Pilot trial of a group cognitive behavioural therapy program for comorbid depression and obesity.
BMC psychology. 2020;8(1):34
Plain language summary
Depression and obesity are significant global health concerns. Depression can significantly impact physical health and reduced immune function. The aim of this study was to examine the potential benefits of a novel group psychological intervention program. The study is a preliminary quasi-experimental (single-arm) before-after pilot trial of a newly developed group-based psychological intervention program for people with depression and comorbid obesity. The program consisted of 10 two-hour group sessions held weekly. A total of 24 participants were recruited to the program across two pilot groups. Results indicate that there was a significant reduction in participants’ depression and anxiety scores by program-end. Some evidence also shows improvements in weight-related negative cognitions. Authors conclude that the group therapy program therefore has considerable potential to be effective in helping people enjoy better mental health and improve health outcomes.
BACKGROUND Depression and obesity are significant global health concerns that commonly occur together. An integrated group cognitive behavioural therapy program was therefore developed to simultaneously address comorbid depression and obesity. METHODS Twenty-four participants (63% women, mean age 46 years) who screened positively for depression with a body mass index ≥25 were recruited from a self-referred general population sample. The group therapy program (10 two-hour weekly sessions) was examined in a single-arm, before-after pilot trial, conducted in a behavioural health clinic in Adelaide, Australia. Primary outcomes included survey and assessment-based analyses of depression, anxiety, body image, self-esteem, and weight (kg), assessed at four time-points: baseline, post-intervention, three-months and 12-months post program. Eighteen participants (75%) completed the program and all assessments. RESULTS Significant improvements in depression, anxiety, self-esteem and body shape concern scores, several quality of life domains, eating behaviours and total physical activity (among others) - but not weight - were observed over the course of the trial. CONCLUSIONS Results from this pilot trial suggest that combining interventions for depression and obesity may be useful. Further development of the program, particularly regarding the potential for physical health benefits, and a randomised controlled trial, are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION Trial registration: ANZCTR, ACTRN12617001079336, 13 July 2017. Retrospectively registered after date of the first consent (6 July 2017), but before the date of the first intervention session (20 July 2017).
Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in overweight adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Plain language summary
With the rising rates of vitamin D deficiency, identifying cost-effective, preventative strategies are imperative. Vitamin D plays a well-known role in bone mineralisation, however its protective role against chronic diseases is not very well understood. The aim of this trial is to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation will increase insulin sensitivity and secretion, as well as to determine whether vitamin D deficiency underlies the inflammatory properties associated with obesity. 50 overweight adults between 18 and 60 years old were recruited and assigned to receive either 4,000 IU vitamin D daily or identical placebo capsules for 16 weeks. This study elucidates the potential role vitamin D supplementation could have on preventing diabetes and its associated co-morbidities. It also provides comprehensive insight into the potential mechanisms of action. The authors conclude that this trial can corroborate existing knowledge while expanding the understanding on the role of vitamin D in the inflammatory response and subsequent development of disease.
BACKGROUND Despite Australia's sunny climate, low vitamin D levels are increasingly prevalent. Sun exposure is limited by long working hours, an increase in time spent indoors, and sun protection practices, and there is limited dietary vitamin D fortification. While the importance of vitamin D for bone mineralization is well known, its role as a protective agent against chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is less understood. Observational and limited intervention studies suggest that vitamin D might improve insulin sensitivity and secretion, mainly via its anti-inflammatory properties, thereby decreasing the risk of development and progression of type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of this trial is to investigate whether improved plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), obtained through vitamin D supplementation, will increase insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. A secondary aim is to determine whether these relationships are mediated by a reduction in underlying subclinical inflammation associated with obesity. METHODS/DESIGN Fifty overweight but otherwise healthy nondiabetic adults between 18 and 60 years old, with low vitamin D levels (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l), will be randomly assigned to intervention or placebo. At baseline, participants will undergo a medical review and anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, an intravenous glucose tolerance test, muscle and fat biopsies, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and questionnaires assessing diet, physical activity, sun exposure, back and knee pain, and depression. The intervention group will receive a first dose of 100,000 IU followed by 4,000 IU vitamin D (cholecalciferol) daily, while the placebo group will receive apparently identical capsules, both for a period of 16 weeks. All measurements will be repeated at follow-up, with the primary outcome measure expressed as a change from baseline in insulin sensitivity and secretion for the intervention group compared with the placebo group. Secondary outcome measures will compare changes in anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors, and inflammatory markers. DISCUSSION The trial will provide much needed clinical evidence on the impact of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and secretion and its underlying mechanisms, which are relevant for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02112721 .