows integration of different levels of regulation of cellular functions, to obtain a comprehensive picture of the molecular mechanisms of action of (poly)phenols. In combination with bioinformatics and the methods of machine learning, multi-omics has potential to make a huge contribution to the nutrition science. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of the omics, multi-omics, and integrative approaches in studying the vasculoprotective properties of dietary (poly)phenols and address the potentials for use of the machine learning in nutrigenomics.
Tryptophan and its metabolites in normal physiology and cancer etiology.
The FEBS journal. 2023;(1):7-27
Within the growing field of amino acid metabolism, tryptophan (Trp) catabolism is an area of increasing interest. Trp is essential for protein synthesis, and its metabolism gives rise to biologically active catabolites including serotonin and numerous metabolites in the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway. In normal tissues, the production of Trp metabolites is directly regulated by the tissue-specific expression of Trp-metabolizing enzymes. Alterations of these enzymes in cancers can shift the balance and lead to an increased production of specific byproducts that can function as oncometabolites. For example, increased expression of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which converts Trp into Kyn, leads to an increase in Kyn levels in numerous cancers. Kyn functions as an oncometabolite in cancer cells by promoting the activity of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which regulates progrowth genes. Moreover, Kyn also inhibits T-cell activity and thus allows cancer cells to evade clearance by the immune system. Therefore, targeting the Kyn pathway has become a therapeutic focus as a novel means to abrogate tumor growth and immune resistance. This review summarizes the biological role and regulation of Trp metabolism and its catabolites with an emphasis on tumor cell growth and immune evasion and outlines areas for future research focus.
Feasibility of an intensive interprofessional lifestyle medicine program for patients with musculoskeletal conditions in the setting of lifestyle-related chronic disease.
PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation. 2023;(1):41-50
BACKGROUND Lifestyle factors are associated with musculoskeletal pain and metabolic chronic diseases. To date, intensive lifestyle medicine programs have predominantly targeted metabolic rather than musculoskeletal conditions. OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of an intensive interprofessional lifestyle medicine program for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. DESIGN Prospective observational feasibility study. SETTING Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS Adults diagnosed with musculoskeletal condition(s) and lifestyle-related chronic disease(s) who previously completed standard-of-care musculoskeletal treatments, enrolled from 2018 to 2020. INTERVENTIONS Patients enrolled in an intensive interprofessional lifestyle medicine program led by a physiatrist, with options to interface with an acupuncturist, dietician, massage therapist, psychologist, physical therapist, and smoking cessation specialist. The physiatrist engaged in shared decision making with patients to establish program goals related to function, overall health, and required lifestyle changes. Bimonthly interprofessional team conferences facilitated communication between treatment team and patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Feasibility was measured by patient participation and goal attainment. Secondary outcomes included changes from program enrollment to discharge in patient anthropometric, metabolic lab, sleep apnea risk, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) function, pain, and behavioral health measures. RESULTS Twenty-six patients enrolled in the program (18 [69%] female, mean age 59 [SD 14.5] years, baseline hemoglobin A1c 6.0% [0.8%], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein 7.7 [12.1] mg/dL, 25-hydroxy vitamin D 32.0 [14.2] ng/mL). Of 21 (81%) patients who completed the program, 13/21 (62%) met their goal. On average, program completers presented for 26.2 (10.6) total visits over 191 (88) days. By discharge, program completers achieved clinically meaningful improvement in PROMIS Anxiety (mean difference -3.5 points, 95% confidence interval [-6.5 to 0.5], p = .035), whereas noncompleters did not (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS An intensive interprofessional lifestyle medicine program for patients with musculoskeletal conditions is feasible. With training in lifestyle intervention, physiatrists are well suited to lead interprofessional teams aimed at assisting patients in making lifestyle changes to achieve personalized function- and health-related goals.
Sporadic Pb accumulation by plants: Influence of soil biogeochemistry, microbial community and physiological mechanisms.
Journal of hazardous materials. 2023;(Pt A):130391
Recent results revealed that considerable Pb accumulation in plants is possible under specific soil conditions that make Pb phytoavailable. In this review, the sources and transformations of Pb in soils, the interaction of Pb with bacteria and specifically the microbiota in the soil, factors and mechanisms of Pb uptake, translocation and accumulation in plants and Pb toxicity in living organisms are comprehensively elaborated. Specific adsorption and post-adsorption transformations of Pb in soil are the main mechanisms affecting the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of Pb. The adsorption ability of Pb largely depends on the composition and properties of soils and environmental conditions. Microbial impact on Pb mobility in soil and bioavailability as well as bacterial resistance to Pb are considered. Specific mechanisms conferring Pb-resistance, including Pb-efflux, siderophores, and EPS, have been identified. Pathways of Pb entry into plants as well as mechanisms of in planta Pb transport are poorly understood. Available evidence suggests the involvement of Ca transporters, organic acids and the phytochelatin pathway in Pb transport, mobility and detoxification, respectively.
Sustainable production of biosurfactants via valorisation of industrial wastes as alternate feedstocks.
Chemosphere. 2023;(Pt 1):137326
Globally, the rapid increase in the human population has given rise to a variety of industries, which have produced a variety of wastes. Due to their detrimental effects on both human and environmental health, pollutants from industry have taken centre stage among the various types of waste produced. The amount of waste produced has therefore increased the demand for effective waste management. In order to create valuable chemicals for sustainable waste management, trash must be viewed as valuable addition. One of the most environmentally beneficial and sustainable choices is to use garbage to make biosurfactants. The utilization of waste in the production of biosurfactant provides lower processing costs, higher availability of feedstock and environmental friendly product along with its characteristics. The current review focuses on the use of industrial wastes in the creation of sustainable biosurfactants and discusses how biosurfactants are categorized. Waste generation in the fruit industry, agro-based industries, as well as sugar-industry and dairy-based industries is documented. Each waste and wastewater are listed along with its benefits and drawbacks. This review places a strong emphasis on waste management, which has important implications for the bioeconomy. It also offers the most recent scientific literature on industrial waste, including information on the role of renewable feedstock for the production of biosurfactants, as well as the difficulties and unmet research needs in this area.
Aortic size predicts aortic dissection in Turner syndrome - A 25-year prospective cohort study.
International journal of cardiology. 2023;:47-54
BACKGROUND Women with Turner syndrome (TS) have an increased risk of aortic dissection. The current recommended cutoff to prevent aortic dissection in TS is an aortic size index (ASI) of ≥2.5 cm/m2. This study estimated which aortic size had the best predictive value for the risk of aortic dissection, and whether adjusting for body size improved risk prediction. METHODS A prospective, observational study in Sweden, of women with TS, n = 400, all evaluated with echocardiography of the aorta and data on medical history for up to 25 years. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the absolute ascending aortic diameter (AAD), ascending ASI and TS specific z-score. RESULTS There were 12 patients (3%) with aortic dissection. ROC curves demonstrated that absolute AAD and TS specific z-score were superior to ascending ASI in predicting aortic dissection. The best cutoff for absolute AAD was 3.3 cm and 2.12 for the TS specific z-score, respectively, with a sensitivity of 92% for both. The ascending ASI cutoff of 2.5 cm/m2 had a sensitivity of 17% only. Subgroup analyses in women with an aortic diameter ≥ 3.3 cm could not demonstrate any association between karyotype, aortic coarctation, bicuspid aortic valve, BMI, antihypertensive medication, previous growth hormone therapy or ongoing estrogen replacement treatment and aortic dissection. All models failed to predict a dissection in a pregnant woman. CONCLUSIONS In Turner syndrome, absolute AAD and TS-specific z-score were more reliable predictors for aortic dissection than ASI. Care should be taken before and during pregnancy.
Preventative Options and the Future of Chemoprevention for Cutaneous Tumors.
Dermatologic clinics. 2023;(1):231-238
Chemoprophylaxis against nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) should be considered in high-risk populations such as those with certain genetic disorders, immunosuppressive states, chronic radiation, excessive UV exposure, or extensive personal or family history of NMSC. The methods for chemoprevention have progressed beyond traditional sunscreen into more effective strategies including DNA repair enzymes, nicotinamide, systemic retinoids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other therapies are still being investigated and include treatments that target premalignant lesions, capecitabine, hedgehog inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine, metformin, and nutritional factors.