Metabolomics reveals the effect of hypobaric treatment on energy metabolism in vibration-injured 'Huangguan' pears.
Food chemistry. 2023;:134057
Mechanical damage caused by vibration during transportation can destroy organization structure and reduce the fruit quality. The objective was to reveal the mechanism of hypobaric treatment on energy metabolism in vibration-injured 'Huangguan' pears based on metabolomics. Results showed that hypobaric treatment delayed the decline of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, energy charge (EC), H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities comparing to untreated samples. Metabolomics data indicated there were 83 significant differential metabolites between untreated samples and hypobaric treated ones. KEGG analysis results showed significant differential metabolites were associated with 14 pathways. Key metabolites and pathways analysis revealed these up-regulated amino acids were related to amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and membrane transport. These pathways were activated observably by hypobaric treatment. The results indicated hypobaric treatment slowed energy consumption in vibration-injured samples, which was in relation to the accumulation of amino acids. The findings provide a feasible preservation technology for vibration-injured fruit.
Unique roles in health promotion of dietary flavonoids through gut microbiota regulation: Current understanding and future perspectives.
Food chemistry. 2023;:133959
Advances in understanding the biological effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been reported. Improving knowledge about their beneficial effects, and mechanisms of action, is crucial for better utilization. However, mechanisms responsible for their health benefits are still unclear. Previous research considered has suggested that gut microbiota might be linked to the metabolism of dietary flavonoids. To understand the bioactivities of dietary flavonoids/flavonoid-rich foods better, and the role of microbiota, we explored systematically 1) types of dietary flavonoids and associated health benefits, 2) low bioaccessibilities and metabolic characteristics, 3) gut microbiota role in regulation, and 4) crosstalk between regulation mechanisms. Current challenges and future perspectives were also considered, offering new research directions and identifying trends in the development of flavonoid-rich food products.
Intelligent polymeric hydrogen sulfide delivery systems for therapeutic applications.
Bioactive materials. 2023;:198-216
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in regulating various pathological processes such as protecting mammalian cell from harmful injuries, promoting tissue regeneration, and regulating the process of various diseases caused by physiological disorders. Studies have revealed that the physiological effects of H2S are highly associated with its concentrations. At relatively low concentration, H2S shows beneficial functions. However, long-time and high-dose donation of H2S would inhibit regular biological process, resulting in cell dysfunction and apoptosis. To regulate the dosage of H2S delivery for precision medicine, H2S delivery systems with intelligent characteristics were developed and a variety of biocompatibility polymers have been utilized to establish intelligent polymeric H2S delivery systems, with the abilities to specifically target the lesions, smartly respond to pathological microenvironments, as well as real-timely monitor H2S delivery and lesion conditions by incorporating imaging-capable moieties. In this review, we focus on the design, preparation, and therapeutic applications of intelligent polymeric H2S delivery systems in cardiovascular therapy, inflammatory therapy, tissue regenerative therapy, cancer therapy and bacteria-associated therapy. Strategies for precise H2S therapies especially imaging-guided H2S theranostics are highlighted. Since H2S donors with stimuli-responsive characters are vital components for establishing intelligent H2S delivery systems, the development of H2S donors is also briefly introduced.
Injectable bone cements: What benefits the combination of calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses could bring?
Bioactive materials. 2023;:217-236
Out of the wide range of calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials, calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) have attracted increased attention since their discovery in the 1980s due to their valuable properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, injectability, hardening ability through a low-temperature setting reaction and moldability. Thereafter numerous researches have been performed to enhance the properties of CPCs. Nonetheless, low mechanical performance of CPCs limits their clinical application in load bearing regions of bone. Also, the in vivo resorption and replacement of CPC with new bone tissue is still controversial, thus further improvements of high clinical importance are required. Bioactive glasses (BGs) are biocompatible and able to bond to bone, stimulating new bone growth while dissolving over time. In the last decades extensive research has been performed analyzing the role of BGs in combination with different CaPs. Thus, the focal point of this review paper is to summarize the available research data on how injectable CPC properties could be improved or affected by the addition of BG as a secondary powder phase. It was found that despite the variances of setting time and compressive strength results, desirable injectable properties of bone cements can be achieved by the inclusion of BGs into CPCs. The published data also revealed that the degradation rate of CPCs is significantly improved by BG addition. Moreover, the presence of BG in CPCs improves the in vitro osteogenic differentiation and cell response as well as the tissue-material interaction in vivo.
A clarification of concepts related to the digestion and absorption of carotenoids and a new standardized carotenoids bioavailability evaluation system.
Food chemistry. 2023;:134060
The published literature has shown that there are various evaluation methods for the process of carotenoids digestion and absorption. However, it was found that many concepts are ambiguous in the evaluation process, and the selection of evaluation methods is inappropriate and inaccurate. These deficiencies trouble readers, hamper comparisons among different studies, and generate controversy in different literature. Therefore, it is imperative to establish a complete and standardized system for evaluating the digestion and absorption process of carotenoids. This review begins by clarifying confusing concepts during the process of carotenoids digestion and absorption, including the release rate, micellization rate, bioaccessibility, relative bioavailability and absolute bioavailability. Then this review discusses relevant factors affecting the key process of the digestion and absorption of carotenoids. Finally, a more specific and standardized system for evaluating carotenoids bioavailability was suggested based on four dimensions: intake, digestion, absorption and metabolic process. Clarifying concepts such as digestion and absorption and standardizing corresponding research methods will help to obtain reliable data and support interoperability and comparisons across studies.
Natural pigments of plant origin: Classification, extraction and application in foods.
Food chemistry. 2023;:133908
Color is the first attribute that influences the acceptance of foods as they become more attractive to consumers when they are more intense and uniform. In recent years, the interest of producers and consumers in purchasing products containing natural ingredients have constantly increased. Natural pigments are commonly extracted from fruits and vegetables, and have been proven to provide health benefits to reduce the risk of diseases such as type-1 diabetes, obesity, and coronary diseases. Additionally, advanced extraction and encapsulation technologies that make food matrices more efficient are useful tools for improving the use of these pigments. In this review, the state-of-the-art of pigments such as carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains of plant origin are discussed, including their main sources of production and the factors that affect their physicochemical stability. In addition, different extraction methods are discussed, listing their advantages and disadvantages, and providing some applications of natural pigments in food.
Linking the effect of localised pitting corrosion with mechanical integrity of a rare earth magnesium alloy for implant use.
Bioactive materials. 2023;:32-43
This study presents a computational framework that investigates the effect of localised surface-based corrosion on the mechanical performance of a magnesium-based alloy. A finite element-based phenomenological corrosion model was used to generate a wide range of corrosion profiles, with subsequent uniaxial tensile test simulations to predict the mechanical response to failure. The python-based detection framework PitScan provides detailed quantification of the spatial phenomenological features of corrosion, including a full geometric tracking of corroding surface. Through this approach, this study is the first to quantitatively demonstrate that a surface-based non-uniform corrosion model can capture both the geometrical and mechanical features of a magnesium alloy undergoing corrosion by comparing to experimental data. Using this verified corrosion modelling approach, a wide range of corrosion scenarios was evaluated and enabled quantitative relationships to be established between the mechanical integrity and key phenomenological corrosion features. In particular, we demonstrated that the minimal cross-sectional area parameter was the strongest predictor of the remaining mechanical strength (R2 = 0.98), with this relationship being independent of the severity or spatial features of localised surface corrosion. Interestingly, our analysis demonstrated that parameters described in ASTM G46-94 showed weaker correlations to the mechanical integrity of corroding specimens, compared to parameters determined by Pitscan. This study establishes new mechanistic insight into the performance of the magnesium-based materials undergoing corrosion.
The effect of extended hemodialysis on nutritional parameters: a systematic review.
Journal of nephrology. 2022
OBJECTIVE This systematic review provides an up-to-date synthesis on the effects of extended hemodialysis on nutritional outcomes. DESIGN AND METHODS Ten databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were: randomised and non-randomised studies of extended hemodialysis (defined by > 15 h/week) with a comparator group which received conventional in-centre hemodialysis (usually ≤ 12 h per week). Outcomes of interest included lean body mass, protein and carbohydrate intake, body mass index, dry lean mass, water-soluble vitamin levels, serum levels of appetite hormones, and nutritional status as assessed by the PEW and SGA scoring tools. RESULTS Five studies were eligible. All investigated extended nocturnal hemodialysis (one with the addition of short daily), three were in-centre and two were at home. Range of duration for the included studies was 2-18 months. These studies reported data on lean body mass, protein and carbohydrate intake, body mass index, dry lean mass and water-soluble vitamin levels. There was insufficient homogeneity between the studies to meta-analyse the data. Extended hemodialysis had no significant effects on any of the reported outcomes except for lean body mass, where a significant increase was found, and water-soluble vitamin levels, where deficiency was identified in one of the included studies. CONCLUSION There is currently no evidence to suggest that extended hemodialysis modalities impact nutritional parameters, although the quality of the available evidence is low.
Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/Substance Use Disorder Dual Disorder Patients: A Dual Disorder Unit Point of View.
Current topics in behavioral neurosciences. 2022;:179-198
Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) are often associated with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adult populations due to multiple neurobiological, genetic, and psychosocial risk factors. This chapter provides a picture of the clinical aspects of adults with both ADHD and SUDs at treatment entry into a Dual Disorder Unit introducing the concept of different types of craving that may lead to substance use and abuse. At treatment entry, the presence of different comorbid SUD clusters, characterized by either stimulants/alcohol or by the use of cannabinoids, has not been shown to influence ADHD-specific symptomatology or severity, despite being crucial for the identification of a specific type of craving. We identified four clinical presentations of adult ADHD Emotional Dysregulation, Substance Use, Core-ADHD Symptoms, and Positive Emotionality variants, that offer a practical guide in diagnosing and managing adult ADHD patients. Although the evidence of an effective medical treatment for Cocaine Use Disorder is insufficient, in our experience, toxicomanic behavior during stimulant treatment is sharply reduced in ADHD patients with cocaine addiction. Moreover, caffeinated compounds in military soldiers with ADHD may help reduce ADHD symptoms, making caffeine a potential pharmacological tool worth further investigation. Finally, substance use comorbidity does not influence treatment retention rate.
A junctional cAMP compartment regulates rapid Ca2+ signaling in atrial myocytes.
Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology. 2022;:141-157
Axial tubule junctions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum control the rapid intracellular Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release that initiates atrial contraction. In atrial myocytes we previously identified a constitutively increased ryanodine receptor (RyR2) phosphorylation at junctional Ca2+ release sites, whereas non-junctional RyR2 clusters were phosphorylated acutely following β-adrenergic stimulation. Here, we hypothesized that the baseline synthesis of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is constitutively augmented in the axial tubule junctional compartments of atrial myocytes. Confocal immunofluorescence imaging of atrial myocytes revealed that junctin, binding to RyR2 in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, was densely clustered at axial tubule junctions. Interestingly, a new transgenic junctin-targeted FRET cAMP biosensor was exclusively co-clustered in the junctional compartment, and hence allowed to monitor cAMP selectively in the vicinity of junctional RyR2 channels. To dissect local cAMP levels at axial tubule junctions versus subsurface Ca2+ release sites, we developed a confocal FRET imaging technique for living atrial myocytes. A constitutively high adenylyl cyclase activity sustained increased local cAMP levels at axial tubule junctions, whereas β-adrenergic stimulation overcame this cAMP compartmentation resulting in additional phosphorylation of non-junctional RyR2 clusters. Adenylyl cyclase inhibition, however, abolished the junctional RyR2 phosphorylation and decreased L-type Ca2+ channel currents, while FRET imaging showed a rapid cAMP decrease. In conclusion, FRET biosensor imaging identified compartmentalized, constitutively augmented cAMP levels in junctional dyads, driving both the locally increased phosphorylation of RyR2 clusters and larger L-type Ca2+ current density in atrial myocytes. This cell-specific cAMP nanodomain is maintained by a constitutively increased adenylyl cyclase activity, contributing to the rapid junctional Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, whereas β-adrenergic stimulation overcomes the junctional cAMP compartmentation through cell-wide activation of non-junctional RyR2 clusters.