Mediterranean Diet and its Benefits on Health and Mental Health: A Literature Review.
Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health : CP & EMH. 2020;16(Suppl-1):156-164
Plain language summary
Mediterranean Diet (MD) is currently considered one of the healthiest dietary models worldwide due to the high intake of antioxidants, dietary fibre, monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and probiotics. The aim of this review was to present current literature showing evidence on the possible impact of MD on health and mental health. The review was based on 27 articles of which 13 were carried out in Spain, 3 in the USA, 3 in Italy, 4 in Australia and 4 in other EU countries. Literature shows that MD improves: - metabolic cardiovascular parameters with a reduced incidence of major cardiovascular events by approximately 30%. - metabolic balance in patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. - biochemical markers for metabolic disorders as well as in patients at risk of specific cancer diseases. Additionally, not enough data is available on the MD effects on specific psychopathological issues. In fact, besides adherence to MD, other factors - which should be further investigated - also play a role in the effectiveness of the MD. Authors conclude that further studies are needed to address the efficacy of diet as an adjunctive treatment for mental disorders as well as for the management of comorbid cardiovascular and metabolic issues.
undefined: Mediterranean Diet (MD) is currently considered one of the most healthy dietary models worldwide. It is generally based on the daily intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fish, white meats, and olive oil. It may also include moderate consumption of fermented dairy products, a low intake of red meat, and red/white wine during the main course. Even if the effect of MD on cancer prevention as well as on human metabolic and cardiovascular balance has been discussed, including the quality of life of the exposed population, the putative effects on mental health are still not properly investigated. This narrative review reports on some emerging pieces of evidence on the possible impact of MD on general health and the outcome of psychiatric disorders ( ., major depression, anxiety) and encourages further studies to test the benefits of healthy food selection on the health of the general population.
Effect of intermittent vs. daily calorie restriction on changes in weight and patient-reported outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis.
Multiple sclerosis and related disorders. 2018;23:33-39
Plain language summary
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system. Dietary modification is emerging as a safe intervention to potentially modify disease course. The main aim of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of an intermittent fasting diet in people with MS. Secondary outcomes explored the effects of calorie restriction (CR) diets on body weight and anthropometric characteristics as well as on patient-reported outcomes including fatigue, sleep and mood. The study is a pilot randomised controlled feeding study of three different types of diets. Each participant (n=36) was randomized to 1 of 3 diets: a control diet (placebo), a daily CR diet and intermittent CR diet. Results indicate that daily CR diet was associated with marginally greater weight loss than the intermittent CR diet. Both CR diets were associated with trends toward improvements in cardiometabolic outcomes. Furthermore, CR diets were associated with in improvements in emotional well-being. Authors conclude that CR and weight loss represent interventions for clinically relevant symptoms due to MS, such as emotional well-being, without adding meaningful risks or adverse outcomes.
An intermittent fasting or calorie restriction diet has favorable effects in the mouse forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and may provide additional anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective advantages beyond benefits obtained from weight loss alone. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled feeding study in 36 people with MS to assess safety and feasibility of different types of calorie restriction (CR) diets and assess their effects on weight and patient reported outcomes in people with MS. Patients were randomized to receive 1 of 3 diets for 8 weeks: daily CR diet (22% daily reduction in energy needs), intermittent CR diet (75% reduction in energy needs, 2 days/week; 0% reduction, 5 days/week), or a weight-stable diet (0% reduction in energy needs, 7 days/week). Of the 36 patients enrolled, 31 (86%) completed the trial; no significant adverse events occurred. Participants randomized to CR diets lost a median 3.4 kg (interquartile range [IQR]: -2.4, -4.0). Changes in weight did not differ significantly by type of CR diet, although participants randomized to daily CR tended to have greater weight loss (daily CR: -3.6 kg [IQR: -3.0, -4.1] vs. intermittent CR: -3.0 kg [IQR: -1.95, -4.1]; P = 0.15). Adherence to study diets differed significantly between intermittent CR vs. daily CR, with lesser adherence observed for intermittent CR (P = 0.002). Randomization to either CR diet was associated with significant improvements in emotional well-being/depression scores relative to control, with an average 8-week increase of 1.69 points (95% CI: 0.72, 2.66). CR diets are a safe/feasible way to achieve weight loss in people with MS and may be associated with improved emotional health.
Prevalence and determinants of physical activity in a mixed sample of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi medical journal. 2018;39(4):401-411
Plain language summary
Physical activity has been shown to considerably reduce the burden of several non-communicable disorders (are diseases of long duration and generally slow progression), such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and breast and colon cancers. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of physical activity among a mixed group of patients with psychiatric illnesses in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the study sought to evaluate the associations between physical activity, patients with different psychiatric diagnoses and the use of psychotropic medications. The study is a cross-sectional observational study that recruited 1185 patients seeking psychiatric advice, with an average age of 38.0±13.0 years. Results indicate a low prevalence of physical activity in a large, mixed sample of patients with psychiatric illnesses in both inpatient and outpatient settings in Saudi Arabia. Authors conclude that physical activity levels vary according to the type of psychiatric disease and the medications used. They outline that it is important to assess the physical activity status in patients with psychiatric illnesses and promote physical activity programs among psychiatric patients.
OBJECTIVES To estimate prevalence of physical activity and its associations with various psychiatric disorders and the use of psychotropic medications. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was carried out between July 2012 and June 2014. Patients were enrolled from a number of hospitals located in 5 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS A total of 1185 patients were included in current analysis: 796 were outpatients, and 389 were inpatients. Out of 1,185 patients, 153 (12.9%) were physically active. Much higher rates of physical activity were reported among males than females (15.9% versus 9.6%, p less than 0.001). According to the univariate analysis, higher rates of physical activity were positively correlated with primary bipolar disorders, the use of antianxiety medications and, to a lesser extent, use of antipsychotic medications, but they were negatively correlated with primary anxiety disorders, use of antidepressant medications, and use of multiple psychotropic medications. The associations between physical activity and primary bipolar disorders (odds ratio [OR]=2.47, p=0.002), use of antianxiety medications (OR=3.58, p=0.003), and use of multiple psychotropic medications (OR=0.33, p less than 0.001) remained significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. CONCLUSION We report a variable but generally low prevalence of physical activity among a large, mixed sample of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia. These findings may highlight the importance of assessing physical activity status of psychiatric patients and the critical need for physical activity promotion programs among this group of disadvantaged patients.
Association between weight bias internalization and metabolic syndrome among treatment-seeking individuals with obesity.
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2017;25(2):317-322
Plain language summary
Weight stigma is a psychosocial consequence in which individuals with obesity experience public discrimination and devaluation. Some individuals apply these negative stereotypes to themselves, which creates a self-directed stigma referred to as weight bias internalization (WBI). While studies have found perceived weight discrimination to be associated with an increased risk of mortality, no study has investigated the relationship between WBI and obesity on the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between WBI and MetS. The authors hypothesised that among obese individuals, higher levels of WBI would be associated with increased odds of having MetS. Among the 178 obese adults recruited, 159 completed the study. Tests included anthropometric measurements, blood analysis, the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire. This study found that individuals who self-stigmatise may have a heightened risk of dyslipidemia, one component of MetS. Based on these results, the authors conclude that weight stigma is a chronic stressor and may contribute to poor health. Future studies are needed to identify specific pathways in which WBI exacerbates cardiometaoblic risk factors.
OBJECTIVE Weight stigma is a chronic stressor that may increase cardiometabolic risk. Some individuals with obesity self-stigmatize (i.e., weight bias internalization, WBI). No study to date has examined whether WBI is associated with metabolic syndrome. METHODS Blood pressure, waist circumference, and fasting glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline in 178 adults with obesity enrolled in a weight-loss trial. Medication use for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and prediabetes was included in criteria for metabolic syndrome. One hundred fifty-nine participants (88.1% female, 67.3% black, mean BMI = 41.1 kg/m ) completed the Weight Bias Internalization Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, to assess depressive symptoms). Odds ratios and partial correlations were calculated adjusting for demographics, BMI, and PHQ-9 scores. RESULTS Fifty-one participants (32.1%) met criteria for metabolic syndrome. Odds of meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome were greater among participants with higher WBI, but not when controlling for all covariates (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.00-2.13, P = 0.052). Higher WBI predicted greater odds of having high triglycerides (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.14-3.09, P = 0.043). Analyzed categorically, high (vs. low) WBI predicted greater odds of metabolic syndrome and high triglycerides (Ps < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Individuals with obesity who self-stigmatize may have heightened cardiometabolic risk. Biological and behavioral pathways linking WBI and metabolic syndrome require further exploration.
Inhalational Alzheimer's disease: an unrecognized - and treatable - epidemic.
Plain language summary
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the third leading cause of death in the USA, with around 5.2 million Americans diagnosed with AD. Effective treatment with medications has yet to be found. A recent multiple therapy programme (originally known as MEND, now called ReCODE) proposed by Professor Bredesen and team, has shown some promising anecdotal results. Identifying sub-types of AD has been proposed as a means to develop targeted protocols for treatment. Recently, 3 sub-types of AD have been described: Type 1 (inflammatory), Type 2 (non-inflammatory or decreasing brain size) and Type 3 (damage to the outer layer of the cerebrum). This report describes 7 patients with Type 3 AD. Type 3 AD is characterised by exposure to specific toxins (usually inhaled) and is often associated with Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS). The report provides the symptoms, signs and laboratory values representative of Type 3 AD and could be used by Nutrition Practitioners to help with implementation of appropriate nutrition protocols when working with clients with AD.
Alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). Here I report that type 3 Alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (IAD), a phenotypic manifestation of chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS), due to biotoxins such as mycotoxins. The appropriate recognition of IAD as a potentially important pathogenetic condition in patients with cognitive decline offers the opportunity for successful treatment of a large number of patients whose current prognoses, in the absence of accurate diagnosis, are grave.