Effectiveness and safety of carbohydrate counting in the management of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Archives of endocrinology and metabolism. 2018;62(3):337-345
Plain language summary
Glycaemic control of patients with diabetes mellitus is important because it impacts the development of diabetic complications. Carbohydrate counting is a meal planning tool that allows for great variation and flexibility in food choices among individuals with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of carbohydrate counting in the treatment of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a systematic literature review. The study included randomised controlled trials with at least 3 months of follow-up, and evaluation of outcomes in which patients were randomly divided into two groups. The meta-analysis showed that the final haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) - a test that shows the average blood glucose levels for the last two to three months - was significantly lower in the carbohydrate counting group than in the control group. Authors conclude that the meta-analysis showed evidence favouring the use of carbohydrate counting in the management of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, this benefit was limited to the final HbA1c.
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of carbohydrate counting (CHOC) in the treatment of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a systematic review of randomized studies that compared CHOC with general dietary advice in adult patients with DM1. The primary outcomes were changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), quality of life, and episodes of severe hypoglycemia. We searched the following electronic databases: Embase, PubMed, Lilacs, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The quality of evidence was analyzed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS A total of 3,190 articles were identified, and two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts. From the 15 potentially eligible studies, five were included, and 10 were excluded because of the lack of randomization or different control/intervention groups. Meta-analysis showed that the final HbA1c was significantly lower in the CHOC group than in the control group (mean difference, random, 95% CI: -0.49 (-0.85, -0.13), p = 0.006). The meta-analysis of severe hypoglycemia and quality of life did not show any significant differences between the groups. According to the GRADE, the quality of evidence for severe hypoglycemia, quality of life, and change in HbA1c was low, very low, and moderate, respectively. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis showed evidence favoring the use of CHOC in the management of DM1. However, this benefit was limited to final HbA1c, which was significantly lower in the CHOC than in the control group.
Lifestyle Risk Factors for Serrated Colorectal Polyps: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Plain language summary
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease thought to result from the accumulation of various aberrant mutations in the cells lining the colorectal mucosa. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate modifiable and lifestyle factors and the risk of serrated polyps (a type of growth that stick out from the surface of the colon or rectum) of the colorectum. A search of 3 databases yielded a potential 2446 studies for inclusion, from which 43 remained for systematic review. Results indicate that smoking, alcohol consumption, body fatness, dietary fat and meat consumption increased the risk of developing serrated polyps. Whereas, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and dietary folate decreased this risk. Authors conclude that their findings strengthen public health messages promoting awareness and change in order to reduce the risk of these precancerous lesions and consequently CRC.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Certain subsets of colorectal serrated polyps (SP) have malignant potential. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and risk for SPs. METHODS We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Web of Science for observational or interventional studies that contained the terms risk or risk factor, and serrated or hyperplastic, and polyps or adenomas, and colorectal (or synonymous terms), published by March 2016. Titles and abstracts of identified articles were independently reviewed by at least 2 reviewers. Adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were combined using random effects meta-analyses to assess the risk of SP, when possible. RESULTS We identified 43 studies of SP risk associated with 7 different lifestyle factors: smoking, alcohol, body fatness, diet, physical activity, medication, and hormone-replacement therapy. When we compared the highest and lowest categories of exposure, factors we found to significantly increase risk for SP included tobacco smoking (RR, 2.47; 95% CI, 2.12-2.87), alcohol intake (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.17-1.52), body mass index (RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.22-1.61), and high intake of fat or meat. Direct associations for smoking and alcohol, but not body fat, tended to be stronger for sessile serrated adenomas/polyps than hyperplastic polyps. In contrast, factors we found to significantly decrease risks for SP included use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92) or aspirin (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.99), as well as high intake of folate, calcium, or fiber. No significant associations were detected between SP risk and physical activity or hormone replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS Several lifestyle factors, most notably smoking and alcohol, are associated with SP risk. These findings enhance our understanding of mechanisms of SP development and indicate that risk of serrated pathway colorectal neoplasms could be reduced with lifestyle changes.
Effect of Probiotics on Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Plain language summary
The gut microbiota is an important ecosystem consisting of both residential and pathogenic bacteria. The microbiota produce bioactive compounds shown to benefit host metabolism. A variety of factors influence the gut microbiome, including host genetics, illness, antibiotic use, dietary patterns, weight loss and pregnancy. Throughout pregnancy the gut microbiota undergoes significant changes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of 6-8-week probiotic supplementation versus placebo on glucose homeostasis, lipid levels and gestational weight gain in pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. This study is a systemic review based on four randomised controlled trials involving 288 participants. All studies included healthy pregnant women, age range between 18 – 40 years, who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24 – 30 weeks gestation by oral glucose tolerance test. The study found that a 6 – 8-week probiotic intervention did not improve fasting blood glucose or LDL-cholesterol levels. However, probiotic supplementation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with significant reductions in insulin resistance. Authors conclude that while probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus, there was no significant effect on fasting blood glucose or LDL-cholesterol.
undefined: The metabolic effects of probiotic administration in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. The objective of this review was to investigate the effect of probiotics on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and LDL-cholesterol levels in pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs published in English between 2001 and 2017 investigating the metabolic effects of a 6-8 week dietary probiotic intervention in pregnant women following diagnosis with GDM. Eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias and subjected to qualitative and quantitative synthesis using a random effects model meta-analyses. Four high quality RCTs involving 288 participants were included in the review. Probiotic supplementation was not effective in decreasing FBG (Mean Difference = -0.13; 95% CI -0.32, 0.06, = 0.18) or LDL-cholesterol (-0.16; 95% CI -0.45, 0.13, = 0.67) in women with GDM. However, a significant reduction in HOMA-IR was observed following probiotic supplementation (-0.69; 95% CI -1.24, -0.14, = 0.01). There were no significant differences in gestational weight gain, delivery method or neonatal outcomes between experimental and control groups, and no adverse effects of the probiotics were reported. Probiotic supplementation for 6-8 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in insulin resistance in pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. The use of probiotic supplementation is promising as a potential therapy to assist in the metabolic management of GDM. Further high quality studies of longer duration are required to determine the safety, optimal dose and ideal bacterial composition of probiotics before their routine use can be recommended in this patient group.
Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.
International journal of cancer. 2015;136(12):2912-22
Plain language summary
Acrylamide is formed in a variety of foods, and some evidence suggests it may cause cancer. The aim of this study was to update their quantitative meta-analysis on dietary acrylamide intake and cancer risk. The study is a meta-analysis based on systemic-literature focusing on the estimate of total dietary acrylamide. A total of 32 publications were reviewed. Results indicate that there is a lack of association between dietary acrylamide and most cancer sites. However, there is a potential small increase in the risk between high levels of acrylamide intake and kidney, endometrial and ovarian cancer in non-smoking women. Authors conclude that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers.
The debate on the potential carcinogenic effect of dietary acrylamide is open. In consideration of the recent findings from large prospective investigations, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer at several sites. Up to July 2014, we identified 32 publications. We performed meta-analyses to calculate the summary relative risk (RR) of each cancer site for the highest versus lowest level of intake and for an increment of 10 µg/day of dietary acrylamide, through fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity test. Fourteen cancer sites could be examined. No meaningful associations were found for most cancers considered. The summary RRs for high versus low acrylamide intake were 0.87 for oral and pharyngeal, 1.14 for esophageal, 1.03 for stomach, 0.94 for colorectal, 0.93 for pancreatic, 1.10 for laryngeal, 0.88 for lung, 0.96 for breast, 1.06 for endometrial, 1.12 for ovarian, 1.00 for prostate, 0.93 for bladder and 1.13 for lymphoid malignancies. The RR was of borderline significance only for kidney cancer (RR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.45). All the corresponding continuous estimates ranged between 0.95 and 1.03, and none of them was significant. Among never-smokers, borderline associations with dietary acrylamide emerged for endometrial (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51) and ovarian (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00) cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers. A modest association for kidney cancer, and for endometrial and ovarian cancers in never smokers only, cannot be excluded.
Serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and colorectal cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort, plus a meta-analysis of prospective studies.
International journal of cancer. 2010;126(7):1702-15
Plain language summary
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) plays an important role in growth and development as a function of available energy and essential nutrients from body reserves and diet. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of colorectal cancers with serum levels of IGF-I, and with 2 measures of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3. The study also examined whether relative risks associated to IGF-I levels were modiﬁed by anthropometric and dietary factors. A meta-analysis was performed where the study results were combined with the results from previously published prospective studies. For the study, 1,121 case sets with IGF-1 and total IGFBP-3 measurements were observed. For each case participant with colon or rectum cancer, 1 control participant was selected randomly. Control were matched to cases depending on a set criteria. The study found no association between colorectal cancer risk and serum levels of IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. However, the results from the meta-analysis showed only a very mild signiﬁcant positive association. Overall, ﬁndings from the study together with those from the prospective cohort studies indicate a modest role for elevated circulating IGF-I levels in the development of colorectal cancer.
Several prospective studies have shown a moderate positive association between increasing circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and colorectal cancer risk. However, the associations were often statistically nonsignificant, and the relationship of cancer risk with IGF-I's major binding protein, IGFBP-3, showed major discrepancies between studies. We investigated the association of colorectal cancer risk with serum IGF-I, total and intact IGFBP-3, in a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (1,121 cases of colorectal cancer and 1,121 matched controls). Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for possible confounders. Our present study results were combined in a meta-analysis with those from 9 previous prospective studies to examine the overall evidence for a relationship of prediagnostic serum IGF-I with colorectal cancer risk. In the EPIC study, serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 showed no associations with risk of colorectal cancer overall. Only in subgroup analyses did our study show moderate positive associations of IGF-I levels with risk, either among younger participants only (and only for colon cancer) or among participants whose milk intakes were in the lowest tertile of the population distribution (RR for an increase of 100 ng/ml = 1.43 [95% CI = 1.13-1.93]). Nevertheless, in the meta-analysis a modest positive association remained between serum IGF-I and colorectal cancer risk overall (RR = 1.07 [1.01-1.14] for 1 standard deviation increase in IGF-I). Overall, data from our present study and previous prospective studies combined indicate a relatively modest association of colorectal cancer risk with serum IGF-I.
Efficacy of exercise for treating overweight in children and adolescents: a systematic review.
International journal of obesity (2005). 2006;30(7):1027-40
Plain language summary
The global number of overweight and obese children/adolescents is increasing at an alarming rate. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of exercise for overweight children/adolescents. Fourteen randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the analysis. Overall the reduction in average body weight and central obesity was not significant. However, it was found that exercise did significantly reduce body fat percentage by 0.6% in studies that involved more exercise (more than 3 days a week) for children with an average age of 12. When results were grouped by exercise amount, it was found that higher amounts had greater effect. Additionally, trials with longer intervention length saw greater effects. None of the trials reached the level of exercise recommended for children by UK/US guidelines (at least 60 minutes a day). The author suggested further studies of longer duration in this area are required to clarify exercise amount response.
BACKGROUND Overweight prevalence among children/adolescents is increasing, while adult obesity may potentially cause a decline in life expectancy. More exercise is uniformly recommended, although treatment efficacy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of exercise alone for treating overweight in children/adolescents. DESIGN A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials published in English were completed following multiple database searches performed on December 10, 2004. Studies of isolated or adjunctive exercise/physical activity treatment in overweight/obese children or adolescents which reported any overweight outcome were included. Literature searches identified 645 papers which were manually searched, of which 45 were considered for inclusion, of which 13 papers which reported 14 studies were included (N=481 overweight boys and girls, aged approximately 12 years). Two reviewers independently identified relevant papers for potential inclusion and assessed methodological quality. Principal measures of effects included the mean difference (MD) (between treatment and control groups), the weighted MD (WMD), and the standardized MD (SMD). RESULTS Few studies were of robust design. The pooled SMD was -0.4 (-0.7, -0.1, P=0.006) for percent body fat, and -0.2 (-0.6, 0.1, P=0.07) for central obesity outcomes, whereas the pooled WMD was -2.7 kg (-6.1 kg, 0.8 kg, P=0.07) for body weight, all of which favored exercise. Pooled effects on body weight were significant and larger for studies of higher doses, whereas nonsignificant and smaller effects were seen for studies of lower doses of exercise (155-180 min/weeks vs 120-150 min/weeks). CONCLUSIONS Based on the small number of short-term randomized trials currently available, an aerobic exercise prescription of 155-180 min/weeks at moderate-to-high intensity is effective for reducing body fat in overweight children/adolescents, but effects on body weight and central obesity are inconclusive. Recommendations for future study designs are discussed.