Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in overweight adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Plain language summary
With the rising rates of vitamin D deficiency, identifying cost-effective, preventative strategies are imperative. Vitamin D plays a well-known role in bone mineralisation, however its protective role against chronic diseases is not very well understood. The aim of this trial is to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation will increase insulin sensitivity and secretion, as well as to determine whether vitamin D deficiency underlies the inflammatory properties associated with obesity. 50 overweight adults between 18 and 60 years old were recruited and assigned to receive either 4,000 IU vitamin D daily or identical placebo capsules for 16 weeks. This study elucidates the potential role vitamin D supplementation could have on preventing diabetes and its associated co-morbidities. It also provides comprehensive insight into the potential mechanisms of action. The authors conclude that this trial can corroborate existing knowledge while expanding the understanding on the role of vitamin D in the inflammatory response and subsequent development of disease.
BACKGROUND Despite Australia's sunny climate, low vitamin D levels are increasingly prevalent. Sun exposure is limited by long working hours, an increase in time spent indoors, and sun protection practices, and there is limited dietary vitamin D fortification. While the importance of vitamin D for bone mineralization is well known, its role as a protective agent against chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is less understood. Observational and limited intervention studies suggest that vitamin D might improve insulin sensitivity and secretion, mainly via its anti-inflammatory properties, thereby decreasing the risk of development and progression of type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of this trial is to investigate whether improved plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), obtained through vitamin D supplementation, will increase insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. A secondary aim is to determine whether these relationships are mediated by a reduction in underlying subclinical inflammation associated with obesity. METHODS/DESIGN Fifty overweight but otherwise healthy nondiabetic adults between 18 and 60 years old, with low vitamin D levels (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l), will be randomly assigned to intervention or placebo. At baseline, participants will undergo a medical review and anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, an intravenous glucose tolerance test, muscle and fat biopsies, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and questionnaires assessing diet, physical activity, sun exposure, back and knee pain, and depression. The intervention group will receive a first dose of 100,000 IU followed by 4,000 IU vitamin D (cholecalciferol) daily, while the placebo group will receive apparently identical capsules, both for a period of 16 weeks. All measurements will be repeated at follow-up, with the primary outcome measure expressed as a change from baseline in insulin sensitivity and secretion for the intervention group compared with the placebo group. Secondary outcome measures will compare changes in anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors, and inflammatory markers. DISCUSSION The trial will provide much needed clinical evidence on the impact of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and secretion and its underlying mechanisms, which are relevant for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02112721 .
Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth): a 12-wk, randomized, parallel-controlled, double-blinded, diet intervention study.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2015;101(4):870-8
Plain language summary
The health effects of dairy products on cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, obesity and total mortality may depend on their varying composition. This study aims to examine the long-term effects of milk proteins (whey and casein) and milk with a high or low content of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) on postprandial lipid metabolism. In this randomised, parallel-controlled, double-blinded, 12-week intervention study, 63 abdominally obese individuals were randomised to one of four diets, containing different compositions of whey, casein and MC-SFAs. Results showed that whey compared to casein significantly decreased postprandial apoB-48, independently of the fatty acid composition. Fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol and FFA responses were independent of protein or fatty acids composition. Authors conclude that 12-week supplementation with whey protein reduces postprandial apoB-48 compared to casein, indicating a beneficial effect on CVD risk.
BACKGROUND Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) improved postprandial lipid metabolism in humans with abdominal obesity. DESIGN We conducted a 12-wk, randomized, double-blinded, diet intervention study. Sixty-three adults were randomly allocated to one of 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants consumed 60 g milk protein (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (with high or low MC-SFA content) daily. Before and after the intervention, a high-fat meal test was performed. We measured changes from baseline in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48; reflecting chylomicrons of intestinal origin), free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Furthermore, changes in the expression of adipose tissue genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Two-factor ANOVA was used to examine the difference between protein types and fatty acid compositions, as well as any interaction between the two. RESULTS Fifty-two participants completed the study. We found that the postprandial apoB-48 response decreased significantly after whey compared with casein (P = 0.025) independently of fatty acid composition. Furthermore, supplementation with casein resulted in a significant increase in the postprandial GLP-1 response compared with whey (P = 0.003). We found no difference in postprandial triacylglycerol, FFA, insulin, glucose, glucagon, or GIP related to protein type or MC-SFA content. We observed no interaction between milk protein and milk fat on postprandial lipemia. CONCLUSION We found that a whey protein supplement decreased the postprandial chylomicron response compared with casein in persons with abdominal obesity, thereby indicating a beneficial impact on CVD risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01472666.