Mixed Spices at Culinary Doses Have Prebiotic Effects in Healthy Adults: A Pilot Study.
Plain language summary
An increasing body of evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a profound impact on human health. While the microbiome of a healthy individual is relatively stable, gut microbial dynamics can be influenced by host lifestyle and dietary choices. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed spices (cinnamon, oregano, ginger, black pepper, and cayenne pepper) at culinary doses consumed over 2 weeks in a standardized 5g capsule on the production of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids The study is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study carried out with a total of 31 healthy women and men aged between 18 and 65. The subjects were randomly allocated to one of the two intervention groups. Results indicate that daily intake of 5g of mixed spices for 2 weeks in healthy subjects resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes (bacteria), and a trend of increasing in phylum Bacteroidetes (bacteria) as compared with a matched control group. Authors conclude that a mixture of spices at culinary doses affects the composition of gut microbiota.
undefined: Spices were used as food preservatives prior to the advent of refrigeration, suggesting the possibility of effects on microbiota. Previous studies have shown prebiotic activities in animals and in vitro, but there has not been a demonstration of prebiotic or postbiotic effects at culinary doses in humans. In this randomized placebo-controlled study, we determined in twenty-nine healthy adults the effects on the gut microbiota of the consumption daily of capsules containing 5 g of mixed spices at culinary doses by comparison to a matched control group consuming a maltodextrin placebo capsule. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing data were used for microbial characterization. Spice consumption resulted in a significant reduction in Firmicutes abundance ( < 0.033) and a trend of enrichment in Bacteroidetes ( < 0.097) compared to placebo group. Twenty-six operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were different between the spice and placebo groups after intervention. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between fecal short-chain fatty acid propionate concentration and Firmicutes abundance in spice intervention group ( < 0.04). The production of individual fecal short-chain fatty acid was not significantly changed by spice consumption in this study. Mixed spices consumption significantly modified gut microbiota, suggesting a prebiotic effect of spice consumption at culinary doses.
Dietary supplementation with inulin-propionate ester or inulin improves insulin sensitivity in adults with overweight and obesity with distinct effects on the gut microbiota, plasma metabolome and systemic inflammatory responses: a randomised cross-over trial.
Plain language summary
Literature shows that higher intakes of dietary fibre are associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The main aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind improvements in glucose homeostasis following long-term delivery of propionate (a short-chain fatty acid produced by human gut microbiota in response to dietary fibre) to the human colon. The study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross over trial. Fourteen participants randomly received 20 g/day of a low-fermentable fibre control, a high-fermentable fibre control and inulin-propionate ester (IPE) for 42 days each. Results indicate that stool concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were not different following the three supplementation periods. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with 20 g/day IPE promoted no superior impacts on measures of glucose homeostasis compared with inulin (high-fermentable fibre), yet both IPE and inulin improved insulin resistance relative to cellulose (low-fermentable fibre). Authors conclude that manipulating the colonic fermentation profile of a dietary fibre in favour of propionate promotes selective effects on the mechanisms that contribute to metabolic dysregulation.
OBJECTIVE To investigate the underlying mechanisms behind changes in glucose homeostasis with delivery of propionate to the human colon by comprehensive and coordinated analysis of gut bacterial composition, plasma metabolome and immune responses. DESIGN Twelve non-diabetic adults with overweight and obesity received 20 g/day of inulin-propionate ester (IPE), designed to selectively deliver propionate to the colon, a high-fermentable fibre control (inulin) and a low-fermentable fibre control (cellulose) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Outcome measurements of metabolic responses, inflammatory markers and gut bacterial composition were analysed at the end of each 42-day supplementation period. RESULTS Both IPE and inulin supplementation improved insulin resistance compared with cellulose supplementation, measured by homeostatic model assessment 2 (mean±SEM 1.23±0.17 IPE vs 1.59±0.17 cellulose, p=0.001; 1.17±0.15 inulin vs 1.59±0.17 cellulose, p=0.009), with no differences between IPE and inulin (p=0.272). Fasting insulin was only associated positively with plasma tyrosine and negatively with plasma glycine following inulin supplementation. IPE supplementation decreased proinflammatory interleukin-8 levels compared with cellulose, while inulin had no impact on the systemic inflammatory markers studied. Inulin promoted changes in gut bacterial populations at the class level (increased Actinobacteria and decreased Clostridia) and order level (decreased Clostridiales) compared with cellulose, with small differences at the species level observed between IPE and cellulose. CONCLUSION These data demonstrate a distinctive physiological impact of raising colonic propionate delivery in humans, as improvements in insulin sensitivity promoted by IPE and inulin were accompanied with different effects on the plasma metabolome, gut bacterial populations and markers of systemic inflammation.
Role of whole grains versus fruits and vegetables in reducing subclinical inflammation and promoting gastrointestinal health in individuals affected by overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):72
Plain language summary
Poor diet is the leading risk factor for premature death and disability in the United States. Poor diets lead to metabolic syndrome and its associated diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of wholegrains or fruit and vegetables against a typical Western diet on inflammatory makers and gut microbiota composition. The study was a randomized, parallel arm feeding trial which enrolled fifty-two participants. The subjects were randomized into three groups (control, wholegrains, and fruit and vegetables). Results indicate that the wholegrain and fruit and vegetable diets had significant positive impacts on inflammatory markers. Interestingly, while both treatment groups decreased inflammatory markers, each decreased a different biomarker. The treatments induced individualised changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified. Authors conclude that wholegrain and fruit and vegetable diets have a positive impact on metabolic health in individuals affected by overweight or obesity.
BACKGROUND Whole grains (WG) and fruits and vegetables (FV) have been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic disease, possibly via modulation of the gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of increasing intake of either WG or FV on inflammatory markers and gut microbiota composition. METHODS A randomized parallel arm feeding trial was completed on forty-nine subjects with overweight or obesity and low intakes of FV and WG. Individuals were randomized into three groups (3 servings/d provided): WG, FV, and a control (refined grains). Stool and blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were measured. Stool sample analysis included short/branched chain fatty acids (S/BCFA) and microbiota composition. RESULTS There was a significant decrease in LBP for participants on the WG (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.02) and FV (- 0.2 μg/mL, p = 0.005) diets, with no change in those on the control diet (0.1 μg/mL, p = 0.08). The FV diet induced a significant change in IL-6 (- 1.5 pg/mL, p = 0.006), but no significant change was observed for the other treatments (control, - 0.009 pg/mL, p = 0.99; WG, - 0.29, p = 0.68). The WG diet resulted in a significant decrease in TNF-α (- 3.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001), whereas no significant effects were found for those on the other diets (control, - 0.6 pg/mL, p = 0.6; FV, - 1.4 pg/mL, p = 0.2). The treatments induced individualized changes in microbiota composition such that treatment group differences were not identified, except for a significant increase in α-diversity in the FV group. The proportions of Clostridiales (Firmicutes phylum) at baseline were correlated with the magnitude of change in LBP during the study. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that WG and FV intake can have positive effects on metabolic health; however, different markers of inflammation were reduced on each diet suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects were facilitated via different mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory effects were not related to changes in gut microbiota composition during the intervention, but were correlated with microbiota composition at baseline. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02602496 , Nov 4, 2017.