Case report and systematic review suggest that children may experience similar long-term effects to adults after clinical COVID-19.
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2021;110(3):914-921
Plain language summary
The long-term effects of COVID-19 is becoming increasingly documented in adults. Symptoms such as fatigue, headache and depression have all been reported, however data on the possible long-term effects of COVID-19 in children is scarce. The aim of this systematic review and case report was to describe the long-term effects of COVID-19 in five children and support this with other reports in the literature. The results showed that of the five case reports of long COVID, four were girls aged 9-15 years. All subjects reported symptoms lasting between 6-8 months. Most common symptoms were fatigue, difficulty breathing and heart issues. The systematic literature review did not find any publications which documented long COVID in children. It was concluded that children may experience long COVID symptoms and girls may be more susceptible. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand that children may also be affected by long COVID and that patients should be monitored for symptoms for at least 6-8 months.
AIM: Persistent symptoms in adults after COVID-19 are emerging and the term long COVID is increasingly appearing in the literature. However, paediatric data are scarce. METHODS This paper contains a case report of five Swedish children and the long-term symptoms reported by their parents. It also includes a systematic literature review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases and the medRxiv/bioRxiv pre-print servers up to 2 November 2020. RESULTS The five children with potential long COVID had a median age of 12 years (range 9-15) and four were girls. They had symptoms for 6-8 months after their clinical diagnoses of COVID-19. None were hospitalised at diagnosis, but one was later admitted for peri-myocarditis. All five children had fatigue, dyspnoea, heart palpitations or chest pain, and four had headaches, difficulties concentrating, muscle weakness, dizziness and sore throats. Some had improved after 6-8 months, but they all suffered from fatigue and none had fully returned to school. The systematic review identified 179 publications and 19 of these were deemed relevant and read in detail. None contained any information on long COVID in children. CONCLUSION Children may experience similar long COVID symptoms to adults and females may be more affected.
Links between metabolic syndrome and the microbiome.
Evolution, medicine, and public health. 2020;2020(1):45-46
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of co-occurring pathological conditions, characterised by insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia One possible factor contributing to MetS risk is change in microbiome composition. Diets high in processed foods appear to alter microbiome composition in ways that promote higher fat mass and insulin resistance. Additionally, a sedentary lifestyle decreases microbiome diversity, elevating inﬂammation and metabolic disease risk. Research on how the microbiome responds to modest, attainable changes in diet and physical activity will help identify which dietary adjustments and exercise types have the greatest potential to protect patients from MetS.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of harmful conditions which occur together, such as insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, and hypertension. The global prevalence of MetS is growing rapidly, with some estimates suggesting over one billion people worldwide experience increased morality and disease rates linked with this syndrome. One possible factor contributing to MetS risk is changes in microbiome composition. Approximately 100 trillion bacteria and other microbes reside in the human intestinal tract, collectively termed the gut microbiome. Humans and microbes share a long evolutionary history, with many of these microbes influencing human health outcomes. However, environmental conditions have changed dramatically with human technological innovations; many of these changes (e.g., diets high in processed foods and sedentary lifestyles) appear to impact human-microbe relationships. In general, recent changes in diet and activity patterns have been linked to decreased microbiome diversity, elevating inflammation and metabolic disease risk and likely promoting the development of MetS. Targeting patient diet or exercise patterns may therefore help doctors better treat patients suffering from MetS. Still, additional work is needed to determine how the microbiome responds to changes in patient activity and diet patterns across culturally and biologically diverse human populations.