Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults.
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2020;109(6):1088-1095
Plain language summary
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was also previously known as 2019-nCoV. This study is a systematic literature review which summarises the findings on the current knowledge of COVID-19 in children. The review includes 45 scientific papers and letters. Results showed that children have so far accounted for 1%-5% of diagnosed cases. Children often are asymptomatic, have milder disease than adults, and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent. Authors conclude that the disease course in paediatric COVID-19 was milder than in adults, children had a better prognosis and deaths were extremely rare.
AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of thousands of people. Data on symptoms and prognosis in children are rare. METHODS A systematic literature review was carried out to identify papers on COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using the MEDLINE and Embase databases between January 1 and March 18, 2020. RESULTS The search identified 45 relevant scientific papers and letters. The review showed that children have so far accounted for 1%-5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases, they often have milder disease than adults and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent, but fewer children seem to have developed severe pneumonia. Elevated inflammatory markers were less common in children, and lymphocytopenia seemed rare. Newborn infants have developed symptomatic COVID-19, but evidence of vertical intrauterine transmission was scarce. Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances. CONCLUSIONS The coronavirus disease 2019 has occurred in children, but they seemed to have a milder disease course and better prognosis than adults. Deaths were extremely rare.
Ferulic Acid Supplementation Improves Lipid Profiles, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Status in Hyperlipidemic Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
Plain language summary
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death. Smoking cessation, regular physical exercise and dietary modification can decrease the risk of developing CVD. Ferulic acid is a compound found in many plant foods with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the effect of ferulic acid supplementation, 500mg twice daily for six weeks, on CVD risk markers in patients with hyperlipidaemia (elevated blood lipids). Ferulic acid significantly improved lipid profile, decreased oxidative stress and reduced inflammation compared to placebo. No adverse effects were reported. The authors conclude that ferulic acid supplementation improves lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammatory status in hyperlipidaemic subjects and may lower risk of CVD.
undefined: Ferulic acid is the most abundant phenolic compound found in vegetables and cereal grains. In vitro and animal studies have shown ferulic acid has anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of ferulic acid supplementation on lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammatory status in hyperlipidemia. The study design is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects with hyperlipidemia were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group ( = 24) was given ferulic acid (1000 mg daily) and the control group ( = 24) was provided with a placebo for six weeks. Lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were assessed before and after the intervention. Ferulic acid supplementation demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol (8.1%; = 0.001), LDL-C (9.3%; < 0.001), triglyceride (12.1%; = 0.049), and increased HDL-C (4.3%; = 0.045) compared with the placebo. Ferulic acid also significantly decreased the oxidative stress biomarker, MDA (24.5%; < 0.001). Moreover, oxidized LDL-C was significantly decreased in the ferulic acid group (7.1%; = 0.002) compared with the placebo group. In addition, ferulic acid supplementation demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the inflammatory markers hs-CRP (32.66%; < 0.001) and TNF-α (13.06%; < 0.001). These data indicate ferulic acid supplementation can improve lipid profiles and oxidative stress, oxidized LDL-C, and inflammation in hyperlipidemic subjects. Therefore, ferulic acid has the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Effects of weight loss interventions for adults who are obese on mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2017;359:j4849
Plain language summary
Obesity is known to increase the risk of many diseases including cardiovascular disease, various cancers and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, there is evidence suggesting weight loss in obese adults may be harmful, particularly in older people with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of weight loss interventions for adults with obesity on mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer and body weight. Based on the 30,000 participants identified, current evidence shows that weight loss interventions significantly decrease all cause mortality. There was also evidence to suggest weight loss is associated with developing new cardiovascular events, though fewer trials reported these outcomes so uncertainty remains around these results. Based on the current literature and this review, the authors conclude weight-reducing diets may reduce all cause mortality in adults with obesity and support public health measures to prevent weight gain and facilitate weight loss.
undefined: To assess whether weight loss interventions for adults with obesity affect all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and body weight. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using random effects, estimating risk ratios, and mean differences. Heterogeneity investigated using Cochran's Q and I statistics. Quality of evidence assessed by GRADE criteria. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and full texts in our trials' registry for data not evident in databases. Authors were contacted for unpublished data. RCTs of dietary interventions targeting weight loss, with or without exercise advice or programmes, for adults with obesity and follow-up ≥1 year. 54 RCTs with 30 206 participants were identified. All but one trial evaluated low fat, weight reducing diets. For the primary outcome, high quality evidence showed that weight loss interventions decrease all cause mortality (34 trials, 685 events; risk ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.95), with six fewer deaths per 1000 participants (95% confidence interval two to 10). For other primary outcomes moderate quality evidence showed an effect on cardiovascular mortality (eight trials, 134 events; risk ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.31), and very low quality evidence showed an effect on cancer mortality (eight trials, 34 events; risk ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 1.11). Twenty four trials (15 176 participants) reported high quality evidence on participants developing new cardiovascular events (1043 events; risk ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.04). Nineteen trials (6330 participants) provided very low quality evidence on participants developing new cancers (103 events; risk ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.36). Weight reducing diets, usually low in fat and saturated fat, with or without exercise advice or programmes, may reduce premature all cause mortality in adults with obesity. PROSPERO CRD42016033217.